- Organisms used in water purification
- 0–20 centimetres (0–7.9 in)
- 40–60 centimetres (16–24 in)
- 60–120 centimetres (24–47 in)
- Greater than 120 centimeters (47 in)
- Nymphea alba; for temperate climates, depth 60-120cm, is one of the best options.
- Phragmites australis, for temperate climates, is one of the best options. Now invasive in many areas.
- Sparganium erectum, for temperate climates, depth 60-120cm, is one of the best options.
- Iris pseudacorus, for temperate climates, depth 0-20cm, is one of the best options, is invasive.
- Schoenoplectus lacustris, for temperate climates.
- carex acutiformis, for temperate climates.
- Stratiotes aloides, for temperate climates, depth 40-60cm, is one of the best options.
- Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, temperate climates, depth 40-60cm is one of the best options. Extremely invasive and is listed on the Washington State Noxious Weeds list.
- Acorus calamus, for temperate climates
- Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, temperate climates, depth 40-60cm, is one of the best options.
- Nuphar lutea, temperate climates, depth 60-120cm, develops floating leaf.
Different species required for each of 3 depth-zones. The fish need to be herbivores.
- Leuciscus leuciscus, for temperate climates.
- Leuciscus idus, for temperate climates.
- Scardinius erythrophthalmus, for temperate climates.
- Rutilus rutilus, for temperate climates.
- Tinca tinca, for temperate climates.
Indigenous bacteria are preferred to ensure that good adaptation to local conditions. Bacteria can be grown by submerging straw (or other plant material) in water for several days. The bacteria automatically populate the material.
For ecologic/self-purifying ponds, de-nutrified soil needs to be taken for the plants to prevent the possible growth of algae. Coconut fibre growing medium is best used to prevent soil from being spread around and to sometimes to let the plants root in.
The following choices occupy all depth-zone niches and are mutually compatible in the same pond.
- 0-20cm—Iris pseudacorus, Sparganium erectum
- 40-60cm—Stratiotes aloides, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae
- 60-120cm—Nymphea alba, Nuphar lutea
- Deep—Myriophyllum spicatum
- Surface—Leuciscus leuciscus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, ...
- Middle—Rutilus rutilus
- Bottom—Tinca tinca
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