- Reno Gang
The Reno Brothers Gang, also known as the Renos or the Reno Gang, was a group of criminals that operated in the
Midwestern United Statesduring and just after the American Civil War. Though short-lived, they carried out the first, second and third peacetime train robberies in U.S. history.cite web |url=http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/recon/robbery_1 |title=The First Known Train Robbery in the U.S. October 6, 1866 |publisher= Library of Congress(americalibrary.gov) |accessdate=2008-07-15 ] cite web |url=http://www.historynet.com/reno-gangs-reign-of-terror.htm |title=Reno Gang's Reign Of Terror |publisher="Wild West" magazine, February 2004 (reprinted at historynet.com) |author=William Bell |accessdate=2008-07-15] The gang was broken with the lynchings of ten of its members by vigilantemobs in 1868. The mob lynchings created an international diplomatic incident with Canadaand Great Britain, a general public uproar and international newspaper coverage. Most of the money was never recovered and no one was ever identified or prosecuted for the lynchings.
Family and early life
J. Wilkison (also known as Wilkinson or Wilkerson) Reno moved to Indiana in 1813 from the Salt River region of
Kentucky, one of the Civil War border states. He married Julia Ann in 1835. Future gang members Franklin (Frank), John, Simeon (Sim), and William (Bill) Reno were born to the couple in Rockford, Jackson County, Indiana. There was also another son, Clinton ("Honest" Clint), and a daughter, Laura. In their early years, the siblings were raised in a strict, religious ( Methodist) farming household and were required to read the Bibleall day on Sunday, according to John Reno's 1879 autobiography. Neither Clint or Laura were involved in the gang's crime spree.Funk, p.102]
The brothers got into trouble early. John claimed that he and Frank bilked travelers in crooked card games. Also, the Renos were suspected when a series of mysterious fires broke out around Rockford over a period of seven years beginning in 1851. The community also suspected the brothers in the theft of a horse. The crimes caused considerable tension in the town and the Wilkenson and four of his sons fled, living near
St. Louis, Missourifor some time, before returning to their farm in 1860. The war broke shortly after the war began and the brother enlisted in hopes of escaping the angry citizens of the town.
American Civil War, Frank, John, and possibly Simeon became bounty jumpers. They were paid to enlist in the Union Army, then failed to appear for duty. They continued to enlist under different names and locales, taking additional money. Federal records show that Frank, John and Simeon deserted. Many residents of southern Indiana were sympathetic to the Confederate States of Americaor were Northern Democrats wanting peace (known as "Copperheads"). It is not known if the Reno brothers were Copperheads or simply taking advantage of the situation.William briefly went AWOL, but did return to serve out his enlistment. He was the only one who received an honorable discharge from the army. (There is a possibility that he was not a member of the gang.)Funk, p. 102]
In 1864, Frank and John returned to Rockford. A gang began to form under their leadership. Simeon and William joined them. Late that year, Frank and two other gang members, Grant Wilson and a man named Dixon, robbed the post office and Gilbert's Store in nearby
Jonesville, Indiana. They were arrested, but were released on bond. Wilson agreed to testify against his fellow robbers, but was murdered before he could do so, and Frank was acquitted.
The Reno Gang was the first "Brotherhood of Outlaws" in the United States. Their crimes terrorized the
Midwestfor several years and inspired the creation of a host of other similar gangs who copied their crimes, leading to several decades of high-profile train robberies. Their gang attracted several new members after the end of the war. They started by robbing and murdering travelers in Jackson County and began to branch out to other counties, where they raided merchants and communities. They planned their first train near Seymour; the town was an important rail hub at that time.
On the evening of
October 6, 1866, John, Sim Reno, and Frank Sparkes, boarded a train belonging to the Ohio & Mississippias it started to leave the Seymour depot. They broke into the express car where they restrained the guard and broke open a safe containing approximately $16,000. As the train moved along the tracks, the three men pushed a larger safe over the side where the rest of the gang was waiting. Unable to open the safe, the gang fled as a large posse approached. Passenger George Kinney stepped forward to identify two of the robbers. The three men were arrested, but were released on bail. When Kinney was shot and killed, the other passengers refused to testify and all charges had to be dropped. The safe they stole would ultimately lead to the downfall of the gang. Its contents were insured by the Adams Express Company, who hired the Pinkerton Detective Agencyto track down and capture the gang.Funk, p.104]
November 17 1867, the Daviess County Courthouse in Gallatin, Missouriwas robbed. John Reno was identified, arrested by Pinkerton agents, and sentenced to 25 years in the Missouri State Penitentiary in 1868. (He was released in February 1878.) John was the only brother who was not executed. He returned to Seymour in 1886, but was again sent to prison, this time for counterfeiting, for three years.
