- Cinema of Niger
Cinema of Africa
The cinema in Niger grew from ethnographic documentaries in the colonial period to become one of the most active national film cultures in Francophone Africa. Filmmakers such as Oumarou Ganda, Moustapha Alassane, Mahamane Bakabé, Inoussa Ousseini and Moustapha Diop have had their work featured around the world. The Niamey African Film Meeting (rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey RECAN) is one of the premier film events of the continent. Unlike neighboring Nigeria, with its thriving Hausa- and English-language film industry (see Nollywood), most Nigerien films are made in French and Francophone countries have been their major market, while action and light entertainment films from Nigeria or dubbed western films, fill most Nigerien theaters.
Nigerien cinema first appeared in the colonial period. Jean Rouch, a French ethnographic filmmaker, is generally considered the father of Nigerien film. Despite arriving as a colonialist in 1941, Rouch remained in Niger after independence, and mentored a generation of Nigerien filmmakers and actors, including Damouré Zika and Oumarou Ganda. By 1950, Rouch had made the first films set in Niger with "au pays des mages noirs" (1947), in 1948 " l'initiation à la danse des possédés" and "Les magiciens de Wanzarbé" in 1949.
Still, many of the ethnographic films produced in the colonial era by Jean Rouch and others were rejected by African film makers because in their view they distorted African realities.
During the 1950s, Rouch began to produce longer, narrative films. In 1954 he filmed Damouré Zika in "Jaguar", as a young Songhai man traveling for work to the Gold Coast. Filmed as a silent ethnographic piece, Zika helped re-edit the film into a feature length movie which stood somewhere between documentary and fiction, and provided dialog and commentary for a 1969 release. In 1957 Rouch directed in Cote d'Ivoire "Moi un noir" with the young Nigerian filmmaker Oumarou Ganda, who had recently returned from French military service in Indochina. Ganda went on to become the first great Nigerien film director and actor. By the early 1970s, Rouch, with cast, crew, and cowriting from his Nigerien collaborators, was producing full length dramatic films in Niger, such as Petit à petit ("Little by Little" : 1971) and Cocorico Monsieur Poulet ("Cocka-doodle-doo Mr. Chicken": 1974).
1960s and 1970s: a golden age of Nigerien film
In the 1960s, Moustapha Alassane shot to fame with his animated short films, most notably Aouré, F.V.V.A, Toula ou le genie des eaux, Samba Le Grand, Kokoa (la lutte) and Le Retour de l'Aventurier (1966). Also in 1966 his mort de Gandji won the "prix de dessin" at the first Festival mondial des Arts nègres in Dakar. In 1960 Oumarou Ganda's Zarma language Cabascabo (about his service in Indochina) became the first African selection at the Cannes Film Festival, and went on to win the Grand Jury Prize at the Moscow Film Festival the same year. Ganda was one of the dominating figures of early African cinema, demonstrated by his awards at the Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO), a festival he and other Nigeriens helped to found, and which has become the premier festival on the continent. Ganda's Le Wazzou polygame won the first prize (Étalon de Yennenga) at the 3rd FESPACO (1972), while he won the "Congratulations of the Jury" at the 4th (1973), and his Saïtane won a "Special mention" at the 5th (1976). FESPACO now presents an "Oumarou Ganda Prize", given for the best first film.
And Ganda was not alone. In 1979 Gatta Abdourahamne won the «caméra d'or» at FESPACO for the film Gossi. The same year, he won the Screenwriters award for la case at the UNESCO festival in Nairobi Kenya. Other Nigerien directors gaining international recognition included Djingarey Maïga, Mamane Bakabé, Inoussa Ousseini and Moustapha Diop.
Decline and growth
Since the 1980s, Nigerien cinema has faded, in part due to weakening state sector financing, and in part due to the growth of lighter action and romance films, especially the Hausa language film industry of neighboring Nigeria. Niger cinema had tended toward French style art films, and in one of the world's poorest nations, public funding could no longer be justified.
In 1994, Nigerien Producer-Director Ousmane IIbo Mahamane founded The Niamey African Film Meeting (rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey RECAN) as a biennial festival without prizes and a center for film making and film studies. In 2006, RECAN, presented some 70 films in Niamey. It's 2005 features included "Tuwo yayi magana", the first film by the Tarbiyya- Niamey film group. Based on a novel by Abdou Ouma, it is presented in Hausa.
Other contemporary Nigerien film figures include the actress Zalika Souley who won the "insignes du mérite culturel" at the 1990 Carthage Film Festival and the director Rahmatou Keita.
