Chauhan


Chauhan
Chauhan (चौहान)
Dynasty and Kingdom
राजवंश और साम्राज्य
Vansh Agnivanshi
Descended from: Dhundhar[citation needed]
Common Ancestory Cheema, Chahal, Chohan Chahar, Chatha, Chhillar
Branches: Sanchora, Sonigara, Hadas, Deoras, Bhadurias, Chavan.[1][2][3]
Ruled in Nadol, Jalor, Dhundhar, Ajmer, Delhi, Haryana, Hadoti, Godwar
Princely states: Ajmer (7th c.-1365)
Ranthambore (1236–1302), Neemrana,
Tulsipur (7th c.-1857 AD), Mainpuri (U.P)
Prithvi Raj Chauhan

Chauhan, Chouhan or Chohan (Hindi: चौहान), (Gujarati:ચૌહાણ), (Punjabi:ਚੌਹਾਨ) - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The clan is most famous for Rajput King Maharaja Prithviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj Chauhan was last Hindu king of Delhi.

The Chauhan clan is predominantly[citation needed] of Rajputs[4] and has also been found in Jats,[5] and Gurjars as well.[6][7]

Contents

Origins

According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agni-Kul or 'fire sprung' clans, deriving their origin from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons.[citation needed] Agnikula origin was perpetuated by later manuscripts of Raso from the 16th century onwards.[8][9]

Agnikula accounts claim Suryavanshi descent and Chauhan is prominent.[10][11] According to a number of scholars, the agnikula clans were originally Gurjaras (or Gurjars)[7] and Chauhan was prominent clan of the Gurjars (or Gujjars).[6]Even Gurjar originally claim descent from Suryavanshi.[12]

History

Harsraj

Harsraj Chauhan reigned about 812 - 827 VS (756 AD), his authority stretched from Aravalli to Abu to Chambal. He fell against the Muslim Invaders from Sind. A Chauhan king ruled from Lahore and he sought the help of his sovereign - the king of Ajmer, who sent forward a force of 5000 of the finest Chauhan Horsemen to aid the Chauhan King of Lahore. Lahore King's brother led the forces and fought as many as 70 battles with the forces of Ghor, Gajni and Kabul.

Harsraj was followed by his son Doojgundeo Chauhan. His outpost was Bhatnair and from there he once defeated Nusruddin also called Subaktegin, son of Aleptegin and who was the father of Md. Gajni who raided India later. From this ruler, Doojungdeo collected 1200 horses.

Ajay Raj (Anuraj)

Chauhans[13] later asserted their independence from the Gurjara Pratiharas, and in the early eleventh century, the Sakhambari king Ajaya-Raja founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer)[14] in the southern part of their kingdom.

Bisaldeo

His son was the famous Chauhan King Bisaldeo who was famous for repulsing Chaluka attacks and that of western powers and one time led an army of Indian Rajput Kings,[15] his contemprories were: Jeypal Tuar of Delhi, Durlabh and Bhim Solanki of Patun-Gujarat, Parmara Raja Bhoj and Udaydit of Dhar and Padamsi and Tejsi of Mewar.

Bisaldev Chauhan fights Chaluk of Patan

In 936 V.S. (993 A.D.) he reduced Abu, Jalor on way to destroy the Solanki (Chaluk) of Patan - Bhim Singh 'Baluk' , with a force that was 70,000 strong with all the allies.[16] Further he took land of Girnar, Wagar and Sorath and total 56 cities and molested common people, a sin for warrior in those days. The Chaluka King Baluka (Bhim) Rai had 17000 strong army at Patan and 30000 Horsemen from Lar, he came to Abu for fight.

Someshwar defeats Kamdhuj of Kannauj

Raja Vijaychand Kamdhuj attacked the Anangpal Tuar of Delhi and at that time, Raja Someshwar of Ajmer forged an alliance with Anangpal Tuar of Delhi.[17] At Kalindi River (Kalinadi-Black River) Vijaychand formed army in Sarpa (vyuha). Chauhan was the victor of the ensuing battle.

