- Vascular endothelial growth factor
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) a sub-family of
growth factors, more specifically of platelet-derived growth factorfamily of cystine-knot growth factors. They are important signaling proteins involved in both vasculogenesis(the " de novo" formation of the embryonic circulatory system) and angiogenesis(the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature).
The most important member is
VEGF-A. Other members are Placenta growth factor ( PlGF), VEGF-B, VEGF-Cand VEGF-D. The latter ones were discovered later than VEGF-A, and before their discovery VEGF-A was called just VEGF.
A number of VEGF-related proteins have also been discovered encoded by viruses (VEGF-E) and in the venom of some snakes (VEGF-F).
As its name implies, VEGF-A activity has been mostly studied on cells of the vascular
endothelium, although it does have effects on a number of other cell types (e.g. stimulation monocyte/ macrophagemigration, neurons, cancer cells, kidney epithelial cells). "In vitro", VEGF-A has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesisand cell migration. VEGF-A is also a vasodilator and increases microvascular permeability and was originally referred to as vascular permeability factor.
The broad term 'VEGF' covers a number of proteins from two families, that result from alternate
splicingof mRNAfrom a single, 8 exon, "VEGF" gene. The two different families are referred to according to their terminal exon (exon 8) splice site - the proximal splice site (denoted VEGFxxx) or distal splice site (VEGFxxxb). In addition, alternate splicing of exon 6 and 7 alters their heparin binding affinity, and amino acid number (in humans: VEGF121, VEGF121b, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF165b, VEGF189, VEGF206; the rodent orthologs of these proteins contain one fewer amino acid). These domains have important functional consequences for the VEGF splice variants as the terminal (exon 8) splice site determines whether the proteins are pro-angiogenic (proximal splice site, expressed during angiogenesis) or anti-angiogenic (distal splice site, expressed in normal tissues). In addition inclusion or exclusion of exons 6 and 7 mediate interactions with heparan sulfate proteoglycans(HSPGs) and neuropilinco-receptors on the cell surface, enhancing their ability to bind and activate the VEGF signaling receptors (VEGFRs).
All members of the VEGF family stimulate cellular responses by binding to
tyrosine kinasereceptors (the VEGFRs) on the cell surface, causing them to dimerize and become activated through transphosphorylation, although to different sites, times and extents. The VEGF receptors have an extracellular portion consisting of 7 immunoglobulin-like domains, a single transmembrane spanning region and an intracellular portion containing a split tyrosine-kinasedomain. VEGF-A binds to VEGFR-1 ( Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 ( KDR/Flk-1). VEGFR-2 appears to mediate almost all of the known cellular responses to VEGF. The function of VEGFR-1 is less well defined, although it is thought to modulate VEGFR-2 signaling. Another function of VEGFR-1 may be to act as a dummy/decoy receptor, sequestering VEGF from VEGFR-2 binding (this appears to be particularly important during vasculogenesis in the embryo). VEGF-C and VEGF-D, but not VEGF-A, are ligands for a third receptor (VEGFR-3), which mediates lymphangiogenesis.
VEGFxxx production can be induced in cells that are not receiving enough
oxygen. When a cell is deficient in oxygen, it produces HIF, Hypoxia Inducible Factor, a transcription factor. HIF stimulates the release of VEGFxxx, among other functions (including modulation of erythropoeisis). Circulating VEGFxxx then binds to VEGF Receptors on endothelial cells, triggering a Tyrosine Kinase Pathway leading to angiogenesis.
VEGFxxx has been implicated with poor prognosis in
breast cancer. Numerous studies show a decreased OSand DFSin those tumors overexpressing VEGF. The overexpression of VEGFxxx may be an early step in the process of metastasis, a step that is involved in the "angiogenic" switch. Although VEGFxxx has been correlated with poor survival, its exact mechanism of action in the progression of tumors remains unclear.
VEGFxxx is also released in
rheumatoid arthritisin response to TNF-α, increasing endothelial permeability and swelling and also stimulating angiogenesis (formation of capillaries).
VEGFxxx is also important in
diabetic retinopathy(DR). The microcirculatory problems in the retina of people with diabetescan cause retinal ischaemia, which results in the release of VEGFxxx, and a switch in the balance of pro-angiogenic VEGFxxx isoforms over the normally expressed VEGFxxxb isoforms. VEGFxxx may then cause the creation of new blood vessels in the retina and elsewhere in the eye, heralding changes which may threaten the sight.
