Timeline of Scottish history

Timeline of Scottish history

This timeline outlines the main events in Scottish history.

1st century - 7th century

* c.84: Romans defeat Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
* c.143: Romans construct the Antonine Wall.
* c.163: Romans withdraw south to Trimontium and Hadrian's Wall.
* c.300: The term Pict is first recorded in describing the federated tribes invaded by Constantius Chlorus.
* c.397: Saint Ninian establishes a Christian mission at Whithorn.
* c.470: Votadini peoples form the kingdom of Gododdin in the region north of the River Tweed.
* c.547: Angles capture the British fortress at Bamburgh and found the kingdom of Bernicia.
* 563: Saint Columba founds a monastery at Iona and begins his mission to the northern Picts.
* c.574: Áedán mac Gabráin begins reign over the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata.
* c.580: Riderch I of Alt Clut rules region later known as the kingdom of Strathclyde.
* c.584: Bruide son of Maelchon dies.
* 604: Æthelfrith unites Bernicia and Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria.
* 638: Northumbrians capture Edinburgh from Gododdin.
* 680s: Trumwine Bishop of Abercorn.
* 681: Bruide mac Bili, King of Fortriu, campaigns against Orkney
* 685: Pictish King Bruide mac Bili defeats Ecgfrith of Northumbria at the Battle of Dunnichen, halting the northern expansion of Northumbria.
* 693: Bruide mac Bili dies
* 697: Bruide mac Der-Ilei among the signatories of the Cáin Adomnáin.

8th century

* 717: Nechtan mac Der-Ilei expels Ionan clergy from Pictland and adopts Roman usages with the aid of Bishop Curetán; masons sent by Abbot Ceolfrid of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory help build stone churches at Restenneth, Rosemarkie and elsewhere in eastern Scotland.
* 724-729: Drust and Nechtan mac Der-Ilei fight civil war
* 732: Death of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei; Óengus mac Fergusa becomes King of the Picts.
* 735: Óengus mac Fergusa, King of the Picts, campaigns against Dál Riata, and seizes and burns the royal centre of Dunadd
* 736: Battle of Cnoc Coirpi between Fortriu and Dál Riata
* 741: Battle of Druimm Cathmail between Fortriu and Dál Riata; the "smiting of Dál Riata", in which Dál Riata is subdued by Óengus mac Fergusa
* 747: St Andrews founded by this time, death of Abbot Túathalán.
* 750: Picts defeated by Britons at the Battle of Catohic
* 756: Óengus mac Fergusa allied with the English of Northumbria attacks the Britons; the English army is destroyed
* 761: Death of Óengus mac Fergusa.
* 763: Battle takes place in Fortriu between Ciniod and Áed Find; result unknown.
* 778: Death of Áed Find, King of Dál Riata
* 794: Annals of Ulster report the "wasting" of "all the islands of Britain by gentiles [Vikings] "

9th century

* 802: Iona burned by Vikings
* 806: The monasteries under Iona are attacked by Vikings, killing 68 monks
* 820: Death of Caustantín mac Fergusa.
* 829: Abbot Diarmait, abbot of Iona, goes to "Alba" with relics of St Columba
* 831: Diarmait of Iona goes to Ireland with relics of St Columba
* 839: Eóganan mac Óengusa and his brother Bran killed in battle with Vikings, end of dominance of Fortriu.
* 858: Death of Kenneth mac Alpin, King of the Picts; "union of Picts and Scots" traditionally dated from his reign.
* 870: Alt Clut—Dumbarton Rock— captured by the Norse-Gael or Viking leaders Amlaíb Conung and Ímar after six month's of siege
* 878: Kenneth mac Alpin's son Áed killed; Giric becomes king.
* 889: Death of Giric; Domnall mac Causantín, grandson of Kenneth, becomes king.
* c.890: Exodus of the Strathclyde Britons to Gwynedd (in Wales).

10th century - 13th century

* 900: Causantín mac Áeda succeeds Domnall mac Causantín.
* 943: Causantín mac Áeda abdicates to become a culdee at St Andrews.
* c.940: Saint Catroe of Metz leaves Scotland.
* 952: Death of Causantín mac Áeda.
* 954: Indulf captures Edinburgh from Northumbria.
* 1058: After defeating Mac Bethad and Lulach, Máel Coluim III is proclaimed king.
* 1124: David I becomes king and introduces the feudal system of landholding to much of Scotland.
* 1156: Somerled defeats the Norse King of Mann and the Isles, establishing his own semi-independent rule as "ri Innse Gall"-King of the Hebrides.
* 1164: Somerled is defeated by the Scottish crown in the Battle of Renfrew.
* 1174: William I signs the Treaty of Falaise in which he swears allegiance to Henry II of England.
* 1234: Galloway's independent existence ends with the death of Alan, Lord of Galloway.
* 1237: Southern border of Scotland established in the Treaty of York.
* 1263: Scots defeat Norwegians at Largs.
* 1266: Norway cedes the Western Isles to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth.
* 1292: Edward I of England intervenes in Scottish affairs and grants the Scottish throne to John Balliol.
* 1297: Andrew de Moravia and William Wallace lead the Scots to victory over England at Stirling Bridge.

