- List of heads of state by diplomatic precedence
International protocol holds that a
Head of Statetakes precedence over all other officials, and that Heads of State rank in the order that they took office. The following list contains the Heads of State for all United Nations member statesand non-member observer states. Commonwealth realms each have a Governor-Generalto represent the Queen. Governors-General are not Heads of State, but are frequently accorded the status and privileges of a Head of State at diplomatic events when considered to represent the monarch in Right of the Realm. The princes of Andorra each have a representative as well. They are included in the list and are highlighted in blue.
However, in many cases it is not this neutral principle but national rules of protocol that are acted upon, usually by an international event's host nation, as in many bilateral and even certain multilateral occasions. Various international organisations have a system for internal use. Even in the presence of one or more Heads of State, certain occasions are governed by specific protocol, e.g. military. Thus in many cases precedence is given to monarchs over republican Heads of State, mostly in monarchies; in some nations the
Pope(himself a monarchical Head of State) ranks above secular Heads of State, especially in Roman Catholic countries.
States recognised by the United Nations
States recognised by United Nations members
List of current heads of state and government
List of state leaders by date
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