VEGFxxx plays a role in the disease pathology of the wet form
age-related macular degeneration(AMD), which is the leading cause of blindness for the elderly of the industrialized world. The vascular pathology of AMD shares certain similarities with diabetic retinopathy, although the cause of disease and the typical source of neovascularization differes between the two diseases.
VEGF-D serum levels are significantly elevated in patients with angiosarcoma (PMID 14746640)
Once released, VEGFxxx may elicit several responses. It may cause a cell to survive, move, or further differentiate. Hence, VEGF is a potential target for the treatment of
cancer. The first anti-VEGF drug, a monoclonal antibodynamed bevacizumab, was approved in 2004. Approximately 10-15% of patients benefit from bevacizumab therapy, although biomarkers for bevacizumab efficacy are not yet known.
Current studies show that VEGFs are not the only promoters of angiogenesis. In particular
FGF2and HGF [http://www.healthvalue.net/cmettherapies.html] are potent angiogenic factors.
Patients suffering from pulmonary emphysema have been found to have decreased levels of VEGF in the pulmonary arteries.
kidneyincreased expression of VEGFxxx in glomeruli directly causes the glomerular hypertrophy that is associated with proteinuria. [cite journal |author=Liu E, Morimoto M, Kitajima S, "et al" |title=Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in kidney leads to progressive impairment of glomerular functions |journal=J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. |volume=18 |issue=7 |pages=2094–104 |year=2007 |month=Jul |pmid=17554151 |doi=10.1681/ASN.2006010075 |url=]
Anti-VEGF therapies [http://www.healthvalue.net/VEGF2engl.html] are important in the treatment of certain cancers and in age-related macular degeneration. They can involve monoclonal antibodies such as
bevacizumab(Avastin), antibody derivatives such as ranibizumab(Lucentis), or orally-available small molecules that inhibit the tyrosine kinases stimulated by VEGF: sunitinib(Sutent), sorafenib(Nexavar), axitinib, and pazopanib. Both antibody-based compounds are commercialized. The first two orally available compounds are commercialized, as well. The latter two are in clinical trials, the results of which were presented ( June 7) at ASCO.
Bergers and Hanahan concluded in 2008 that anti-VEGF drugs can show therapeutic efficacy in mouse models of cancer and in an increasing number of human cancers. But, "the benefits are at best transitory and are followed by a restoration of tumour growth and progression." [cite journal |author=Bergers G, Hanahan D |title=Modes of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy |journal=Nat. Rev. Cancer |volume=8 |issue=8 |pages=592–603 |year=2008 |month=Aug |pmid=18650835 |doi=10.1038/nrc2442 |url=http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v8/n8/abs/nrc2442.html]
* [http://www.researchvegf.com ResearchVEGF.com]
* [http://www.exactantigen.com/review/vegf.html VEGF antibody]
*cite journal | author=Ferrara N, Gerber HP |title=The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in angiogenesis |journal=Acta Haematol. |volume=106 |issue= 4 |pages= 148–56 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11815711 |doi=10.1159/000046610
*cite journal | author=Orpana A, Salven P |title=Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic molecules in hematological malignancies |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=43 |issue= 2 |pages= 219–24 |year= 2003 |pmid= 11999550 |doi=10.1080/10428190290005964
*cite journal | author=Afuwape AO, Kiriakidis S, Paleolog EM |title=The role of the angiogenic molecule VEGF in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis |journal=Histol. Histopathol. |volume=17 |issue= 3 |pages= 961–72 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12168808 |doi=
*cite journal | author=de Bont ES, Neefjes VM, Rosati S, "et al." |title=New vessel formation and aberrant VEGF/VEGFR signaling in acute leukemia: does it matter? |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=43 |issue= 10 |pages= 1901–9 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12481883 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ria R, Roccaro AM, Merchionne F, "et al." |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in multiple myeloma |journal=Leukemia |volume=17 |issue= 10 |pages= 1961–6 |year= 2003 |pmid= 14513045 |doi= 10.1038/sj.leu.2403076
*cite journal | author=Caldwell RB, Bartoli M, Behzadian MA, "et al." |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor and diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment perspectives |journal=Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. |volume=19 |issue= 6 |pages= 442–55 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14648803 |doi= 10.1002/dmrr.415
