- Lady Louisa Stuart
Lady Louisa Stuart (
12 August 1757– 4 August 1851) was a British writer of the 18th and 19th centuries. Her long life spanned nearly ninety-four years.
Stuart was one of the six daughters of
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute(1713–1792), who at the time of her birth in 1757 was the closest friend of the future King George III. Her mother was Mary Stuart, Countess of Bute (1718-1794). Lord and Lady Bute also had five sons. Although Bute was Scottish, he spent much of his time at his grand Londonhouse in Berkeley Square.Graham, Harry, [Jocelyn Henry C. Graham] , "A Group of Scottish Women" (New York, Duffield & Co., 1908) Chapter XVIII online at [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/women/scottish_women_chapter18.htm Lady Louisa Stuart (1757 - 1851)] at electricscotland.com (accessed 20 February 2008)] In 1762, he bought the estate of Luton Hooin Bedfordshire.
George III came to the throne in 1760, and in 1762 his friend Bute became
prime minister. As a statesman, Bute was massively unpopular with the English, for a variety of reasons. He was a Scot, a Royal favourite, and a handsome man who was lampooned for his vanity, and was constantly the butt of biting political satire, scandal, and gossip. This included frequent allegations of an affair with Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha(1719–1772), the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Bute's ministry fell in 1763, when his daughter Louisa was five years old, and Bute retired from public life to Luton Hoo and thereafter devoted himself to botany, horticultureand other country pursuits.
Stuart's mother, the Countess of Bute, was herself the daughter of the famous writer and traveller
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu(1689-1762).
By the time she was ten, Stuart had begun to follow in the footsteps of her writer grandmother. She had begun a French novel and had also started planning a Roman play. She felt threatened by her brothers, who teased her about her learning.Miller, Karl, "Stuart, Lady Louisa (1757–1851), writer" in "
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, September 2004 & [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/42015 online edition] , January 2006 (subscription required) accessed 29 February 2008]
With her mother, the young Lady Louisa Stuart attended the balls,
routs and soirées of London society, but she also followed the literature of the day and corresponded with friends. She had great powers of observation from an early age, and a manuscript notebook survives in which she describes her circle. Fanny Burneyoften met Lady Bute and her daughter Lady Louisa and described Lady Bute as "forbidding to strangers", but entertaining and lively among friends. Burney writes of mother and daughter on one occasion:"Diary and Letters of Madame D’Arblay", vol. III, p. 463] cquote|...both in such high spirits themselves that they kept up all the conversation between them, with a vivacity, an acuteness, an archness, and an observation on men and manners so clear and sagacious.
On another occasion, in 1786, Burney found both Stuart and her mother at the house of
Mary Delanyafter a return from the spatown of Bath and writes that they were: cquote|…full fraught with anecdote and character, which they dealt out to their hearers with so much point and humour that we attended to them like a gratified audience of a public place.
Brothers and sisters
Louisa's own brothers included
John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute(1744–1814), a Tory Member of Parliamentfrom 1766 to 1776, later a Privy Councillor and a Fellow of the Royal Society; The Hon. Sir Charles Stuart (1753–1801), a soldier who saw active service in the American Revolutionary Warand the Napoleonic Warsand rose to the rank of lieutenant-general; The Most Rev. and Hon. William Stuart (1755–1822), a clergyman who became Archbishop of Armagh, and James Archibald Stuart(1747–1818), another soldier who raised the 92nd Regiment of Footin 1779.Cokayne, George Edward, "The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom Extant, Extinct, or Dormant"]
Her sisters were Lady Mary Stuart (c. 1741–1824), who married James Lowther, later the 1st
Earl of Lonsdale; Lady Anne Stuart (born c. 1745), who married Lord Warkworth, later the 2nd Duke of Northumberland; Lady Jane Stuart (c. 1748–1828), who married George Macartney, later the first Earl Macartney; and Lady Caroline Stuart (before 1763–1813), who married The Hon. John Dawson, later first Earl of Portarlington.
