Papal conclave, 1534

Papal conclave, 1534

The Papal conclave of 1534 (October 11October 13) was convened after the death of Pope Clement VII, and elected as his successor cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who became Pope Paul III.

List of participants

Pope Clement VII died on September 25, 1534. At the time of his death, there were forty six Cardinals, but only thirty three of them participated in the election of his successor [ List of participants of the conclave of 1534] (by Salvador Miranda). Informations about titles and offices held by Cardinals accordnig to their biographical entries on [ Essay of a General List of Cardinals] by Salvador Miranda] :

*Alessandro Farnese (created Cardinal on September 20, 1493) – Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia e Velletri; "commendatario" of S. Eustachio; Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Bishop of Parma and Bishop of Saint-Pons-de-Thomières; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica

*Giovanni Piccolomini (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals

*Giovanni Domenico de Cupis (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina; "commendatario" of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; Bishop of Nardò; Administrator of Trani, Macerata e Recanati, Adria and Montepeloso

*Bonifacio Ferreri (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina

*Lorenzo Campeggio (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Bishop of Albano; Administrator of Salisbury, Porenza and Crete; Cardinal-protector of England

*Matthew Lang von Wellenberg (March 10, 1511) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Angelo in Pescheria; Archpriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Archbishop of Salzburg; Bishop of Cartagena

*Louis de Bourbon de Vendôme (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Sabina; Bishop of Laon; Administrator of Le Mans

*Benedetto degli Accolti (May 3, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Eusebio; Archbishop of Ravenna; Administrator of Cremona, Policastro and Bovino; Cardinal-protector of Spain

*Agostino Spinola (May 3, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Apollinare; Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Administrator of Savona

*Marino Grimani (May 3, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello; Administrator of Ceneda, Concordia and Città di Castello

*Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros. (November 21, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere; Archbishop of Taranto; Cardinal-protector of the Order of Capuchins

*Giovanni Vincenzo Carafa (November 21, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana; Administrator of Anglona

*Andrea Matteo Palmieri (November 21, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente; Administrator of Lucera; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals

*Francisco Quiñones (December 7, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme; Governor ofVeroli and Campagna

*Francesco Cornaro (December 20, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Ciriaco alla Terme; Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica

*Ippolito de' Medici (January 10, 1529) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Archbishop of Avignon; Administrator of Monreale and Lecce; Legate in Marche

*François de Tournon (March 9, 1530) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro; Archbishop of Bourges

*Antonio Pucci (September 22, 1531) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. IV Coronati; Grand penitentiary; Bishop of Pistoia and Vannes; Cardinal-protector of Poland and Portugal

*Esteban Gabriel Merino (February 21, 1533) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo; Patriarch of the West Indies; Bishop of Jaén

*Jean Le Veneur (November 7, 1533) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Bartolomeo all’Isola; Bishop of Lisieux

*Philippe de la Chambre, O.S.B. (November 7, 1533) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Martino ai Monti

*Innocenzo Cibo (September 23, 1513) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica; Protodeacon of Sacred College of Cardinals; Archbishop of Genoa; Administrator of Turin; Legate in Bologna

*Paolo Emilio Cesi (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio; Administrator of Orte e Civita Castellana; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Prefect of the Apostolic Signature; Cardinal-protector of the Duchy of Savoy

*Alessandro Cesarini (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata; Administrator of Pampeluna, Gerace and Otranto

*Giovanni Salviati (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Cosma e Damiano; Administrator of Santa Severina, Ferrara, Teano and Bitetto

*Nicolò Ridolfi (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; Administrator of Vicenza, Imola and Salerno

*Agostino Trivulzio (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Adriano; Administrator of Toulon and Bayeux; Legate in Marittima e Capmagna

*Francesco Pisani (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Marco; "commendatario" of S. Maria in Portico and S. Agata in Suburba; Bishop of Padua; Administrator of Treviso and Cittànova

*Jean de Lorraine (May 28, 1518) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Onofrio; Bishop of Metz; Administrator of Narbonne, Reims and Verdun

*Ercole Gonzaga (May 3, 1527) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria Nuova; Bishop of Mantua; Governor of Tivoli; Cardinal-protector of Spain

*Girolamo Grimaldi (November 21, 1527) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro; Administrator of Bari, Brugnato and Venafro

*Girolamo Doria (January, 1529) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Tommaso in Parione; Administrator of Noli and Tarragona

*Odet de Coligny de Châtillon (November 7, 1533) – Cardinal-Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco; Administrator of Toulouse

Among the electors there were twenty four Italians, six French, two Spaniards and one German. Eighteen of them were creatures of Clement VII and thirteen of Leo X. Cardinal Dean Farnese was created by Alexander VI, while Cardinal Lang von Wellenberg by Julius II.