*cite journal | author=Patan S |title=Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis |journal=Cancer Treat. Res. |volume=117 |issue= |pages= 3–32 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15015550 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Machein MR, Plate KH |title=Role of VEGF in developmental angiogenesis and in tumor angiogenesis in the brain |journal=Cancer Treat. Res. |volume=117 |issue= |pages= 191–218 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15015562 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Eremina V, Quaggin SE |title=The role of VEGF-A in glomerular development and function |journal=Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. |volume=13 |issue= 1 |pages= 9–15 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15090854 |doi=10.1097/00041552-200401000-00002
*cite journal | author=Storkebaum E, Lambrechts D, Carmeliet P |title=VEGF: once regarded as a specific angiogenic factor, now implicated in neuroprotection |journal=Bioessays |volume=26 |issue= 9 |pages= 943–54 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15351965 |doi= 10.1002/bies.20092
*cite journal | author=Ribatti D |title=The crucial role of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor in angiogenesis: a historical review |journal=Br. J. Haematol. |volume=128 |issue= 3 |pages= 303–9 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15667531 |doi= 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.05291.x
*cite journal | author=Loureiro RM, D'Amore PA |title=Transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cancer |journal=Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. |volume=16 |issue= 1 |pages= 77–89 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15733833 |doi= 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2005.01.005
*cite journal | author=Rini BI |title=VEGF-targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma |journal=Oncologist |volume=10 |issue= 3 |pages= 191–7 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15793222 |doi= 10.1634/theoncologist.10-3-191
*cite journal | author=Herbst RS, Onn A, Sandler A |title=Angiogenesis and lung cancer: prognostic and therapeutic implications |journal=J. Clin. Oncol. |volume=23 |issue= 14 |pages= 3243–56 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15886312 |doi= 10.1200/JCO.2005.18.853
*cite journal | author=Pufe T, Kurz B, Petersen W, "et al." |title=The influence of biomechanical parameters on the expression of VEGF and endostatin in the bone and joint system |journal=Ann. Anat. |volume=187 |issue= 5-6 |pages= 461–72 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16320826 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Tong JP, Yao YF |title=Contribution of VEGF and PEDF to choroidal angiogenesis: a need for balanced expressions |journal=Clin. Biochem. |volume=39 |issue= 3 |pages= 267–76 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16409998 |doi= 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2005.11.013
*cite journal | author=Lambrechts D, Carmeliet P |title=VEGF at the neurovascular interface: therapeutic implications for motor neuron disease |journal=Biochim. Biophys. Acta |volume=1762 |issue= 11-12 |pages= 1109–21 |year= 2007 |pmid= 16784838 |doi= 10.1016/j.bbadis.2006.04.005
*cite journal | author=Matsumoto T, Mugishima H |title=Signal transduction via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and their roles in atherogenesis |journal=J. Atheroscler. Thromb. |volume=13 |issue= 3 |pages= 130–5 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16835467 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Bogaert E, Van Damme P, Van Den Bosch L, Robberecht W |title=Vascular endothelial growth factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases |journal=Muscle Nerve |volume=34 |issue= 4 |pages= 391–405 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16856151 |doi= 10.1002/mus.20609
*cite journal | author=Mercurio AM, Lipscomb EA, Bachelder RE |title=Non-angiogenic functions of VEGF in breast cancer |journal=Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia |volume=10 |issue= 4 |pages= 283–90 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16924371 |doi= 10.1007/s10911-006-9001-9
*cite journal | author=Makinde T, Murphy RF, Agrawal DK |title=Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in airway remodeling |journal=Curr. Mol. Med. |volume=6 |issue= 8 |pages= 831–41 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17168735 |doi=10.2174/156652406779010795
*cite journal | author=Rini BI, Rathmell WK |title=Biological aspects and binding strategies of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal cell carcinoma |journal=Clin. Cancer Res. |volume=13 |issue= 2 Pt 2 |pages= 741s-746s |year= 2007 |pmid= 17255303 |doi= 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2110
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