Juniperus oxycedrus


Juniperus oxycedrus

Taxobox
name = "cade oil
status = LR/lc | status_system = IUCN2.3



image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Juniperus oxycedrus" in southern France
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Pinophyta
classis = Pinopsida
ordo = Pinales
familia = Cupressaceae
genus = "Juniperus"
species = "J. oxycedrus"
binomial = "Juniperus oxycedrus"
binomial_authority = L.

"Juniperus oxycedrus" (Prickly Juniper, Prickly Cedar, Cade Juniper, Spanish Cedar and Cade (from the French "genévrier cade"), Sharp Cedar) is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up to 1600 m altitude.Farjon, A. (2005). "Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4] [IUCN2006|assessors=Conifer Specialist Group|year=1998|id=42243|title=Juniperus oxycedrus|downloaded=12 May 2006] The specific epithet "oxycedrus" means "sharp cedar" and this species may have been the original cedar or "cedrus" of the ancient Greeks. [Meiggs, R. 1982. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World.]

The plant is very variable in shape, forming a spreading shrub 2-3 m tall to a small erect tree 10-15 m tall. It has needle-like leaves in whorls of three; the leaves are green, 5-20 mm long and 1-2 mm broad, with a double white stomatal band (split by a green midrib) on the inner surface. It is usually dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to orange-red with a variable pink waxy coating; they are spherical, 7-12 mm diameter, and have three or six fused scales in 1-2 whorls, three of the scales with a single seed. The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the cones, digesting the fleshy scales and passing the hard seeds in their droppings. The pollen cones are yellow, 2-3 mm long, and fall soon after shedding their pollen in late winter or early spring.Adams, R. P. (2004). "Junipers of the World". Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-4250-X] [Arboretum de Villardebelle: [http://www.pinetum.org/cones/JUcones.htm photos of cones and shoots] ]

As to be expected from the wide range, it is very variable. One recent studyAdams, R. P. (2000). Systematics of Juniperus section Juniperus based on leaf essential oils and RAPD DNA fingerprinting. "Biochem. Syst. Ecol". 28: 515-528 [http://watson.ecs.baylor.edu/Juniperus/RApaperspdf/160-2000bBIOCH28515.pdf available online (pdf file)] ] Adams, R. P. (2004). Juniperus deltoides, a new species and nomenclatural notes on Juniperus polycarpos and J. turcomanica (Cupressaceae). "Phytologia" 86: 49 - 53 [http://watson.ecs.baylor.edu/Juniperus/RApaperspdf/177-2004Phytologia86-49.pdf available online (pdf file)] ] splits it into three species, though other authorities do not accept this:
*"Juniperus oxycedrus" L. - Western Prickly Juniper. Southwest Europe, in eastern Portugal and Spain east to southern France, northwest Italy, Corsica, and Sardinia, and northwest Africa from Morocco east to Tunisia. Leaves long (10-20 mm), narrow-based; cones smooth.
*"Juniperus navicularis" Gand. (syn. "J. oxycedrus" subsp. "transtagana") - Portuguese Prickly Juniper. Coastal southwest Portugal. Leaves short (5-12 mm); cones smooth.
*"Juniperus deltoides" R.P.Adams - Eastern Prickly Juniper. Central Italy east to Iran and Israel. Leaves long (10-20 mm), broad-based; cones with raised scale edges.

An additional variety or subspecies "J. oxycedrus" var. "badia" H.Gay (syn. "J. oxycedrus" subsp. "badia" (H.Gay) Debeaux) is distinguished on the basis of larger cones (10–13 mm diameter), tinged purple when mature; it is described from northern Algeria, and also reported from Portugal and Spain.

A further species "Juniperus macrocarpa", confined to Mediterranean coastal sands, is more distinct but has also often been treated as a subspecies of Prickly Juniper, as "J. oxycedrus" subsp. "macrocarpa"; it differs in the broader leaves 2-3 mm wide, and larger cones 12-18 mm diameter.

Other close relatives of "J. oxycedrus" include "Juniperus brevifolia" on the Azores, "Juniperus cedrus" on the Canary Islands and "Juniperus formosana" in eastern Asia.

Uses

Cade oil is the essential oil obtained through destructive distillation of the wood of this shrub. It is a dark, aromatic oil with a strong smoky smell which is used in some cosmetics and (traditional) skin treatment drugs, as well as incense. [1911 British Pharmacopaea: [http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/bpc1911/juniperus-oxyc_oleu.html Cade Oil] ] [1918 US Dispensatory: [http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/usdisp/juniperus-oxyc_oleu.html Cade Oil] ]

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — Genévrier cade Juniperus oxycedrus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — Genévrier cade Genévrier cade …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juniperus oxycedrus —   Enebro rojo o de la miera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — kedrinis kadagys statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Kiparisinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, vaistinis augalas (Juniperus oxycedrus), paplitęs Viduržemio pajūrio srityje. Iš jo gaunamas eterinis aliejus. atitikmenys: lot. Juniperus oxycedrus angl.… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Juniperus Oxycedrus — Cade Cade, n. [F. & Pr.; LL. cada.] A species of juniper ({Juniperus Oxycedrus}) of Mediterranean countries. [1913 Webster] {Oil of cade}, a thick, black, tarry liquid, obtained by destructive distillation of the inner wood of the cade. It is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — ID 44014 Symbol Key JUOX2 Common Name cade juniper Family Cupressaceae Category Gymnosperm Division Coniferophyta US Nativity Cultivated, or not in the U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution N/A Growth Habit N/A …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — …   Википедия

  • Juniperus oxycedrus — the cade tree, a European species that is the source of juniper tar …   Medical dictionary

  • Juniperus oxycedrus L. — Symbol JUOX2 Common Name cade juniper Botanical Family Cupressaceae …   Scientific plant list

  • Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa — ID 44015 Symbol Key JUOXM2 Common Name N/A Family Cupressaceae Category Gymnosperm Division Coniferophyta US Nativity Cultivated, or not in the U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution N/A Growth Habit N/A …   USDA Plant Characteristics


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