Samantas of Chauhans

There were two types of samantas of Chauhans:'Mukut Bandh' and 'Mandaleshwar'. 'Mukut Bandh' were those samantas who were owners of their areas but accepted Chauhans suzerainty. 'Mandaleshwar' were those samantas who got jagirs on the pleasure of Chauhan rulers.[18] Some of Samantas are listed below:

1. Kaka Kanha - A big Jagir, Kanha was uncle of Prithviraj Chauhan.[19]

2. Hari Raj - Brother of Prithviraj Chauhan.[20]

3. Parmara Samantas - There were many Parmaras as samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan. The main out of them was Parmar ruler Vikram Singh's son Jaitra Paramara of Mt Abu. He became Mahamantri of Prithviraj Chauhan after Kaimas. He was killed in second war with Md. Ghauri.[21]

4. Parmaras of Pugal - Parmaras of Pugal were samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan. The famous Princess of Pugal - Padmini was from the family of Parmaras. Later Bhatis occupied Pugal.[21]

5. Parmaras of Falaudi - They were samanta under Prithviraj Chauhan. They built a temple of Kalyanji in v.s.1145 (1088 AD). There is one inscription of them of the year v.s.1236 (1179 AD).[21]

6. Parmaras of Pokaran - They built a temple of Laxmi Narayan.[22]

7. Kachwaha - Amer Kachwaha Janhad's son Panjjuvan Rai or Pajawan was samant of Prithviraj Chauhan.[22]

8. Pundir - Pundir claim descent from suryavansh. Three generations of Pundirs viz, Chandrasen Pundir, his son Dhir Pundir, his son Pawas Pundir were very brave and samants of Chauhans of Nagaur and Punjab. One of Rani of Prithviraj Chauhan was from Pundir family of Nagaur Jagir.[22]

9. Yaudheya or Johya's - Many branches of Yaudheyas ruled in western Rajasthan. Samprati Maurya, son of Ashoka, was ruler of this area. He defeated Yaudheyas in Shekhawati region who moved to northern parts of Bikaner such as Sindharani, Maroth etc, where they lived for a long period. Vigraharaja's maternal uncle Simbal was Yaudheya ruler of Maroth and was Senapati as well as samanta of Chauhans. One of queens of Prithviraj Chauhan was Yaudheya. They were later on called Johiyas.[23]

10. Tomaras of Delhi - They were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas and consider themselves as Pandavavanshi. In v.s. 1209 (1152 AD) Vigraharaja Chauhan attacked Tanwars and defeated Anangapala II. Vigraharaja (Bisaldeva) married his daughter Deshal Devi to Anangpal. Govindaraja Tomar fought for Prithviraj Chauhan in first was with Gauri and was injured, but killed in second war.[24]

11. Dahiya (Dahima) of Parbatsar - In an inscription year v.s. 1056 (999 AD) found in Kevay Mata temple in village Kinsariya in Marwar region Dahima Jats and Dahima Yaduvanshi Ahirs have been recorded as descendents of rishi Dadhichi. Chachcha Rana had got constructed this temple here. Chachcha Rana's son Udharan was a great warrior and Parbatsar and Maroth were in his Jagir. His son was Vilhan - jagirdar of Maroth. One of the queens of Prithviraj Chauhan was Dahiyani.[24]

It is to be noted that during the time of Dadhichi, varna system in Aryas was not rigid. So Dadhichi's descendants are found both in Brahmanas as Dahimas and Kshatriyas as Dahiyas. Dahiya clan is also common in Jats and Rajputs.[24]

12. Dahiyas of Janglu - Dahiya Jats of Janglu were also samanta of Chauhans.[24]

13. Dahiyas of Maroth - We get three names of Dahiya Jats of Maroth: Kadavarao (कड़वाराव), PadmaSingh and Jayant Singh. During the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan, one of the samanta rebelled and the jagir was given to Gauds. The Jats of Karwasraand Karwa have originated from Kadavarao.[24]