Thirteen Cardinals did not participate in this conclave:

*François Guillaume de Castelnau-Clermont-Lodève (November 29 1503) – Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati, Archbishop of Auch; Bishop of Agde; Legate in Avignon

*Albert of Mainz (March 24, 1518) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli; Archbishop of Mainz; Archbishop of Magdeburg; Administrator of Halberstadt

*Eberhard von der Mark (August 9, 1520) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono; Bishop of Liège; Administrator of Valencia

*Antoine du Prat (November 21, 1527) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Anastasia; Archbishop of Sens; Administrator of Albi and Meaux; Chancellor of the Kingdom of France

*Bernhard von Cles (March 9, 1530) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio; Bishop of Trent; president of the Imperial Secret Council

*Louis de Gorrevod (March 9, 1530) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Cesareo in Palatio; Bishop of Bourg-en-Bresse; Papal Legate in the Duchy of Savoy

*Juan García de Loaysa, O.P. (March 9, 1530) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Anastasia; Bishop of Sigüenza; president of "Consejo Real y Supremo de las Indias"

*Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga (March 9, 1530) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano; Bishop of Burgos

*Alfonso de Manrique (February 22, 1531) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. XII Apostoli; Archbishop of Seville; Grand Inquisitor of Spain

*Juan Pardo de Tavera (February 22, 1531) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina; Archbishop of Toledo; president of the Royal Council of Spain

*Claude de Longwy de Givry (November 7, 1533) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Agnese in Agone; Administrator of Poitiers and Langres

*Alfonso de Portugal (July 1, 1517) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio; Archbishop of Lisbon and Evora

*Niccolò Gaddi (May 3, 1527) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Teodoro; Bishop of Fermo; Administrator of Cosenza and Sarlat; Cardinal-protector of France

Nine absentees were creatures of Clement VII, three of Leo X and one of Julius II. Among them, there were four French, four Spaniards, three Germans and one Italian (Gaddi); Alfonso de Portugal was Infant of the Kingdom of Portugal.

Divisions among Cardinals

College of Cardinals was divided into three factionsL. Pastor, p. 7-8] :

* Italian party – it grouped ten Italian Cardinals (Pucci, Salviati, Ridolfi, Medici, Cibo, Spinola, Grimaldi, Cupis, Cesi and Doria). Their leader was Vice-Chancellor Ippolito de' Medici, Cardinal-nephew of Clement VII.

* French party – it included six French Cardinals and four Italians (Trivulzio, Sanseverino, Pisani and Palmieri). The leaders of this party were de Lorraine and Tournon.

* Imperial faction – included seven Italians (Piccolomini, Cesarini, Vincenzo Carafa, Ercole Gonzaga, Campeggio, Grimani and Accolti) as well as two Spanish Cardinals and German Cardinal Lang.

Cardinals Farnese, Ferreri and Cornaro were considered neutral.

Candidates to the papacy

Although several Cardinals were considered papabili, it was generally thought that Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, dean of the Sacred College, has the best prospects for the election [L. Pastor, p. 9-10] . He had already official support of the king Francis I of France and of Cardinal Medici, leader of Italian party, who realized this way the will of his uncle Clement VII [L. Pastor, p. 9] , but, as neutral, he was also acceptable for the Imperial faction. Emperor Charles V declared this time a total disinterest in the result of the papal election, because the last two Popes, Clement VII and Adrian VI, whom he had helped to obtain the tiara, failed his hopes. The great advantage of Cardinal Dean was his relatively advanced age (66) and poor health. It indicated that his pontificate would be very short, so even those cardinals, who themselves had papal ambitions (f.e. Trivulzio), inclined to vote for him, hoping for the next conclave in the near future [ [ Valérie Pirie: „The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves”.] Contrary to these expectations, the pontificate of Paul III lasted fifteen years and was the longest in XVI century. He died on November 10, 1549 at the age of 81.] .

The election of Pope Paul III

Conclave began on October 11, but the first electoral assembly took place on the next day. Cardinal de Lorraine in the name of king of France officially proposed the candidature of Farnese, and this initiative immediately obtained the support of Trivulzio, leader of pro-French Italians, and of Medici, leader of the Italian party. The consent of Imperialists was also quickly achieved, and in the evening it was clear that Alessandro Farnese would be elected unanimously [L. Pastor, p.13.] . On October 13 in the morning a formal scrutiny took place, but it was a mere formality: Farnese received all votes except of his own [L. Pastor, p.14.] . He accepted his election and took the name of Paul III. On November 3 he was solemnly crowned in the presence of thirty-five Cardinals by Protodeacon Innocenzo Cibo [Salvador Miranda: [ Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (Pope Paul III)] ] .



* [ List of participants of papal conclave of 1534 (by Salvador Miranda)]
* [ Valérie Pirie: The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves. Paul III (Farnese).]
* [ Vatican History]
* L. Pastor "History of the Popes vol. XI", London 1912 (available [ here] )

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