Disappointment in love
In 1770, at the age of thirteen, Lady Louisa fell in love with her second cousin,
William Medows(1738-1813), the son of Philip Medows of Nottinghamshire, Deputy Ranger of Richmond Park, and of Lady Frances Pierrepont, who like Louisa's mother was a granddaughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull. Medows was then a forty-one year old lieutenant-colonelof the 5th Regiment of Foot, and Lord Bute considered him unsuitable and put a stop to it. Lady Louisa was bitterly disappointed. She wrote of Medows: ["Gleanings from an Old Portfolio (Correspondence of Lady Louisa Stuart)", ed. Mrs. Godfrey Clark (privately printed, 1898), volume I, p. 301] cquote|He seems to have that independent spirit which fortune cannot depress or exalt. He is really a character unlike anything but himself, "au reste", the most agreeable man I ever met with, and one of the most humorous. Later the same year, Medows married another lady, Frances Augusta Hammerton, and went on to become a Lieutenant-General, a Knight of the Bath, and Governor-Generalof Madras. [ [http://www.thepeerage.com/p23780.htm#i237794 Rt. Hon. Sir William Medows] at thepeerage.com (accessed 25 February 2008)]
Stuart was not a beautiful woman.
Fanny Burneywrote of her in 1786: ["The Diary and Letters of Madame D’Arblay" (1842), ed. Charlotte Barrett, volume III, p. 237] cquote|Lady Louisa Stuart has parts equal to those of her mother, with a deportment and appearance infinitely more pleasing: yet she is far from handsome, but proves how well beauty may be occasionally missed when understanding and vivacity unite to fill up her place.
Louisa Stuart does not seem to have fallen in love again, but she had at least two other pursuers. Her next was
Henry Dundas(1742-1811), member of parliamentfor Midlothianand Lord Advocateof Scotland, later created Viscount Melville. Dundas was a gallant and good-looking man who had been married but was legally separated from his wife. His devotion worried the Bute family, but it turned out to be brief and merely amused Lady Louisa. Her last serious suitor was John Charles Villiers (1757-1838). He was the second son of Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon, and for a time overwhelmed Stuart with his admiration. Her parents encouraged the match, and she was tempted, but she finally decided that a "love match without any love is but a bad business". As a result, she never married. In 1791, Villiers married his cousin Maria Eleanor Forbes, a daughter of Admiral John Forbes, and in old age he inherited the family's titles and estates from his older brother Thomas Villiers, 2nd Earl of Clarendon(1753-1824), who never married. [ [http://www.thepeerage.com/p1882.htm#i18811 John Charles Villiers, 3rd Earl of Clarendon] at thepeerage.com (accessed 25 February 2008)]
When the Earl of Strafford (1722-1791) was widowed in 1785, [ [http://www.artsmia.org/viewer/detail.php?v=12&id=5996 Anne, Countess of Strafford (c. 1715-1785)] online at artsmia.org (accessed 5 March 2008)] society gossip quickly linked his name with Stuart's, leading Lady Diana Beauclerk to remark "So Lady Louisa Stuart is going to marry her great-grandfather, is she?" ["Memoirs of the Argylls" in the "Journal of Lady Mary Coke", vol. 1, p. xlix] However, Stuart looked on Strafford merely as an elderly uncle, and not as a suitor, and he for his part did nothing to promote such an alliance.
Stuart later became a close friend of the novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), a friendship which lasted from the 1790s until Scott's death in 1832. Scott regularly sent Stuart his work for her opinion, describing her as the best critic of his acquaintance.
