- Infantry fighting vehicle
An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), also known as a mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide fire support for them. IFVs have a greater role in combat operations than even the main battle tanks they serve alongside.
IFVs are similar to armoured personnel carriers (APCs), designed to transport a section or squad of infantry (generally between five and ten men) and their equipment. They are differentiated from APCs - which are purely transport vehicles, armed only for self defence - because they are designed to give direct fire support to the dismounted infantry and so usually have significantly enhanced armament. IFVs also often have improved armour and firing ports (allowing the infantry to fire personal weapons while mounted).
They are typically armed with an autocannon of 20 to 40mm caliber, 7.62mm machine guns and possibly with anti-tank missiles (ATGMs) and/or surface-to-air missiles. IFVs are usually tracked, but some wheeled vehicles fall into this category, too. IFVs are generally much less heavily armed and armoured than main battle tanks, but they sometimes carry missiles, such as the NATO TOW missile and Soviet Bastion which offer a significant threat to tanks.
Western powers were surprised when the Soviet Union paraded the first purpose-designed IFV, the BMP-1, in 1967. The BMP possessed a very low profile and was armed with both a 73mm smoothbore gun and an AT-3 Sagger ATGM. Its steeply-sloped front armour offered full protection against NATO's standard .50 calibre machine gun and partial protection against 20 millimetre Oerlikon cannon both in a 60 degree frontal arc, while its 73 mm gun and ATGM were a threat to NATO APCs and even MBTs.
The first mass produced IFV was the West German Schützenpanzer 12-3 which served in the Bundeswehr from 1958 until the early 1980s. The SPz 12-3 mounted a 20 mm autocannon in a small turret and carried a half-squad of five armored infantrymen.
Since then, all major military powers have developed or adopted IFVs. Examples include the German Marder and Puma, the Chinese ZBD-97, the Soviet/Russian BMP-3, the Indian Abhay IFV, the Yugoslavian BVP M-80, the Canadian LAV III, the British Warrior, the American M2 Bradley, the Spanish Pizarro/ASCOD, the Italian Dardo, the South African Ratel, the French AMX-10P and VBCI, the Swedish Combat Vehicle 90 and the Dutch YPR-765 AIFV.
In times of asymmetrical warfare, local crises, and urban combat, the IFV is more important than ever. The IFV offers a viable compromise between mobility, protection, and firepower. They can be used in high and low intensity conflicts as well as peacekeeping operations. The latest vehicles, like the Patria AMV, have been designed with an emphasis on modularity that improves their ability to be repaired in the field.
Infantry fighting vehicles are typically well armored, although usually with less protection than main battle tanks. Typical armament is an autocannon and machine guns. IFVs have an egress for dismounts.
Generally, IFVs have thinner and less complex armour than tanks to ensure mobility. Most IFVs are resistant against heavy machine guns, artillery fragments, and small arms. The IFV's mission does not include anti-tank duties except in support of tank units or in emergencies; therefore, it needs less protection from heavy weapons fire. Instead, the IFV, as its name implies, is supposed to carry riflemen and their weapons into the battlefield where they dismount and fight outside the vehicle with the support of the IFV's main armament.
In IFVs, the thickness of armour varies widely between models. Some vehicles are proofed against nothing larger than 12.7 mm projectiles while others, such as Sweden's CV90, US Bradley M2A3 and Russia's BMP-3, can withstand frontal hits from 30 mm autocannon. The sides, roof, and floors of IFVs have thinner armour. Vehicles must also protect crew against anti-personnel mines and against anti-tank mines.
Newer vehicles like the Finnish Patria AMV use armour made in interchangeable modules of various thickness. This permits the vehicle to be tailored for particular missions such as decreasing the weight of vehicle for air transportation or strengthening the protection if it engages in dangerous missions. The latest models of the Russian BMP-3 use the Arena active protection system (APS) that protects the vehicle from missiles and rockets with velocities from 70 to 700 metres per second. Israeli IFVs will soon employ the "Iron Fist" APS which can defeat kinetic APFSDS tank rounds.
The most common counter measures are smoke grenade dischargers. These help IFVs to avoid a hits from ATGMs by allowing the IFV to hide behind a smoke screen. Some vehicles, such as the French VBCI, employ infra-red jamming flare dispensers. These are effective against missiles with IR guidance systems.
The term heavy infantry fighting vehicle is often applied to IFVs that are heavily armored.
