Papal conclave, 1667


Papal conclave, 1667

The Papal conclave, 1667 (June 2June 20, 1667) to determine the successor to the departed Pope Alexander VII resulted in the election of cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi, who took the name of Clement IX.

List of participants

Pope Alexander VII died on May 22 1667 at the age of 68. At the time of his death, there were 70 cardinals in the Sacred College, but two of them died during "sede vacante", and another four were entirely absent, leaving the number of 64 participants [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/conclave-xvii.htm#1667 List of participants of the papal conclave of 1667 (by Salvador Miranda)] .] Data about cardinalatial titles and offices held by cardinals according to [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/consistories-xvii.htm their biographivcal entries by Salvador Miranda] ] :

*Francesco Barberini (created cardinal on October 2, 1623) – Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia e Velletri; "commendatario" of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition; Prefect of the S.C. of Ceremonies; Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica; Cardinal-protector of Scotland and Switzerland

*Marzio Ginetti (January 19, 1626) – Cardinal-Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina; Sub-Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Vicar General of Rome; Prefect of the S. C. of Bishops and Regulars; Prefect of the S. C. of Rites; Prefect of the S. C. of the Ecclesiestical Immunities

*Antonio Barberini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (August 30, 1627) – Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina; Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; Archbishop of Reims; Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica; Cardinal-protector of the Order of Dominicans; Cardinal Co-protector of the Kingdom of France

*Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta (November 19, 1629) – Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati

*Francesco Maria Brancaccio (November 28, 1633) – Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina; Bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella

*Ulderico Carpegna (November 28, 1633) – Cardinal-Bishop of Albano

*Stefano Durazzo (November 28, 1633) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals

*Ernest Adalbert von Harrach (January 19, 1626) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede; Bishop of Trent; Administrator of Prague; Cardinal-protector of the Habsburg hereditary lands

*Giulio Gabrielli (December 19, 1641) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Prisca; Bishop of Ascoli Piceno

*Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (December 19, 1641) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Poland; Cardinal-protector of Armenia

*Cesare Facchinetti (July 13, 1643) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. IV Coronati; Bishop of Spoleto

*Girolamo Grimaldi (July 13, 1643) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Trinita al Monte Pincio; Aix

*Carlo Rosetti (July 13, 1643) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Silvestro in Capite; Bishop of Faenza

*Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi [Entered the conclave on June 6.] (March 6, 1645) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere; Grand penitentiary

*Alderano Cibo (March 6, 1645) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana; Bishop of Jesi; Cardinal-protector of the orders of Franciscans and Trinitarians

*Federico Sforza (March 6, 1645) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of Naples

*Benedetto Odescalchi (March 6, 1645) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Onofrio; Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace

*Lorenzo Raggi (October 7, 1647) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Quirico e Giulitta

*Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria sopra Minerva

*Luigi Omodei (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Alessio

*Pietro Vito Ottoboni (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Marco

*Marcello Publicola Santacroce [Entered the conclave on June 10] (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio; Bishop of Tivoli

*Lorenzo Imperiali (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono

*Giberto Borromeo (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo

*Giovanni Battista Spada (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello

*Francesco Albizzi (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Via; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals

*Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Cecilia

*Flavio Chigi (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria del Popolo; Superintendent general of the Papal States; Librarian of the Holy Roman Church; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica; Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice; Legate in Avignon

*Giulio Rospigliosi (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Sisto; Cardinal Secretary of State

*Girolamo Buonvisi (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni; Archbishop of Lucca; Legate in Ferrara

*Scipione Pannocchieschi d'Elci (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Sabina

*Girolamo Farnese (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Agnese fuori le mura

*Antonio Bichi (April 9, 1657) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Agostino; Bishop of Osimo

*Pietro Vidoni (April 5, 1660) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Callisto; Bishop of Lodi

*Gregorio Barbarigo (April 5, 1660) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Tommaso in Parione; Bishop of Padua

*Girolamo Boncompagni (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcellino e Pietro; Archbishop of Bologna

*Carlo Bonelii (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Anastasia

*Celio Piccolomini (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Pietro in Montorio

*Carlo Carafa della Spina (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Susanna; Legate in Bologna

*Alfonso Litta (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme; Archbishop of Milan

*Neri Corsini (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nereo e Achilleo; Titular Archbishop of Damietta

*Giacomo Filippo Nini (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria della Pace

*Paluzzo Paluzzi degli Albertoni (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of SS. XII Apostoli; Bishop of Montefisacone e Corneto

*Cesare Maria Antonio Rasponi (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina; Legate in Urbino

*Giannicolò Conti (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria in Transpontina; Bishop of Ancona

*Giulio Spinola (February 15, 1666) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned]

*Carlo Roberti (February 15, 1666) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned]

*Innico Caracciolo (February 15, 1666) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned] ; Archbishop of Naples

*Giovanni Delfino (March 7, 1667) – Cardinal-Priest of [no title assigned] ; Patriarch of Aquileia

*Rinaldo d'Este (December 19, 1641) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano; Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Cardinal-protector of the Kingdom of France