For fear of losing
casteas a ladyof quality, Stuart had no wish to see anything she had written published under her name, and it was not until 1895, more than forty years after her death, that this happened."The Cambridge History of English and American Literature" in 18 Volumes (1907–21), Volume XI: The Period of the French Revolution XV The Bluestockings, [http://www.bartleby.com/221/1503.html §3 Mrs Montagu] online at bartleby.com (accessed 2 March 2008)] Lockhart's "Life of Scott" (1837—1838) [Lockhart, John Gibson, "Life of Sir Walter Scott" (7 volumes, 1837—1838)] had contained several of Sir Walter Scott's letters to Stuart. In a letter to his publisher Robert Cadell, Scott writes "I trust you have received the printed sheets of Lady Louisa Stuart, but for your life mention [not] her name." [Parker, W. M., "The Origin of Scott's Nigel" in "The Modern Language Review", Vol. 34, No. 4 (October, 1939), pp. 535-540]
Much of Stuart's writing is still in the form of unpublished memoirs and letters, mostly addressed to women, but interest in her as an observer of her times began to increase towards the end of the nineteenth century. Between 1895 and 1898, Mrs Godfrey Clark edited and published three volumes of Stuart's work called "Gleanings from an Old Portfolio (Correspondence of Lady Louisa Stuart)", and the Hon. James A. Home followed these with "Lady Louisa Stuart: Selections from her Manuscripts" (New York & London: Harper Brothers, 1899) and with two volumes of "Letters of Lady Louisa Stuart to Miss Louisa Clinton", published in Edinburgh in 1901 and 1903.Looser, "op. cit.", p. 60]
Stuart's memoir of
Lady Mary Coke, written in 1827, represents Coke as a virtuous woman suffering from a brutal husband, but also as a tragedy queen subject to paranoia. Her essay "Biographical Anecdotes of Lady M. W. Montagu" (published anonymously as an introduction to the 1837 edition of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's "Letters and Works") focusses largely on the work and political position of Lady Mary's husband Edward Wortley Montagu, giving Stuart the chance to air her own views on Wortley Montagu, Walpole, Harley, Halifax, and the Whigs and Tories generally, demonstrating her own loyalty to the side of the Tories. [Looser, Devoney, "British Women Writers and the Writing of History, 1670-1820" (JHU Press, 2000, ISBN 0801879051) p. 64] Devoney Looser considers that Stuart (whom she calls "the socially correct octogenarian") [Looser, "op. cit.", p. 66] was troubled by her grandmother's focus on sexual intrigues and says that Stuart did not see Lady Mary's "Account of the Court of George I at his Accession" as history. [Looser, "op. cit.", pp. 65-67]
Walter Scott's, Alexander Pope's and Samuel Johnson's poetry, Stuart wrote verses of her own, including fables and a balladabout cannibalbrothers and what happens to an unfortunate woman who has married for money.
Stuart was not a Bluestocking, and although her writing has a dash of malicious humour, it lacks their mutual admiration. She had a great lady's fine scorn for
Elizabeth Montagu's habit of welcoming into society those born outside its pale, and she ridiculed "college geniuses with nothing but a book in their pockets". She wrote "The only blue stocking meetings which I myself ever attended were those at Mrs Walsingham’s and Mrs Montagu’s. To frequent the latter, however, was to drink at the fountain-head..." ["Gleanings from an Old Portfolio (Correspondence of Lady Louisa Stuart)", ed. Mrs Godfrey Clark (privately printed, 1898), vol. III, p. 61]
Jill Rubenstein describes Stuart as "Tory to the bone, never having forgiven the pain inflicted on her father by the scurrilous personal attacks of Wilkes and others" and compares her politics to those of Sir Walter Scott, "a principled and consistent conservatism". [Looser, "op. cit.", Note 13 on p. 215]
Professor Karl Miller, in the "
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", praises Stuart's "magnificent pieces of writing". He also reports on her inconsistencies. On the matter of the emancipation of women, she was both for and against it, and while she favoured the old order in politics and had an aversion to the mob, she also admired "unadorned human worth". Miller calls Stuart "the least-known, but by no means the least, of the good writers of her long lifetime".
In her later years, Stuart took a house in
Londonat 108, Gloucester Place, Marylebone, and from there she walked in Regent's Park. At home, she would sit with her books, and although something of a recluse, on occasion she was also highly sociable. She destroyed many of her manuscripts, but continued to write letters and to talk and to visit great houses. A few months before her death, she was sketched by Sir George Hayter, and died at home in London on 4 August 1851.