However, this did not deter the gang. Three robberies in Iowa followed in quick succession, in February and March 1868. Frank Reno and fellow gang members Albert Perkins and Miles Ogle were caught by Pinkertons led by
Allan Pinkerton's brother William, but broke out of jail on April 1. A second train robbery occurred in December 1867, when two members of the gang robbed another train leaving the Seymour depot. The robbers netted $8,000, which was turned over to the brothers. A third train, owned by the Ohio & Mississippi, was stopped by six members of the gang on July 10, though the Reno brothers were not involved. Waiting in ambush however were ten Pinkerton agents. A shootout ensued; after several of the gang were wounded, the would-be robbers fled. Volney Elliott was captured and gave up information that led to the arrest of Charlie Roseberry and Theodore Clifton.
In March 1868, the residents of Seymour formed a vigilante group with the aim of killing the gang. In response, the gang fled west to Iowa where they robbed the Harrison County treasury of $14,000. The next day, they robbed Mills County treasury of $12,000. The Pinkerton detectives quickly located the men and arrested them at
Council Bluffs, Iowa. On April 1, the gang escaped from their Iowa jail and returned to Indiana.Funk, p. 105]
The Reno Gang then robbed its fourth train on May 22. Twelve men boarded a
Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolistrain as it stopped at the Marshfield, Indianadepot. As the train pulled away, the gang overpowered the engineer and uncoupled the passenger cars, allowing the engine to speed away. After breaking into the express car and murdering Thomas Harkins, the gang broke open the safe, netting an estimated $96,000. This robbery gained national attention and was published in many major papers. The Pinkertons pursued, but the gang broke up and fled throughout the Midwest.
The gang attempted to rob another train on July 9. Pinkerton detectives had learned of the plan and ten agents were waiting aboard the train. When the gang broke in, the agents opened fired, wounding two of the gang. Everyone was able to escape except Volney Elliot, who outed the other members of the gang in exchange for leniency. Using the information, the detectives arrested two more members of the gang the next day in Rockport.
All three men were taken by train to jail. However, on
July 10 1868, three miles outside Seymour, Indiana, the prisoners were taken off the train by a group of masked men calling itself the Jackson County Vigilance Committee and hung by the neck from a nearby tree. Three other three gang members, Henry Jerrell, Frank Sparks, and John Moore, were captured shortly after in Illinois and returned to Seymour. In a grisly repeat, they too fell into the hands of vigilantes and were hung from the same tree. The site became known as Hangman Crossing, Indiana.
July 27 1868, the Pinkertons captured William and Simeon Reno in Indianapolis. The men were jailed in Lexington, Indiana. They were tried and convicted of robbing the Marshfield train, but because of the threat of vigilantes, they were moved to the more secure New Albany jail. The day after their removal from Lexington, the vigilantes broke into the jail, hoping to catch and lynch the men. Frank Reno, the gang's leader, and Charlie Anderson were tracked down to a Canadian border town of Windsor, Ontario. With the help of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward, then men were extradited in October, under the provisions of the 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty. Both men were sent to New Albany where they joined the other prisoners.Funk, p. 106]
On the night of
December 11, about 65 hooded men traveled by train to New Albany. The men marched four abreast from the station to the jail where, just after midnight, the men forced their way into the jail and the sheriff's home. After they beat the sheriff and shot him in the arm for refusing to turn over the keys, his wife surrendered them to the mob. Frank Reno was the first to be dragged from his cell to be lynched. He was followed by brothers William and Simeon. Another gang member, Charlie Anderson, was the fourth and last to be murdered, at around 4:30 a.m on December 12. It was rumored that the vigilantes were part of the group known as the Scarlet Mask Society or Jackson County Vigilance Committee. No one was ever charged, named or officially investigated in any of the lynchings. Many local newspapers, such as the "New Albany Weekly Ledger", stated that "Judge Lynch" had spoken.
Frank Reno and Charlie Anderson were technically in federal custody when they were lynched. This is believed to be the only time in U.S. history that a federal prisoner had ever been lynched by a mob before a trial. Secretary of State
William Henry Seward, Srwrote a formal letter of apology as a result. A new bill was later introduced into the U.S. Congressthat clarified the responsibility for the safety of extradicted prisoners.
Films about the gang
Rage at Dawn" is a 1955 Hollywood film based on the Reno brothers. Forrest Tucker, born in Plainfield, Indiana, played Frank Reno.
*"Love Me Tender" starred
Elvis Presleyin his film debut as "Honest" Clint Reno. (The real Clint, while not a member of the gang, also had several run-ins with the law.) The plot was loosely based on the Reno brothers (the original movie title) and included a brother going off to fight in the Civil War and later taking part in a train robbery.
