- Indian Remote Sensing satellite
Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by
Indian Space Research Organisationof Indiaas part of the Indian space program. The IRS series provides remote sensing services to the country.
The IRS system
Following the successful demonstration flights of Bhaskara 1 and Bhaskara 2 satellites launched in 1979 and 1981, respectively, India began to develop indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) program to support the national economy in the areas of agriculture, water resources, forestry and ecology, geology, water sheds, marine fisheries and coastal management. Later India established the
National Natural Resources Management System(NNRMS) for which the Department of Space (DOS) is the nodal agency, providing operational remote sensing data services. [ [http://www.fas.org/spp/guide/india/earth/irs.htm FAS website on IRS] ] Data from the IRS satellites is received and disseminated by several countries all over the world. With the advent of high resolution satellites new applications in the areas of urban sprawl, infrastructure planning and other large scale applications for mapping have been initiated.
The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite system is the largest constellation of remote sensing satellites for civilian use in operation today in the world. With the launch of CARTOSAT-2A [ [http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c7/photos/cartosat-2images.htm Cartosat 2 Images] ,] , the constellation now has eight satellites in operation – IRS-1D, OCEANSAT-1,
Technology Experiment Satellite(TES), RESOURCESAT-1, CARTOSAT-1, CARTOSAT-2 and the latest CARTOSAT-2A and IMS-1. All these are placed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and provide data in a variety of spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to enable several applications to be undertaken relevant to the national development.
IRS data applications
Data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites are used for various applications of resources survey and management under the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS). Following is the list of those applications:
* Preharvest crop area and production estimation of major crops.
* Drought monitoring and assessment based on vegetation condition.
* Flood risk zone mapping and flood damage assessment.
* Hydro-geomorphological maps for locating underground water resources for drilling well.
* Irrigation command area status monitoring
* Snow-melt run-off estimates for planning water use in down stream projects
* Land use and land cover mapping
* Urban planning
* Forest survey
* Wetland mapping
* Environmental impact analysis
* Mineral Prospecting
* Coastal studies
* Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (initiated in 1992) for generating locale-specific prescriptions for integrated land and water resources development in 174 districts.
IRS launch log
The initial versions are composed of the 1 (A,B,C,D). The later versions are named based on their area of application including OceanSat, CartoSat, ResourceSat. Some of the satellites have alternate designations based on the launch number and vehicle (P series for PSLV).
Future IRS launches
Following are the remote sensing satellites planned by
ISROto be launched next strengthening the fleet of IRS satellites and widening their applications: [http://www.isro.org/rep2007/Earth%20Observation.htm IRS Satellites in ISRO annual report of year 2006-07] ] [http://planningcommission.nic.in:80/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp11/wg11_subspace.pdf Eleventh Five Year Plan For Indian Space Programme] ]
* RISAT (Radar Imaging Satellite): A microwave remote sensing mission with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in C-band and having a 6 x 2 meter planar active array antenna based on trans-receiver module architecture. SAR is an all weather-imaging sensor capable of taking images in cloudy and snow covered regions and also both during day and night. RISAT weighs 1,750 kg. It is slated to be launched in 2008-2009.
* Oceansat-2: It is envisaged to continue the service of OCEANSAT-1. It will carry an Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Ku-band pencil beam scatterometer. It is scheduled to be launched in March 8 2008 on board
* Resourcesat-2: It will have imaging sensors similar to RESOURCESAT-1. Payload electronics have been miniaturised to reduce the overall weight. RESOURCESAT-2 is planned for launch by PSLV in 2009-10.
* Resourcesat-3: A follow on to Resourcesat-2, it will carry more advanced LISS-III-WS (Wide Swath) Sensor having similar swath and revisit capability as Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), thus overcoming any spatial resolution limitation of AWiFS. Satellite would also carry Atmospheric Correction Sensor (ACS) for quantitative interpretation and geophysical parameter retrieval. It slated to be launched during 2011-12..
* Cartosat-3: A continuation of Cartosat series , it will have a resolution 30 cm and 6km swath suitable for cadastre and infrastructure mapping and analysis. It would also enhance disaster monitoring and damage assessment. It is slated to be launched during 2011-12..
* Oceansat-3: Oceasat-3 would carry Thermal IR Sensor, 12 channel Ocean Color Monitor, Scatterometer and Passive Microwave Radiometer. IR Sensor and Ocean Color Monitor would be used in the analysis for operational Potential Fishing Zones. Satellite is mainly for Ocean biology and sea state applications. It is slated to the launched aboard PSLV in 2012-13..
Satellite data acquisition and processing
National Remote Sensing Agency(NRSA) at Hyderabad is the nodal agency for reception, archival, processing and dissemination of remote sensing data in the country. NRSA acquires and processes data from all Indian remote sensing satellites like CARTOSAT-1, CARTOSAT-2, RESOURCESAT-1, IRS-1D, OCEANSAT-1 and TES as well as foreign satellites like Terra, NOAA and ERS. As per the Remote Sensing Data Policy, NRSA is the national acquisition/distribution agency for all satellite data within India.
* [http://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c7/photos/cartosat-2images.htm CartoSat 2 images]
* [http://www.isro.org/ Official ISRO website]
* [http://www.fas.org/spp/guide/india/earth/irs.htm FAS article on IRS system]
* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/SPACE/space-satellite4.html Bharat-Rakshak article on IRS system]
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