14. Mohil - Chauhan's of Chhapar Dronapur - Chauhan Dhandhu's son was Indra whose descendant Mohil started this branch. Ladnu was founded by Dahaliyas. Bagadiyas won this area from Sajjan's son Mohil in v.s. 1130 (1073 AD). Mohil had acquired the title of Rana and made Chhapar as his capital. There were 1400 villages under him. We have found an Inscription of Mohil's son Hardatt (Hathad) of v.s. 1162 (1105 AD) from Jeenmata in Sikar district. This inscriptions tells that Hathad (Hardatt) constructed Jeenmata temple during reign of Prithviraj-I. We have got many inscriptions of Mohils of the period v.s. 1186 (1129) - v.s. 1388 (1131 AD). The Rana successors of Hardatt were Bar Singh, Bālhar, Āsal, Āhaḍ, Raṇasī, and Sohaṇ Pal. Raṇasī, and Sohaṇ Pal were contemporary of Prithviraj. One of the samanta of Prithviras was Varasirai Mohil.[25]

15. Mohils of Janglu - Janglu area was ruled by Mohil Chauhans, who were samants of Chauhan Samrat. Rana Lakha was contemporary of Prithviraj. There were many jagirs of Mohils in Bagad area. These chieftains had to face wars in Nagaur in which many were killed. As per an inscription of 25 April 1183 (Baisakh sudi 2 v.s. 1239) in village Ganedi district Churu Rajasthan, Mohil Jhala and his son lakhan were killed in this war.[25]

16. Mohils of Ladnu - Mohils of Ladnu were samantas of Chauhans. Chhapar and Ladnu were initially in the same state.[26]

17. Chauhans of Dadrewa - Dhandhu Chauhan from Sambhar branch went to village Dhandhu in Churu district and established his rule. He had five sons and one daughter. He appointed his second queen's son Kanho as his successor and not the eldest son Harsh. Harsh and his sister Jeen went to hills and did the penance. Jeen got the status of goddess. Her temple is known as Jeenmata temple.

After three generations of Kanho, Jivraj (Jewar) became Rana. He left Dhandhu and went to Dadrewa and made it his capital. His son Goga was very brave and illustrious. He had many sons. When Md. Ghazni attacked Somnath temple, Goga provided him a tough resistance in western Rajasthan. Goga became martyr along with his all sons and relatives. Since no son of Goga was alive his brother Bairasi or his son Udayraj became Rana of Dadrewa. There have been many Gogas in this vansha. Goga is very revered and considered as a deity of snakes in Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.[27]

18. Khichi Chauhan - Āsarao's son was Manakrao, whose descendants are known as Khichi. Asrao gavi his son jagir of 84 villages. He constructed two forts, Bhadanon and Jayal. After this ajairaj, Chandrarao, Lakhanrao, sangamrao and Gundalrao were samantas of Chauhans.[28]

19. Dod or Dodiya (डोडिया) - Earlier they had rule over some states in Gujarat. Present Hadauti was earlier occupied by Hun's and known as Huna Pradesh. Dods (डोड) defeated them and established their capital at Dodgarh (Gagrum). This area was under Nagavanshi rulers. This is mentioned in an Inscription of v.s. 847 (770 AD). Dodiyas defeated them and continued to rule here till v. s. 1300 (1243 AD). Jahajpur area in Mewar was also ruled by Dods. An inscription of their rule is found of the year v.s. 1334 (1177 AD). Telanjarai Dod was a samanta of Prithviraj.[28]

20. Dods of Bulandshahr - This town was earlier known as Vana (वाणा). This was ruled by Dod Kshatriyas, who were samantas of Chauhans. During reign of Prithvirah the ruler of this area was Anang. Anang had left a grant of v.s. 1233 (1176 AD). According to this grant 16 generations of Dods ruled here. They probably established here around 900 AD. When Mahmud Gazanvi attacked Mathura, Bulandshahr was ruled by Hardatt Dod.[28]

21. Sankhala Parmar's of Roon - son of Paramara ruler of Barmer was Dharani Barah, whose son was Sankhala. Descendants of Sankhala were known as Sankhalas. Sankhala rulers of Roon and Karkotaka in south of Jaipur were samantas of Chauhans.[29]

