- Temporal jurisdiction (papacy)
Popes continued to assert that their deposition from temporal jurisdiction in the Papal States was illegal until 1929. Catholics were prohibited from voting in Italian elections and Italian state and royal institutions were boycotted as part of their campaign for a return of the papal states. In 1929, with the
Lateran Treatythe Italian state and the papacy agreed to recognise each other, with the state paying the Church compensation for the loss of the territories. The pope was recognised as sovereign of a new state, Vatican City.
Papal Coronationand the papal crown, the Papal Tiara, were both interpreted as reflecting a continuing claim to temporal jurisdiction by the papacy. However in his homily at his October 1978 Papal Inauguration, Pope John Paul IIdismissed that claim and asserted that the papacy had no wish, and had long had no wish, to possess any temporal jusdiction outside the Vatican.
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