A paragraph on Stuart's death appeared in the Obituary pages of "
The Gentleman's Magazine" for September 1851: [" The Gentleman's Magazine" for September 1851, [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ffMMN_clKR4C&pg=PA334&lpg=PA334 page 334] online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 3 March 2008)] cquote|Aug. 4. At Gloucester-pl., aged 94, Lady Louisa Stuart, youngest daughter of John Earl of Bute K.G., the prime minister, and the grand-daughter of Lady Mary Wortley Montague. To this lady we owe the charming "Introductory Anecdotes" prefixed to the late Lord Wharncliffe's edition of Lady Mary's Works. Lady Louisa remembered to have seen her grandmother, Lady Mary, when at old Wortley's death that celebrated woman returned to London after her long and still unexplained exile from England. Lady Louisa herself was a charming letter writer, and her correspondence with Sir Walter Scott - which we hope to see published in our own time - will, it is said, fully sustain the Wortley reputation for wit and beauty of style, while it will exhibit a poet in a very different character from that in which another poet figures in his celebrated correspondence with her grandmother, Lady Mary. Some of Scott's letters to Lady Louisa are included in Mr Lockhart's Life of Sir Walter. - "Athenaeum"
By mistake, a shorter version of this notice appeared again in the "The Gentleman's Magazine" Obituary pages for December 1851, preceded by the date "Oct. 4." ["The Gentleman's Magazine" for December 1851, [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ffMMN_clKR4C&pg=PA666&lpg=PA666 page 666] online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 3 March 2008)] . Much the same obituary appeared in the annual "The Musical World" for 1851, but by then Stuart's age had been corrected to "aged nearly ninety-four". ["The Musical World", volume XXIX for 1851, p. 698] The quarterly "The Eclectic Magazine" for September to December 1851 had the same correction and reported Stuart's death together with that of
Harriet Leeunder the heading "DEATH OF LITERARY LADIES". [Eclectic Magazine" for September to December 1851, [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2TASAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA269&lpg=PA269 page 269] online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 3 March 2008)] . " The Annual Register" for 1851 carried a shorter version of the obituary, repeating the mistake of listing Stuart's death as on 4 October. [" The Annual Register" for 1851 (London, F. & J. Rivington, 1852) [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UxkEAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA336&lpg=RA1-PA336 page 336] online at books.google.co.uk (accessed 3 March 2008)] .
*"Biographical Anecdotes" [by Lady Louisa Stuart, published anonymously] is one of three introductions to the 1837 edition of
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's "Letters and Works" [Looser, "op. cit" p. 64]
*"Gleanings from an Old Portfolio (Correspondence of Lady Louisa Stuart)", ed. Mrs Godfrey Clark (3 volumes, privately printed, 1895-1898)
*"Lady Louisa Stuart: Selections from her Manuscripts", ed. the Hon. James A. Home (New York & London: Harper Brothers, 1899) [Shattock, Joanne, "The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature" volume 4 (1999, ISBN 0521391008), pp. 1035-1036]
*"Letters of Lady Louisa Stuart to Miss Louisa Clinton", ed. the Hon. James A. Home (Edinburgh: D. Douglas, 2 volumes, 1901 and 1903)
*"The Letters of Lady Louisa Stuart, selected and with an Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson" (London, John Lane The Bodley Head, 1926)
*Harry Graham, "Lady Louisa Stuart (1757-1851)", Chapter XVIII of "A Group of Scottish Women" (New York, Duffield & Co., 1908)
*Susan Buchan, "Lady Louisa Stuart: Her Memories and Portraits" (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1932, 275 pages, illustrated, with fold-out genealogical table)
*Professor Karl Miller, "Authors" (1989): a collection of essays on authors, most living, some of whose work is relevant to the question of what authors mean to their readers. The book centres on the memorial writings of Louisa Stuart and
Primo Levi.Miller, Karl, "Authors" (Clarendon Press, 1989, 240 pp., ISBN 978-0198117803)]
*Karl Miller, "Stuart, Lady Louisa (1757-1851)" in the "
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (2004, revised for online edition 2006).
Few portraits of Stuart survive. In 1770, ] A chalk sketch by J. Hayter dated 1837 is in a private collection.
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