*Giovanni Stefano Donghi [Entered the conclave on June 10] (July 13, 1643) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria degli Angeli; Bishop of Ferrara

*Paolo Emilio Rondinini (July 13, 1643) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; Bishop of Assisi

*Francesco Maidalchini (October 7, 1647) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata

*Friedrich von Hesse-Darmstadt, O.S.Io.Hieros. (February 19, 1652) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Cesareo in Palatio

*Carlo Barberini (June 23, 1653) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria; Cardinal-protector of the Duchy of Savoy; Cardinal-protector of the Orders of Celestines, Franciscans Obervants and Canon Regular of the Lateran

*Carlo Pio di Savoia (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Eustachio

*Carlo Gualterio (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Pancrazio; Archbishop of Fermo

*Decio Azzolino (March 2, 1654) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Adriano

*Odoardo Vecchiarelli (April 29, 1658) – Cardinal-Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano; Bishop of Rieti

*Giacomo Franzoni (April 29, 1658) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro; Bishop of Camerino

*Francesco Maria Mancini (April 5, 1660) – Cardinal-Deacon of SS. Vito e Modesto

*Angelo Celsi (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro; Prefect of the S. C. of the Tridentine Council

*Paolo Savelli (January 14, 1664) – Cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria della Scala; Legate in Romagna

*Louis de Vendôme (March 7, 1667) – Cardinal-Deacon of [no deaconry assigned]

16 electors were creatures of Urban VIII, 20 of Innocent X and 28 of Alexander VII.

Absentees

Four cardinals, all created by Alexander VII, did not participate in this conclave:

*Pascual de Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Fernández de Córdoba (April 5, 1660) – Cardinal-Priest of S. Balbina; Archbishop of Toledo

*Vitaliano Visconti (February 15, 1666) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned]

*Guidobald von Thun (March 7, 1667) – Cardinal-Priest [no title assigned] ; Archbishop of Salzburg; Bishop of Ratisbon

*Luis Guillermo de Moncada de Aragón Luna de Peralta y de la Cerda (March 7, 1667) – Cardinal-Deacon [no deaconry assigned]

Divisions among cardinals

College of Cardinals was divided into several factions. The strongest of them was the party of Flavio Chigi, cardinal-nephew of Pope Alexander VII, which grouped twenty-four of his creatures. Another influential person was dean of the College Francesco Barberini, who was leader of the group of old cardinals created by his uncle Urban VIII. Small but important because of the possibility of using the right of exclusion were the factions of the so-called "Crown-Cardinals", of Spain and France. They represented the respective interests of Charles II of Spain and Louis XIV of France. The French party was instructed to work for the election of cardinal Secretary of State Giulio Rospigliosi. They thought that Rospigliosi, as former nuncio in Madrid, would be also acceptable for Spain. France had in Rome a clever and active ambassador in the duc de Chaulnes, who had replaced the duc de Créqui at Palazzo Farnese in 1665 and closely cooperated with cardinal Retz, the main representative of France in the Sacred CollegeValérie Pirie [http://www.pickle-publishing.com/papers/triple-crown-clement-ix.htm The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves - Clement IX (Rospigliosi)] .] .

Unlike France, Spain placed its interests in the hand of the incompetent ambassador Marquis Astorga. He allied himself with cardinal Chigi, although initially Cardinal Dean Barberini tried to obtain Spanish support for his own candidature

Several cardinals, particularly those created by Innocent X, were unaligned. Some of them formed a group called "flying squadron", connected neither with papal nephews nor Catholic monarchs [http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1667.html Sede Vacante 1667] ] .

Conclave

Sixty-one cardinals entered the conclave in the Vatican on June 2. In the following eight days they were joined by three more cardinals, bringing to the total number of participants to sixty-four.

Initially Flavio Chigi, supported by the Spanish party, proposed to elect cardinal Scipione d'Elci, but was not able to secure for him the required majority of two thirds. Meanwhile, cardinal Retz and his two Italian colleagues d'Este and Grimaldi suggested to the leader of Spanish party Ernest Adalbert von Harrach the candidature of Rospigliosi. The Cardinal Secretary of State was viewed in Spain as a friend, so it was not a difficult task to convince Harrach to vote for him and to break the alliance with Chigi. Cardinal Chigi was furious at Spain’s defection, but was not able to counteract it. The alliance between the representatives of two major Catholic powers was decisive.

The election of Pope Clement IX

On June 20 1667 Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi was elected to the papacy, receiving all votes except those of his own and of Neri Corsini, who voted for Flavio Chigi. He accepted his election and took the name of Clement IX. Six days later he was solemnly crowned in the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica by cardinal Rinaldo d'Este, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano [ [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/bios1657.htm#Rospigliosi S. Miranda: Pope Clement IX] ] .

Notes

External links

* [http://www.pickle-publishing.com/papers/triple-crown-clement-ix.htm The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves by Valérie Pirie]
* [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/conclave-xvii.htm#1667 List of participants of the papal conclave of 1667 (by Salvador Miranda)]
* [http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1667.html Sede Vacante 1667]


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