- Cinema of the world
- List of Nigerien films
- ^ Three men dramatized their real life roles in the film, and went on to become three of Nigerien cinema's fist actors. See: Jean Rouch. Notes on migrations into the Gold Coast. (First report of the mission carried out in the Gold Coast from March to December, 1954) Tr. into English by P.E.O. and J.B. Heigham. Accra, (1954) OCLC 11092127 and Jean Rouch, Steven Feld. Ciné-ethnography. University of Minnesota Press, (2003) ISBN 0816641048 pp. 352-353
- ^ Alfred Adler and Michel Cartry, Jean Rouch (1917-2004), L’Homme, 171-172 July-December 2004, [Online 24 mars 2005]. Viewed 7 April 2009.
- Much of this article has been translated from French Wikipedia's Cinéma nigérien, accessed 2008-02-20.
- Nigerdiaspora.com: Nigerien Cinema.
- Niger film at the Internet Movie Database
- IMDB: Jean Rouch
- IMDB: Oumarou Ganda
- The Centre Culturel Oumarou Ganda, Niamey.
- BBC.co.uk: Fespaco's first winner in 1972: Le Wazzou Polygame from Niger.
- Cambridge African film festival 2004: Early African Cinema.
- Paris CinéMômes. Moustapha Alassane, pionnier du cinéma africain.
- Documentary Filmmaker Jean Rouch.
- (French) Moustapha Alassane, Une légende vivante du cinéma nigérien. Mamane Sani Abandé. Clap Noir, 2007.
- (French) Rétrospective du cinéma au Niger: Hommage aux pionniers. Jean-Baptiste Dossou-Yovo. Clap Noir, 18 February 2004.
- (French) Vers la résurrection du cinéma nigérien. Moctar Mamane Sani. Clap Noir, 2003.
- (French) Al'lèèssi, une actrice africaine. François Bergeron. Clap Noir, 2003.
- Al’leessi...An African Actress. A film by Rahmatou Keita. Niger, 2004, 69 minutes. Women Make Movies .com.
- Al’leessi…An African Actress. Reviewed by Oksana Dykyj. Educational Media Reviews Online, 2 March 2006.
- (French) "Fils à papa", l'avènement d'un feuilleton made in Niger. M.S. Abandé Moctar. 17 September 2004. Clap Noir, 2004.
- (French) Cinéma nigérien, les prémices d'un nouveau départ se dessinent. Candide Etienne. Clap Noir. 14 February 2004.
- (French) Djingareye Maïga : L’artiste n’est pas un politicien ! Achille Kouawo, Clap Noir, 2005.
- (French) Jean Rouch immortalisé à Niamey . Mamane Sani Abandé Moctar, Clap Noir, 2006.
- (French) Hommage au grand sorcier: Baptême du Centre Culturel Franco Nigérien Jean Rouch. Mamane Sani Abandé Moctar, Clap Noir, 2006.
World cinema Africa Americas Asia Europe
Albania · Austria · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Faroe Islands · Finland · France · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Latvia · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Macedonia · Moldova · Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia (Russian Empire · Soviet Union) · Serbia · Slovakia · Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom (Scotland · Wales) · Yugoslavia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Cinema nigerien — Cinéma nigérien Sommaire 1 Les origines 2 Les succès 3 Rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey 4 La relance 5 … Wikipédia en Français
Cinéma Nigérien — Sommaire 1 Les origines 2 Les succès 3 Rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey 4 La relance 5 … Wikipédia en Français
Cinema of Egypt — Cairo Film Festival List of Egyptian films Pre 1930 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s … Wikipedia
Cinema of Somalia — List of Somalian films … Wikipedia
Cinema of Morocco — International Film Festival of Marrakech … Wikipedia
Cinéma nigérien — Sommaire 1 Les origines 2 Les succès 3 Rencontres du cinéma africain de Niamey 4 La relance 5 … Wikipédia en Français
Cinema of Africa — For the African American cinema genre, see blaxploitation. Cinema of Africa Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Burkina Faso Cinema of Egypt Cinema of Kenya Ci … Wikipedia
Cinema of Senegal — Film icon for Senegal Cinema of Africa … Wikipedia
Cinema of Burkina Faso — List of Burkinabé films Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou … Wikipedia
Niger — For other uses, see Niger (disambiguation). Republic of Niger République du Niger (French) Jamhuriyar Nijar … Wikipedia