- Count Richard Nikolaus von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Count Richard Nikolaus Eijiro von Coudenhove-Kalergi (German: "Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi", Japanese: nihongo2|1=リヒャルト・ニコラウス・栄次郎・クーデンホーフ=カレルギー) (
Tokyo, November 16, 1894- Schruns, Vorarlberg, July 27, 1972) was an Austrian politician, geopolitician, and philosopher.
Life and Work
Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi was the second son of
Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi(1859-1906), an Austro-Hungarian count and diplomat of mixed European origin, and Mitsuko Aoyama(1874-1941), a Japanese descendant of a samuraifamily. His father, who spoke sixteen languages and embraced travel as the only means of prolonging life, had prematurely abandoned a career in the Austrian diplomatic service that took him to Athens, Constantinople, Rio de Janeiro, and Tokyo, to devote himself to study and writing. His mother is the eponymous inspiration of the perfumeMitsuko by Guerlainand the subject of a forthcoming musical composed by Frank Wildhornwith Shuichiro Koikeand Jack Murphy( [http://www.frankwildhorn.com/projects/upcoming.shtml] ). His parents met when the future countess helped the Austro-Hungarian diplomat stationed in Japan after he fell off a horse. In commenting on their union, Whittaker Chambersdescribed the future originator of Pan-Europe as "practically a Pan-European organization himself". He elaborated: "The Coudenhoves were a wealthy Flemish family that fled to Austria during the French Revolution. The Kalergis were a wealthy Cretan family. The line has been further crossed with Poles, Norwegians, Balts, French and Germans, but since the families were selective as well as cosmopolite, the hybridization has been consistently successful." (See Whittaker Chambers, "Historian and History Maker", originally published in " The American Mercury", January 1944; reprinted in "Ghosts on the Roof: Selected Journalism ", Transaction Publishers, 1996, pp. 74-79.) The Kalergisfamily roots trace to the Byzantine royalty via Venetian aristocracy, connecting with the Phokasimperial dynasty. In 1300, Coudenhove-Kalergi's ancestor Alexios Phokas-Kalergis signed the treaty that made Crete a dominion of Venice.
Coudenhove-Kalergi passed his adolescence on
Bohemianfamily estates in Ronsperg, known today as Poběžovice. His father personally taught his two sons Russian and Hungarian and toughened them both physically and morally. He took them on long walks in all weathers, made them sleep on straw mattresses and take cold showers, and taught them to shoot and fence so well that no one would ever dare challenge them. He also took them to Mass every Sunday. On every Good Friday, as the liturgy came to the exhortation "oremus et pro perfidis Judaeis" ("Let us also pray for the faithless Jews"), the old count allegedly rose and walked out of the church in a protest against this supposed expression of antisemitism. (See Whittaker Chambers, "loc. cit.")
Coudenhove-Kalergi studied at the Ecole épiscopale de
Brixen( Bressanone) before attending the Theresianische Akademiein Viennafrom 1908 till 1913. He obtained his doctorate in philosophy with a thesis on "Die Objectivität als Grundprinzip der Moral" (The Objectivity as Fundamental Principle of Morals) in 1917 from the University of Vienna. While still in his student years, he married the famous Viennese actress Ida Rolandin April 1915. His marriage to a divorcée thirteen years his senior and a commoner, caused a temporary split with his family.
Coudenhove-Kalergi is recognized as the founder of the first popular movement for a united Europe. His intellectual influences ranged from
Rudolf Kjellénand Oswald Spenglerto Arthur Schopenhauerand Friedrich Nietzsche. In politics, he was an enthusiastic supporter of " fourteen points" made by Woodrow Wilsonon 8 January 1918 and pacifist initiatives of Kurt Hiller. In the early 1920s he joined a Masonic lodge at Vienna, where he would reach several degrees. In 1922 he co-founded the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Habsburg, as "the only way of guarding against an eventual world hegemony by Russia". (See Stephen Dorril, "MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service", Free Press, 2000, p. 165.) In the following year he published a manifesto entitled "Pan-Europa", each copy containing a membership form which invited the reader to become a member of the Pan-Europa movement. He favored social democracy as an improvement on "the feudal aristocracy of the sword" But his ambition was to create a conservative society that superseded democracy with "the social aristocracy of the spirit". (See Ben Rosamond, "Theories of European Integration", Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, pp. 21-22.)