The primary weapon on most IFVs is an autocannon, usually of a calibre between 20–40 mm, although IFVs such as the BMP-3 carries a 100 mm gun/missile launcher along with a 30mm autocannon. It is effective against a wide range of targets such as unarmoured and lightly armoured vehicles, infantry, helicopters and low-flying aircraft. It can fire several types of munitions, including high explosive, incendiary, and kinetic penetrator rounds. Germany's Puma and Sweden's CV90 can fire air burst munition, that contain hundreds of tungsten rods that are effective against vehicles, helicopters, and stationary strong points. IFV cannons can elevate their barrels by as much as 70 degrees to permit their crews to engage aircraft.
On many IFVs, a coaxial machine gun is mounted on the turret along with the main armament. The most common calibre is 7.62 mm (.30 cal). Some vehicles mount more machine guns; for example on the German Marder, one machine gun fires from the rear of the vehicle, and the Russian BMP-3 has two machine guns mounted in the hull facing forward.
Many IFVs utilize firing ports allowing infantry to fire without leaving the protection of the vehicle.
Some IFVs are equipped with anti-tank missiles. These missiles are mostly medium range (2000–4000 m). Others may carry surface-to-air missiles or a combination of the two, such as the 2T Stalker.
Wheeled IFVs can travel great distances on their own without needing to be transported by flat-bed trucks and railway, as required by tracked IFVs. Tracked IFVs need to have their treads serviced or replaced on a regular basis. The tracks themselves and the weight of the IFVs tend to be tough on road surfaces, wearing them down more quickly than a wheeled IFV. Many wheeled IFVs can extract themselves from a battlefield with specialized run-flat tires when not operating in difficult terrain, while an IFV with damaged tracks would require its tracks repaired in the field or a heavy vehicle to tow it out. However, tracks cannot be punctured like a tire so are more difficult to immobilize. A weapon that destroys a track will do significant more damage to a wheeled vehicle then a flat tire (such as destroying the axles in which case the vehicle will have to be towed away as well). Tracks also offer far greater off-road mobility, greater obstacle climbing capabilities and greater maneuverability than wheels. Unlike a wheeled vehicle, a tracked vehicle will not be stopped by a spike strip or roadblock. A tracked vehicle can reach places a wheeled vehicle can not. As IFVs often operate alongside tanks being tracked means that the vehicle can go everywhere that the tanks go, which a wheeled vehicle could not. In this case wheeled vehicles would either have to take another route (leaving the tanks without IFV support and the IFVs without tank protection) or the tanks would have to stay where the wheeled IFVs can go and drastically limit their own tactical mobility. Tracked vehicles can attack and operate from and in areas which a wheeled vehicle could not which is a great tactical advantage. A wheeled vehicle is limited to roads and not to difficult terrain which allows the enemy to predict where they will come from. Generally this means tracked vehicles have greater mobility except on roads where wheeled vehicles have the advantage of having a greater top speed. This is why many countries only use wheeled armor for support functions or low-risk peacekeeping missions whereas combat functions are performed by tracked vehicles. A compromise between wheels and tracks is the band track, which combines some of the advantages of wheels and tracks.
The mobility offered by IFVs is an asset in close combat, especially against fixed artillery. American military simulations in the 80s concluded a three to fivefold increase in artillery defense effectiveness when IFVs were deployed.
Throughout its life cycle an IFV is expected to gain 30% more weight from armor additions. This complicates the design by requiring additional power.
- Armoured warfare
- Armoured personnel carrier
- List of AFVs
- List of modern armoured fighting vehicles
- BMP development
- Mechanized infantry
- ^ Martin J. Dougherty, Chris McNab (2010). Combat Techniques: An Elite Forces Guide to Modern Infantry Tactics. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0312-36824. http://books.google.com/books?id=f3YaVQR7x5QC&printsec=frontcover&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- ^ Scott Boston (Winter 2004). "Toward a Protected Future Force". p. 67. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04winter/boston.pdf. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- ^ Jonathan B. A. Bailey (2004). Field artillery and firepower. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-5911-4029-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=4M_Q6vWMshgC&pg=PA58&dq=%22Infantry+fighting+vehicle%22#v=onepage&q=%22Infantry%20fighting%20vehicle%22&f=false. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- ^ Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies. Method Publishing. 2004. p. 30. http://books.google.com/books?id=06tIAAAAYAAJ&q=%22upgraded+throughout+their+life+cycle%22&dq=%22upgraded+throughout+their+life+cycle%22. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
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