22. Mauryas - Samprati Maurya, son of Ashoka, was ruler of Rajasthan. Samprati constructed many forts in Rajasthan. Famous fort is that of Kumbhalgarh. On ruins of this fort Maharana Kumbha constructed present historical fort. Samprati constructed a fort in jahajpur also. Many branches of Mauryas ruled in Rajasthan. Mauryas defeated Yaudheyas in Shekhawati region who moved to northern parts of Bikaner such as Sindharani, Maroth etc, where they lived for a long period. The Maurya samantas of Prithviraj were Bhima Maurya, Saran Maurya, Madalrai Maurya and Mukundrai Maurya.[29]

23. Jod Chauhans of Narhar & Jhunjhunu - Chauhan Dhandhu had founded Dhandhu. Indra could not become Rana on death of his father. Indra had descendants Arjan and Sarjan. Arjan and Sarjan fought with Goga for Dadrewa when Rana Jhawer died. Goga defeated them. This war took place before 1024 AD since Goga died in 1024 AD fighting with Mohammad Ghazni. Arjan and Sarjan moved to a place named Jodi in Churu district. Their descendants were called Jod Chauhans. after death of Arjan and Sarjan their descendants moved in south and established in Narhar and Jhunjhunu.[30]

24. Nikumbhs of Abhaneri - Nikumbhas of Abhaneri were under Chauhans. They were rulers of Khan Desh. We have two inscriptions about them from village Paran of Shaka Samvat 1075 (1153 AD) and Shaka Samvat 1128 (1207 AD). The Alwar fort was built by them.[31]

25. Badgujars of Rajor & Devanti - Badgujars of Rajor & Devanti were also samantas of Chauhans. Some names reported from Prithviraj's Badgujar samantas are: Randhir Badgujar, Ramray Badgujar and Sangransi Badgujar. During Mughal period Kachhawahas vanished their states.[31]

26. Gohils of Khed - Gohils or Gahlot are Suryavanshis. They were rulers of Mewar (see Gehlot ). One of their branch established a state in Khed in Marwar. Gohils of Khed were samantas of Chauhans. Prithviraj's samanta was Govind Ram Gahlot. Later Rathors occupied their state and Gohils moved to Kathiawar.[32]

27. Gohils of Pipad - Gohils of Pipad were samantas of Chauhans. Hansi's samanta was Kelan Gahlot who was maternal uncle of Someshwar.[32]

28. Hools of Sojat - Hool or Hul is branch of Gahlots. They were under Chauhans. Sojat in ancient times was known asshuddhadanti (शुद्धदंती). Haria Hool was a popular name in Rajasthan.[32]

29. Bhils. Bhils had also some states in Rajasthan under Chauhans,such as Bundi and Bhinay (Ajmer).[32]

30. Tank - Nagvanshi - There were states of Tanks also in Rajasthan. One Thathari Ram Tank was a samanta of Prithviraj. Some states were after Tankni queens also. Tank is a branch of Nagavansha.[32]

31. Rathors - The Rathor samanta of Prithviraj was Sanyam Rai Rathor. Hathundi was a state of Rathors. An inscription of their period of year v.s. 1053 (997) mentions names,viz Harivarma, Vidagdharaj, Bhammat and Dhawal. We get one inscription of year v.s. 1063 (1006 AD) at Dhanop (Shahpura), which mentions Bhalli Danti Varma and his two sons Buddhraj and Govindraj. We have found one more inscription at Bagad, which is of Bagadiya Rathores. It mentions names of Raka and his son Biram. The samantas of Prithviraj must be from these Rathors who were having states prior to the present Rathors.[33]

32. Gor Vansha - We get name of Nagar Rai Gor as a samanta of Prithviraj. Chhoti Sadri inscription of year v.s. 547 (491 AD) gives some information about Gor rulers. This inscription indicates that Maharaja Dhanya soma (धान्य सोम) was a popular king of Gor Kshatriya clan. Rajyavardhan (राज्यवर्द्धण), Rashtra (राष्ट्र) and Yasha Gupta (यश गुप्त) rulers followed in succession. The inscription also reveals that the Gor kings had constructed goddess temple in memory of their ancestors on magha shukla 10 in samvat 547 (491 AD). The inscription proves the rule of Gor kings near 'Chhoti Sadadi' place in Rajasthan in 6th century. They were considered to be powerful till the rule of Maharana Raimal of Mewar.