From April 1924 to March 1938, Coudenhove-Kalergi worked as an editor and principal author of the journal "Paneuropa". He published his main work, the three volumes of "Kampf um Paneuropa " (The fight for Paneuropa) between 1925 and 1928. In 1926, the first Congress of the Pan-European Union met in Vienna, and the 2,000 delegates elected Coudenhove-Kalergi president of the Central Council. His original plan was to divide the world into five groups of states: a United States of Europe that would link continental countries with French possessions in
Africa; a Pan-American Union encompassing North and South Americas; the British Commonwealth circling the globe; the USSR spanning Eurasia; and a Pan-Asian Union whereby Japan and China would control most of the Pacific. The only hope for a Europe devastated by war was to federate along lines that the Hungarian-born Romanian Aurel Popoviciand others had proposed for Austria-Hungary. According to Coudenhove-Kalergi, Pan-Europe would encompass and extend a more flexible and more competitive Austria-Hungary, with English serving as world language, spoken by everyone in addition to his native tongue. He predicted that individualism and socialism would learn to cooperate instead of compete, and urged that capitalism and communism cross-fertilize each other just as the Protestant Reformation had spurred the Catholic church to regenerate itself. (See Walter Lipgens, editor, "Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 1: Continental Plans for European Union 1939-1945", Walter De Gruyter, 1984, p. 712; William M. Johnston, "The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848-1938", University of California Press, 1983, pp. 320-321.)
Coudenhove-Kalergi attempted to enlist prominent European politicians in his pan-European cause. He offered the presidency of the Austrian branch of the Pan-European Union to
Ignaz Seipel, who accepted the offer unhesitatingly and rewarded his beneficiary with an office in the old Imperial palace in Vienna. Coudenhove-Kalergi had less success with Tomáš Masaryk, who referred him to his uncooperative Prime Minister Edvard Beneš. The idea of pan-Europe elicited support from politicians as diverse in their orientation as Carlo Sforzaand Hjalmar Schacht. Although Coudenhove-Kalergi found himself unable to sway Benito Mussolini, his ideas influenced Aristide Briandand his inspired speech in favor of a European Union in the League of Nationson 8 September 1929, as well as his famous 1930 "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union". (See D. Weigall and P. Stirk, editors, "The Origins and Development of the European Community", Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992, pp. 11-15.) Meanwhile, his Pan-Europeanism earned vivid loathing from Adolf Hitler, who excoriated its pacifism and mechanical economism and belitled its founder as "everybody's bastard". (See Michael Burleigh, "The Third Reich: A New History", Hill and Wang, 2001, p. 426; Walter Lipgens, "op. cit.", p. 37.) In his turn, Coudenhove-Kalergi once again approached Mussolinion 10 May 1933in a futile attempt to form a union of Latin nations against the Third Reich. (See Walter Lipgens, "op. cit", pp. 180-184.)
After the annexation of Austria by the
Third Reichin 1938, Coudenhove-Kalergi fled to Czechoslovakia, and thence to France. As France fell to Germany in 1940, he escaped to the United Statesby way of Switzerlandand Portugal. During the war, he continued his call for the unification of Europe along the Paris-London axis. His wartime politics and peripeties served as the real life basis for fictional Resistance hero Victor Laszlo, the Paul Henreidcharacter in "Casablanca". He published his work "Crusade for Paneurope" in 1944. His appeal for the unification of Europe enjoyed some support from Winston Churchill, Allen Dulles, and "Wild Bill" Donovan. (See Dorril, "op. cit.", pp. 166-167.) After the announcement of the Atlantic Charteron 14 August 1941, he composed a memorandum entitled "Austria's Independence in the light of the Atlantic Charter" and sent it to Winston Churchilland Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In his position statement, Coudenhove-Kalergi took up the goals of the charter and recommended himself as head of government in exile. Both Churchill and FDR distanced themselves from this document. From 1942 until his return to France in 1945, he taught at the New York University, which appointed him professor of history in 1944.
