- Wa State
Wa State is an unrecognised state in
Myanmar(formerly known as Burma) and is currently subsumed under the official Wa Special Region 2 of the Northern Shan State. The administrative capital is Pangshang. The name "Wa" derives from an ethnic group, who speaks a language in the Austroasiatic family of languages. Wa State has a population of an estimated 558,000. Wa State is an undefined area that encloses eastern Shan State. Approximately 400,000 Wa live in China, mostly in the Yunnan Province.
Many of the Wa are
animists, and a small proportion of the population follows a derivative of either Buddhismor Christianity. The Wa were once known as the Wild Wa for their "savage" behavior as headhunters.
Illicit drug trade
United Wa State Army(UWSA) is the largest narcotics traffickingorganization in Southeast Asia, with 20,000 soldiers. It was once allied with the Communist Party of Burma, with 4,000 soldiers. The UWSA cultivates vast areas of land for the opium poppywhich is later refined to heroin. The money from the opium is used for weapons and such. Although the Burmese government has begun taking measures to decrease the production of such drugs, it is an arduous task, because of corruption at high levels in the government and lack of infrastructure to carry out operations.
The Kokang (果敢;
Pinyin: Guǒgǎn) are a group of Wa that has roots in China. They formed the only Chinese state within Burma. The Yang family who founded the Kokang substate were Ming Dynastyloyalists who fled with their followers to the Yunnan Province, and migrated to northeast Burmaduring the 1600s. Although the British annexed Upper Burmain 1885, the Kokang transferred local sovereignty to Great Britain, and the Yang family continued to maintain power in a district within the state of Hsenwi North. However, after Burmese independence was achieved, Lower and Upper Burma were reunited. This caused the Kokang to lose power, and the majority of the royal family was exiled.
After the Communist Party of Burma lost control of its bases in central Myanmar in the late
1960s, it re-established itself in the northeast including Wa State, with the support of China. The Wa, like other ethnic groups were fighting for autonomy from Myanmar, and supported the CPB. They eventually rebelled along with the Kokang against the Burmese communist leadership, which was forced into exile across the Chinese border, at the time of the 8888 Uprisingin mainland Myanmar. Following the consequent collapse of the Burma Socialist Programme Party(BSPP) rule under Ne Winin Myanmar, the WNO made ceasefire and peace agreements with the new military regime, the State Law and Order Restoration Council(SLORC}.
* Hideyuki Takano, "The Shore Beyond Good and Evil: A Report from Inside Burma's Opium Kingdom " (
2002, Kotan, ISBN 0-9701716-1-7)
* Andrew Marshall, "The Trouser People: a Story of Burma in the Shadow of the Empire". London: Penguin; Washington: Counterpoint, 2002. ISBN 1-58243-120-5
* [http://www.wastate.com.cn/ Wa State Government Page] zh icon
* [http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Burma/kokang.htm Kokang's Royal Family]
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