33. Chandel's - Chandels were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas. They had a big state in Jetubhukti (Jejakbhakti) and had a war with Prithviraj Chauhan and were defeated. Rewasa, Kasli and Raghunathgarh in Sikar were under Chandels. It is not known when and how they came to this area. An inscription of Chandels was found at (Raghunathgarh of v.s. 1150 (1093 AD). Three inscriptions of year v.s. 1243 (1186 AD) were found at Rewasa. These reveal that Rewasa pargana was under Prithviraj Chauhan. These are about some warriors. Jaisi , Moharai and Veerabhadra were samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan.[34]

34. Padihar of Kharad - This area was won by Roopde Padihar. They ruled it for many years. Later it was occupied by Bhatis. In addition to Padihars of Mandor, there were some more states under Chauhans. Samantas of Prithviraj were Nahadrao (Nagabhatt) of Mandor, Chandrasi Padihar, Mahansi Padihar, Pipirai Padihar and Viramrai Padihar. Nahadrao's daughter was married to Prithviraj Chauan.[34]

35. Dhanetiyas of Shahabhad - Were under Chauhans. They were rulers of Shahabhad (Kota). The Shahabhad fort was built by them.[35]

36. Gauds - They were rulers in Gond bangale, where they founded Lakhnoti city. Bachharaj was awarded jagir near Ajmerand Waman was given Maroth. this area is still known as Godati.[34]

37. Bhati - Bhatis were rulers of Jaisalmer, which was not under Chauhans. We have names of three Bhatis who were Samantas of Prithviraj Chauan:Sarangrai, Achalesh and Bhanrai. We do not know which were their Jagirs.[36]

38. Dahima - Dahimas were very important in darbar of Prithviraj Chauhan. Kaimas Dahiya was chief minister of Prithviraj Chauhan during his childhood. he was a big jagirdar and Bayana Fort was in his Jagir. Another Dahima samant was Chamundarai, whose sister was married to Prithviraj Chauhan. He was a great warrior and chief senapati of Prithviraj Chauhan. He was killed in last war with Gauri. Chamunda's son was also a samanta. Jatu near Agra was in his Jagir. Other Dahima samantas were Rooprai and Jangalirai.[20]

The Chauhan dynasty flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries AD.[citation needed] It was one of the four main Rajput dynasties of that era, the others being Gurjara-Pratiharas, Paramaras and Chalukyas.[citation needed] Chauhan dynasties established themselves in several places in North India and in the state of Gujarat& Maharashtra in Western India. They were also prominent at Sirohi in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Bundi and Kota in the east. Inscriptions also associate them with Sambhar, the salt lake area in the Amber (later Jaipur) district (the Sakhambari branch remained near lake Sambhar and married into the ruling Pratihara, who then ruled an empire in Northern India). Chauhans adopted a political policy that saw them indulge largely in campaigns against the Chalukyas and the invading Muslim hordes. In the 11th century they founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the 12th century captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tanwar and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna River.[citation needed]

Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj III has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the "Chauhan king of Delhi" who resisted the Muslim attack under Mohammed of Ghorin the First Battle of Tarain (1191). Armies from other Rajput kingdoms, including Mewar assisted him. However, Prithviraj was captured in the Second Battle of Tarain the following year. According to one of the view Prithviraj killed Ghori by Shabdbhedi ban vidya[37] when there was archery contest organised by Ghori in his court in ghazni. There is one more theory which suggests Ghori killed prithviraj after deafeating him in the second battle of Tarain,.[38] The book “Arms and Armour: Traditional Weapons of India” by E Jaiwant Paul says that there is ‘grave’ of Prithviraj in Afghanistan which is visited by the locals even today to vent their anger on Prithviraj's grave for killing Muhammed Ghori[39]

Ajmer, erected its castle of Taragarh. The name of Ajaipal is one of the most conspicuous that tradition has preserved, and is always followed by the epithet of Chakravartin, or uni-versal potentate. His era must ever remain doubtful, unless, as already observed, we should master the characters said to belong to this race, and which are still extant, both on stone and on copper. Prithi Pahar was brought from Mahishmati to Ajmer. By a single wife he had twenty-four sons, whose progeny peopled these regions, one of whose descendants, Manika Rae, was lord of Ajmer and Sambhar, in the year S. 741, or AD 685. Prithiraj, the descen-dant of Manika Rae, even when emperor of all Northern India. Manika Rae, whom we may consider as the founder of the Chauhans of the north, recovered Ajmer. He had a numerous progeny, who established many petty dynasties throughout Western Rajwara, giving birth to various tribes, which are spread even to the Indus. The Khichi, the Hara, the Mohil, the Nirbana, Bhadauria, the Bhaurechahe Dhanetiya, and the Baghrecha, are all descended from him.