*cite book|title=A Sketchbook of Indiana History| author=Funk, Arville L|year=1969 (revised 1983)|publisher=Christian Book Press|location=
* "Anarchy in the Heartland" by A David Distler, 2008, e-book no. 2838979 (pdf format-lulu.com)
*A passage titled "From the Pinkertons to the Patriot Act" [ [http://www.geocities.com/travbailey/index.html From the Pinkertons to the PATRIOT Act: The Trajectory of Political Policing in the United States, 1870 to the Present] ] includes a section titled "The Reno Case". A brief excerpt follows:
"That the Pinkertons orchestrated the vigilante actions against the Renos was tacitly confirmed by Allan Pinkerton himself. In an 1874 series of letters to his subordinate, George Bangs, he discussed the fact that a former employee was participating in a plan to blackmail him to the tune of $500,000 because of his role in the lynchings. Although the blackmail plot appears to have been aborted by one or another means, the threat that his and his detectives' conduct in Indiana might be fully exposed was "obviously very disturbing" to Pinkerton, according to even his most sympathetic biographer."
* [http://www.jacksoncountyhistory.org/books/index.asp?book=brantfuller&page=490 "Reno Gang: History of Jackson County, Indiana"] by Brant & Fuller, 1886
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=xoJOkyH8KpwC&pg=PA549&lpg=PA549&dq=%22john+reno%22+reno+gang&source=web&ots=9WE950kY5r&sig=wczo8AVZbRA4-ALFYy5PxzGylgU&hl=en#PRA4-PA549,M1 "The Destruction of the Reno Gang: Stories from the Archives of the Pinkerton Detective Agency"] by Cleveland Moffett, McClure's Magazine, 1895
* [http://contentdm.acpl.lib.in.us/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/coll9&CISOPTR=38&REC=2 "A Family of Outlaws"] , by Richard Wilmer Rowan, 1931
*"Seymour, Indiana and the famous story of the Reno gang: Who terrorized America with the first train robberies in world history" by
Robert Shields (diarist), 1939, Rare, out of print, ASIN: B00089LL7E
*"Illustrations for Mules Crossing,: A history of the Reno era; the story of the Reno brothers" by
Robert Shields (diarist), 1944, Rare, out of print, ASIN: B0007HS6HU
*"The Reno Gang of Seymour" by Robert Frederick Volland, 1948, Rare, out of print, Library of Congress Control No.: 48021348
*"The Scarlet Mask, or, The Story of the Notorious Reno Gang" by Carl Robert Bogardus, 1960, Rare, out of print, ASIN: B0007I0CF8
*"The Masked Halters" by Edwin J Boley, 1977, Rare, out of print, ASIN: B0006CZCIC
*"John Reno: The world's first train robber and self proclaimed leader of the infamous Reno Gang, Seymour, Indiana" by John Reno, 1879, reprinted with annotations by The Jackson County (Indiana) Historical Society, 1993, ASIN: B0006P2G5G
*"Tragic Destiny - Demise of the Reno Gang" by Loren W Noblitt, The Jackson County (Indiana) Historical Society, 2000
*"The Reno story : the world's first train robbers, the facts--the fictions--the legends" by John M Lewis, III, 2003, Graessle-Mercer, ASIN: B0006P7AXO
* [http://www.in.gov/history/5574.htm Indiana State Historical Marker on Reno Gang]
* [http://www.historynet.com/magazines/wild_west/3025711.html?page=1&c=y William Bell article on the Historynet website]
* [http://www.scarletmask.com/dispatches/wildwestrebut.htm Scarletmask.com's take on William Bell Article]
* [http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-RenoGang.html Reno Gang article on Legends of America website]
* [http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/recon/robbery_1 Library of Congress website on 1st US Train Robbery]
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWreno.htm UK Website about Frank Reno]
* [http://home.comcast.net/~smvsposse/history.htm Scarlet Mask Society History]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gsr&GScid=2164040 Reno Family Graves in Seymour, Indiana]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=l4usD7l0iIgC&pg=PA93&dq=%22Hangman%27s+Crossing%22&sig=sSipkahNV_RqPUb1mPJiy2AYkRo Indiana Folklore: A Reader, p. 93: Hangman's Crossing]
* [http://www.jcs-group.com/oldwest/outlawgangs/bandit.html The Spell of the West: The Renos]
* [http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4298 History Channel's This Day in History: October 6th 1866]
* [http://www.legendsofamerica.com/WE-RailroadHighwaymen.html Highwaymen of the Railroad by William A Pinkerton 1893]
* [http://lanepl.org/blount/jbcols/documents/F5A71821420F8E6EB8CA5462B88FA78986CD971C.html Lane Public Library: Hamilton Co., OH News-Journal Articles on Reno Gang]
* [http://blogs.hoosiertimes.com/wordpress/?p=85 Reno Brothers, Hoosier Times blog by Roger Moon]
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