14th century - 15th century

* 1314: Robert the Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.
* 1320: Nobles assert Scottish independence in the Declaration of Arbroath.
* 1328: Treaty of Edinburgh. England recognises Scottish independence.
* 1371: Robert II becomes first Stewart king.
* 1402: English defeat Scots in the Battle of Nesbit Moor and the Battle of Humbleton Hill.
* 1413: Foundation of the University of St Andrews.
* 1451: Establishment of the University of Glasgow.
* 1468: Denmark cedes Orkney and Shetland to Scotland.
* 1493: Lordship of the Isles abolished. In 1540 the title was reserved to the crown.
* 1495: Creation of the University of Aberdeen (King's College).
* 1496: Education Act of 1496 makes education compulsory for barons and wealthy landowners.

16th century

* 1513: James IV and thousands of Scots are killed at Flodden.
* 1532: Creation of the College of Justice and the Court of Session.
* 1559: John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva to promote Calvinism.
* 1560: Parliament legislates protestant reformation of the Church of Scotland.
* 1568: Mary, Queen of Scots flees to England following the defeat of her army at the Battle of Langside..
* 1578: James VI takes over government from his regent, James Douglas.
* 1582: Establishment of the University of Edinburgh by Royal Charter.
* 1587: Mary is beheaded by the order of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
* 1592: Presbyterianism becomes the established form of church government in Scotland by Act of Parliament.

17th century

* 1603: The Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.
* 1614: John Napier invents logarithms and publishes a book promoting their use in mathematics.
* 1618: James VI forces episcopacy on the Church of Scotland through the Five Articles of Perth.
* 1633: Education Act of 1633 ordains a school in every parish (partially successful).
* 1638: Scottish Covenanters rebel against Charles I.
* 1643: The "Solemn League and Covenant" promises Scots army to aid English parliamentarians against the king.
* 1651-1660: Scotland incorporated into the English Commonwealth and Protectorate.
* 1660: The monarchy is restored and Scotland resumes its status as a separate kingdom.
* 1679: Duke of Monmouth defeats Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Brig.
* 1689: Jacobite highlanders defeats army of William III at Killiecrankie, but are halted at Dunkeld.
* 1689: The Claim of Right and the re-establishment of Presbyterianism.
* 1692: Massacre of Glencoe.
* 1695: The Bank of Scotland is created by Act of Parliament.
* 1696: Education Act of 1696 ordains a school in every parish (successful; act governs education until the 1872 act).

18th century

* 1707: The Union of the Parliaments: the Acts of Union are passed by both the Scottish and English parliaments.
* 1715: First Jacobite rising.
* 1745: Second Jacobite rising.
* 1746: The Battle of Culloden ends the second Jacobite rising.
* 1754: Joseph Black discovers "fixed air" (carbon dioxide).
* 1748: David Hume publishes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.
* 1762: Land tenure reform leads to the Highland Clearances and massive emigration for several decades.
* 1769: James Watt patents idea for separate condensing chamber in the Steam engine.
* 1776: Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

19th century

* 1802: John Playfair publishes summary of James Hutton's theories of Geology.
* 1805: The Glasgow Herald newspaper first published.
* 1817: The Scotsman newspaper first published.
* 1820: The "Radical War".
* 1822: Visit of King George IV to Scotland organized by Sir Walter Scott.
* 1832: The Reform Act enlarges the franchise.
* 1843: The Disruption in the Church of Scotland (over the issue of patronage).
* 1846: Beginning of the ten-year Highland Potato Famine.
* 1847: The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland is established.
* 1864: James Clerk Maxwell presents equations describing electromagnetic fields.
* 1874: Patronage abolished in the Church of Scotland.
* 1878: Collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank
* 1879: William Gladstone conducts the Midlothian campaign as part of a political comeback.
* 1879: The Tay Bridge Disaster.
* 1885: Creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland, later Secretary of State for Scotland.
* 1890: Opening of the Forth Railway Bridge.
* 1896: Opening of the Glasgow Subway.

20th century

* 1929: The Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland unite.
* 1934: Scottish National Party founded.
* 1938: The Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 is held at Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.
* 1941: The Clydebank Blitz (13-15 May).
* 1943: Creation of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board to bring electricity to all parts of the Highlands and Islands.
* 1945: First Scottish Nationalist MP is elected.
* 1947: Nationalisation of the railways - the Scottish Region of British Railways is created.
* 1947: The first Edinburgh International Festival is held.
* 1950: The Stone of Destiny is removed from Westminster Abbey.
* 1957: Scottish Television starts broadcasting.
* 1968: The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland permits the ordination of women as ministers.
* 1975: Local government reorganisation (replacing Counties and Burghs for administrative purposes with Regions and Districts).
* 1978: Launch of BBC Radio Scotland.
* 1979: Referendum to create a Scottish Assembly fails to meet the required majority.
* 1988: Terrorists blow up Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie with the loss of 270 lives, including 11 residents of the town.
* 1994: Local government reorganisation (replacing the Regions and Districts with single-tier councils).
* 1996: The Stone of Destiny is permanently returned to Scotland, to be housed in Edinburgh Castle.
* 1997: A referendum on a devolved Scottish Parliament is passed by a large majority.
* 1999: A Scottish parliament sits for the first time in 272 years.

21st century

* 2004: Opening of the new Scottish Parliament Building.
* 2007: The Scottish National Party become the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and forms a minority government.

ee also

* Timeline of Glasgow history
* Timeline of Edinburgh history
* Timeline of prehistoric Scotland

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