After Prithviraj III

Prithviraj's defeat and capture at Tarain ushered in Muslim rule in North India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Chauhans of Ajmer remained in exile due to Muhammad of Ghor and his successors, the Sultans of Delhi, and thus swelled the ranks of the armed forces of the Maharana of Mewar, until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the Sisodias rulers of Mewar, and Ajmer was then returned to the Chauhans.[citation needed]

A branch of the Chauhans, led by Govinda, the grandson of Pritviraj III, established themselves as rulers of Ranthambore from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, until Ranthambore was captured by Rana Kumbha of Mewar. The Hadas, great dynasty of the Chauhans, moved into the Hadoti region in the twelfth century, capturing Bundi in 1241 and ruled there until the twentieth century. One sept of these Hada Rajputs won KotaThe Dhanetiyas of Shahabad, which by a singular fatality has at length come into the possession of the Hadas of Kota and ruled their till the merger of state in independent India.

Chauhans of the Deora branch established the state of Sirohi in southern Rajasthan, and ruled there from the fifteenth century until Indian Independence. In western India, Chauhans are found at Devgadh Baria, founded by Dungarsinhji, a member of the Khichi Chauhan clan about 700 years ago. Rajkumar (Bhadaiyan State of Awadh), Bachgoti (Diyara State of Awadh)and Rajwar are three other branches of Chauhans in Uttar Pradesh. Chauhan's are also found in Khurja Dasheri and Arnia.[citation needed]

Madho Prasad Singh (of Adharganj), Rai. Born in October 1847. The title is hereditary, the Rai being the representative of the great Bachgoti sept of Rajputs, sprung from the ancient and illustrious family of the Chauhan Rajputs of Mainpuri (q.v.) The sept having incurred the excessive wrath of the Emperor Ala -ud- din of Delhi, who vowed its extermination, the survivors emigrated, and for safety's sake adopted the name of Vasishtagoti (contracted into Batasgoti, and ultimately Bachgoti), from the saint who called forth their ancestor (the Agnikula) from the fire to defend the Munis of Mount Abu against the demons. The Chief, Bariar Singh, descendant of Chahir Deo, Prithvi Raj's brother, left Sambhalgarh, and wandering eastward, settled about 1248 AD in Sultanpur, Oudh. He married the daughter of Raja Ram Deo, Bhilkaria, Chief of Patti, became chief military officer under the Raja, and ultimately dispossessed his brother-in-law, and seized the territory. His descendant, Bodh Singh, received the title of Rai. The Santak of the Chauhan Rajputs, called Cfiakra, used in the seal and for signature. (A circle with four Trisulas or Tridents as radii at the cardinal points.)

Culture

Religion

In India, Chauhans are predominantly Hindu.[citation needed]

Some Chauhan Rajputs of the Doab region of Punjab also adopted Sikhism and are called Sikh Rajputs (Jatt Sikh), not to be confused with Jat Chohans of the Punjab (who happen to write the transliteration of their name in English differently).

There are some villages in Haryana (Distt. Ambala, Yamuna Nagar) which contain heavy population of chauhans. They have a mix population of Hindu and Sikh Rajputs.

Chohan/Chauhans belong to a select group of clans that are Hindus and Sikhs.

