# Tension member

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Tension member

Tension members are structural elements that are subjected to axial tensile forces. They are usually used in different types of structures. Examples of tension members are: bracing for buildings and bridges, truss members, and cables in suspended roof systems. In an axially loaded tension member, the stress is given by:

F = P/A

Where P is the magnitude of the load and A is the cross-sectional areaThe stress given by this equation is exact, knowing that the cross section is not adjacent to the point of application of the load nor having holes for bolts or other discontinuity. For example,

if you are given a 8 x ½ plate is used as a tension member (section a-a) and it is connected to a gusset plate with two 7/8-inch-diameter bolts (section b-b). So,

The area at section a - a (gross area of the member) is 8 x ½ = 4 in2

However, the area at section b - b (net area) is (8 – 2 x 7/8) x ½ = 3.12 in2 Knowing that the higher stress is located at section b - b due to its smaller area

To understand more about tension member, it would be useful to look at the stress-strain behavior of steel:

Where, Fy is the yield stress, Fsu is the ultimate stress, εy is the yield strain and εsu is the ultimate strain

Designing a tension member

In order to design tension members, it is important to analyze how the member would fail under both yielding (excessive deformation) and fracture which considered the limit states. The limit state that produces the smallest design strength is considered the controlling limit state; which also prevent the steel structure from failure.

Using AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction), we could obtain the recommended load and resistance factor design approaches.

The ultimate load on a structure can be calculated from one of the following combination:

1.4 D

1.2 D + 1.6 L + 0.5 (Lr or S)

1.2 D + 1.6 (Lr or S) + (0.5 L or 0.8 W)

1.2 D + 1.6 W + 0.5 L + 0.5 (Lr or S)

0.9 D + 1.6 W

Where:

D… is the dead load or the weight of the structure itself

L… is the live load which vary for different structures

the central problem of designing a member is to find a cross section for which the required strength doesn't exceed the available strength :

Pu < ¢ Pn where Pu is the sum of the factored loads.

to prevent yielding

0.90 Fy Ag > Pu

to avoid fracture,

0.75 Fu Ae > Pu

herefore, to design a tension member, we have to consider the loads applied to this member, the design forces acting on this member (Mu, Pu, and Vu), and the point where this member would fail.

ee also

*Compression member

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### Look at other dictionaries:

• Tension member — Tension Ten sion, n. [L. tensio, from tendere, tensum, to stretch: cf. F. tension. See {Tense}, a.] 1. The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained to stiffness; the state of being bent strained; as, the tension of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Tension member — Member Mem ber, n. [OE. membre, F. membre, fr. L. membrum; cf. Goth. mimz flesh, Skr. mamsa.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Anat.) A part of an animal capable of performing a distinct office; an organ; a limb. [1913 Webster] We have many members in one body …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Tension — Ten sion, n. [L. tensio, from tendere, tensum, to stretch: cf. F. tension. See {Tense}, a.] 1. The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained to stiffness; the state of being bent strained; as, the tension of the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Tension brace — Tension Ten sion, n. [L. tensio, from tendere, tensum, to stretch: cf. F. tension. See {Tense}, a.] 1. The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained to stiffness; the state of being bent strained; as, the tension of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Tension rod — Tension Ten sion, n. [L. tensio, from tendere, tensum, to stretch: cf. F. tension. See {Tense}, a.] 1. The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained to stiffness; the state of being bent strained; as, the tension of …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Member — Mem ber, n. [OE. membre, F. membre, fr. L. membrum; cf. Goth. mimz flesh, Skr. mamsa.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Anat.) A part of an animal capable of performing a distinct office; an organ; a limb. [1913 Webster] We have many members in one body, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• tension rod — noun : a metal rod used as a tension member * * * tension rod noun A structural member subjected to tensile stress only • • • Main Entry: ↑tense …   Useful english dictionary

• Compression member — Member Mem ber, n. [OE. membre, F. membre, fr. L. membrum; cf. Goth. mimz flesh, Skr. mamsa.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Anat.) A part of an animal capable of performing a distinct office; an organ; a limb. [1913 Webster] We have many members in one body …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Strategy of tension — A strategy of tension ( it. strategia della tensione) is an alleged way used by world powers to divide, manipulate, and control public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, as well as false… …   Wikipedia

• Liquid Tension Experiment — Infobox musical artist Name = Liquid Tension Experiment Img capt = Liquid Tension Experiment performing in Chicago in 2008. From left: Tony Levin, John Petrucci, Jordan Rudess, Mike Portnoy Background = group or band Years active = 1997 1999,… …   Wikipedia