The end of war inaugurated a revival of pan-European hopes. Winston Churchill's celebrated speech of
19 September 1946to the Academic Youth in Zurichcommended "the exertions of the Pan-European Union which owes so much to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi and which commanded the services of the famous French patriot and statesman Aristide Briand." (See Walter Lipgens and Wilfried Loth, editors, "Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 3: The Struggle for European Union by Political Parties and Pressure Groups in Western European Countries 1945-1950", Walter De Gruyter, 1988, p. 664; Winston S. Churchill, "Never Give In: The Best of Winston Churchill's Speeches", Hyperion, 2003, pp. 427-430.) In November 1946 and the spring of 1947, Coudenhove-Kalergi circulated an enquiry addressed to members of European parliaments. This enquiry resulted in the founding of the European Parliamentary Union(EPU), a nominally private organization that held its preliminary conference on 4-5 July at Gstaad, Switzerland, and followed it with its first full conference from 8 to 12 September. Speaking at the first EPU conference, Coudenhove-Kalergi argued that the constitution of a wide market with a stable currency was the vehicle for Europe to reconstruct its potential and take the place it deserves within the concert of Nations. On less guarded occasions he was heard to advocate a revival of Charlemagne's empire. (See Walter Lipgens and Wilfried Loth, "op. cit.", p. 537.) In 1950 he received the first annual KarlspreisAward (English: Charlemagne Award), given by the German city of Aachento people who contributed to the European idea and European peace.
SixtiesCoudenhove-Kalergi urged Austria to pursue "an active policy of peace", as a "fight against the Cold War and its continuation, the atomic war". He advocated Austrian involvement in world politics in order to keep the peace, as "active neutrality". He continued his advocacy of European unification in memoranda circulated to the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. He recommended negotiations between the European Communityand the European Free Trade Associationtowards forming a "European customs union" that would be free of political and military connections, but would eventually adopt a monetary union.
Aristocratic in his origins and elitist in his ideas, Coudenhove-Kalergi identified and collaborated with such politicians as
Engelbert Dollfuss, Kurt Schuschnigg, Otto von Habsburg, Winston Churchill, and Charles de Gaulle. His ideal political constituent was a gentleman, a person adhering to honesty, fair play, courtesy, and rational discourse.Fact|date=August 2007 He strove to replace the nationalist German ideal of racial community with the goal of an ethnically heterogeneous and inclusive European nation based on a communality of culture, a nation whose geniuses were the "great Europeans" such as abbé de Saint-Pierre, Kant, Napoleon, Giuseppe Mazzini, Victor Hugo, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Coudenhove-Kalergi is buried at
Views on Race and Religion
In his attitudes towards race and religion, Coudenhove-Kalergi continued the work of his father. Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi was a Roman Catholic with no
Jewish blood.Fact|date=August 2008 In his youth, he was an antisemite. He had expected to confirm his antipathy towards the Jews when he started working on his treatise "Das Wesen des Antisemitismus" (The Essence of Antisemitism). But he came to a different conclusion by the time he published his book in 1901. Following an ironic critique of the new racial theories, he declared that the essence of antisemitism amounted to nothing more credible than fanatical religious hatred. He traced that fanaticism to religious bigotry that originated in the promulgation of Torahunder Esra. According to the elder Coudenhove-Kalergi, Jewish religious bigotry provoked opposition from the tolerant Greco-Roman polytheists, eliciting their anti-Judaic reaction. Antisemitism came into existence when Christianityand Islamtook over the intolerant fanaticism of Judaism, and turned it against the Jews. Thus Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi credited the Jews with originating religious intolerance, and condemned it as a violation of genuine religious principles. He branded every sort of anti-Judaism unchristian. He further urged liberal Christians and Jews to ally in protecting both of their religions, and religion as such, against the emerging menace of secularism. (See Gavin I. Langmuir, "History, Religion, and Antisemitism", pp 22-24; William M. Johnston, "op. cit.", pp. 320-321.)