Famous Chauhan rulers of Ajmer, Rajasthan

  • Ajay Pal - founded the city Ajaymeru which came to be called as Ajmer in the modern times.
  • Prithviraja I
  • Jagdeva
  • Vigraharaja IV
  • Apara Gangeya
  • Prithviraja II
  • Someshwara

Chauhan rulers of Mainpuri

  • Pratap Rudra Ji left Neemrana in 1310 Samvat, and establish Mainpuri as capital.Pratap Rudra has two son,1- Veer Singh, 2-Dhaarak Devji
  • Veer Singh ruled in Mainpuri
  • Dhaarak Devji gone to Patara (Onha-Patara)
  • Pooran Chand Dev ji
  • Karan Dev ji
  • Ghaatam Dev Ji
  • Maharaja Tej Singh Chauhan is the last chauhan king who ruled in Mainpuri. In 1857 he fought bravely with British forces but lost the battle and his kingdom. He then proceeded to join Maharani Laksmibai of Jhansi but was captured and killed by British on way.

Notable Chauhans

References

  1. ^ Rānā Muḥammad Sarvar K̲h̲ān̲ (2005). The Rajputs: history, clans, culture and nobility. Rana Muhammad Sarwar Khan. http://books.google.com/books?id=BwVuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  2. ^ Stewart Gordon (1993). The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge University Press. pp. 46–. ISBN 9780521268837. http://books.google.com/books?id=iHK-BhVXOU4C&pg=PA46. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Maratha Kshatriyancha Itihaas By K.B.Deshmukh
  4. ^ A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of Punjab by H. A Rose
  5. ^ Ram Sarup Joon (1968). History of the Jats. Jaitly Painting [sic] Press, foreword. p. 77. http://books.google.com/?id=fe88AAAAMAAJ&cd=25&dq=chohan+are+found+among+rajput+jat+gujar&q=chauhan#search_anchor. "Chauhan gotra is found among the Rajputs, and Gujjars." 
  6. ^ a b Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.. p. 651. http://books.google.com/?id=TPgAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA651. "By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the chohans were a prominent clan." 
  7. ^ a b Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D.. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. "According to a number of scholars, the agnikula class were originally Gurjaras." 
  8. ^ Lawrence A. Babb (1 July 2004). Alchemies of violence: myths of identity and the life of trade in western India. SAGE. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-7619-3223-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=74tUY0le33UC&pg=PA96. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  9. ^ ↑ Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 249
  10. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=iIMFAAAAMAAJ&q=agnikula+solar&dq=agnikula+solar&hl=en&ei=JPaDTt6tB8rQrQfuqtC6DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=2&ved=0CEAQ6wEwAQ
  11. ^ Rāmadatta Śarmā (1985). Image of society, as depicted in Sanskrit mahākāvyas. Ritu Publishers. http://books.google.com/books?id=W1ZuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  12. ^ Kamal Prashad Sharma; Surinder Mohan Sethi (1997). Costumes and ornaments of Chamba
  13. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 209. ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5. http://books.google.com/?id=cWmsQQ2smXIC&pg=PA209&dq. 
  14. ^ By James Burgess - Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and IrelandThe Indian antiquary, Volume 1, page 275
  15. ^ By James Burgess - Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and IrelandThe Indian antiquary, Volume 1, page 277
  16. ^ By James Burgess - Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland , The Indian antiquary, Volume 1, page 275
  17. ^ James Burgess - Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, The Indian antiquary, Volume 1 page 280
  18. ^ K.Devi Singh Mandawa:Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan,2007, pp.127-141
  19. ^ Devi Singh Mandawa, p.128)
  20. ^ a b (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.128)
  21. ^ a b c (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.129)
  22. ^ a b c (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.130)
  23. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.130-31)
  24. ^ a b c d e (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.131)
  25. ^ a b (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.132)
  26. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.133)
  27. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.134)
  28. ^ a b c (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.135)
  29. ^ a b (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.137)
  30. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.138-39)
  31. ^ a b (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.139)
  32. ^ a b c d e (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.140)
  33. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.140-41)
  34. ^ a b c (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.136)
  35. ^ (Devi Singh Dhanetiya, p.139)
  36. ^ (Devi Singh Mandawa, p.136-37)
  37. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=M3et5EypA_4C&pg=PA40&dq=prithviraj+shabd&hl=en&ei=zJWCTpbNAuuTiAe3lKTvDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=prithviraj%20shabd&f=false
  38. ^ [1],http://books.google.co.in/books?id=FCsllHDE1qgC&pg=PA20&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false
  39. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_1-8-2005_pg4_20 Ghori

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