In spite of his opposition to simplistic racial theory, Heinrich Coudenhove-Kalergi agreed that Jews are racially distinct. Although he pointed out that there is no Semitic race, because Semitic is a language family, he equivocated by also remarking that the charges that Semites were uncreative were belied by civilizations formed by the
Assyriansand Babylonians, who spoke Semitic languages. He further sought to defend the Jews against bigoted charges of parasitic greed and cowardice with anecdotal counterexamples of Jewish industriousness and martial courage. (See Ritchie Robertson, "The "Jewish Question" in German Literature, 1749-1939: Emancipation and Its Discontents", Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 198-199.)
In 1932 Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi composed a preface for a new edition of his father's condemnation of antisemitism, reissued by his own publishing house. In 1933 he responded to the ascendance of
National Socialismby collaborating with Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brodin writing and publishing the pamphlet "Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling" (Against the Phrase 'Jewish Parasite').
Coudenhove-Kalergi complemented his liberal views of the political role of the
Jewswith distinctive advocacy of race mixing. In his book "Praktischer Idealismus" ("Practical Idealism", Wien/Leipzig 1925, pages 20, 23, 50) he wrote:
"The man of the future will be of mixed race. Today's races and classes will gradually disappear owing to the vanishing of space, time, and prejudice. The Eurasian-
Negroid race of the future, similar in its appearance to the Ancient Egyptians, will replace the diversity of peoples with a diversity of individuals."
"Instead of destroying European Jewry, Europe, against its own will, refined and educated this people into a future leader-nation through this artificial selection process. No wonder that this people, that escaped Ghetto-Prison, developed into a spiritual nobility of Europe. Therefore a gracious Providence provided Europe with a new race of nobility through spiritual grace. This happened at the moment when Europe’s feudal aristocracy became dilapidated, and thanks to Jewish emancipation."
*We are experiencing the most dangerous revolution in the world history: the revolution of the State against the man. We are experiencing the worst idolatry of all the time: the deification of the state. ("Totaler Mensch - totaler Staat")
* "Adel" (1922)
* "Ethik und Hyperethik" (1922)
* "Pan-Europa" (1923)
* "Krise der Weltanschauung" (1923)
* "Pazifismus" (1924)
* "Deutschlands Europäische Sendung. Ein Gespräch" (1924)
* "Praktischer Idealismus" (1925)
* "Kampf um Paneuropa" (3 Volumes, 1925-28)
* "Held oder Heiliger" (1927)
* "Stalin & Co." (1931)
* "Gebote des Lebens" (1931)
* "Las vom Materialismus!" (1931)
* "La lutte pour l'Europe" (1931)
* "Revolution durch Technik" (1932)
* "Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling" (1933, co-authored with
Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brod)
* "Europa erwacht!" (1934)
* "Judenhaß von heute: Graf H. Coudenhofe-Kalergi. Das Wesen des Antisemitismus" (1935)
* "Europa ohne Elend: Ausgewählte Reden" (1936)
* "Judenhaß!" (1937)
* "Totaler Staat - totaler Mensch" (1937)
* "The Totalitarian State Against Man", with an introduction by Wickham Stead, translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1939)
* "Europe Must Unite", translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1939)
* "Die europäische Mission der Frau" (1940)
* "Kampf um Europa" (1949)
* "Ida Roland: In Memoriam" (1951)
* "Die Europäische Nation" (1953)
* "Der Gentleman" (1953)
* "An Idea Conquers the World", with a preface by Winston S. Churchill (1953)
* "Vom Ewigen Krieg zum Großen Frieden" (1956)
* "Eine Idee erobert Europa" (1958)
* "From War to Peace" (1959)
* "Weltmacht Europa" (1971)
* [http://www.paneuropa.org/ International Paneuropean Union]
* [http://www.tokai.ac.jp/spirit/archives/human/pdf/hs09/03_05.pdf Michael Gehler, "A Visionary proved Himself to be a Realist: Richard N. Coudenhove-Kalergi, Austria, and the "United States of Europe", 1923-2003"]
* [http://www.tokai.ac.jp/spirit/archives/human/pdf/hs09/03_09.pdf Lubor Jilek, "Pan-Europe de Coudenhove-Kalergi: l’homme, le projet et le mouvement paneuropéen"]
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1581123698 The role of Count Coudenhove-Kalergi in east central European federalism is reexamined in The Intermarium: Wilson, Madison, & East Central European Federalism by Dr. Jonathan Levy]
International Paneuropean Union
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