Audio|sv-Halland.ogg|Halland is one of the traditional
provinces of Sweden("landskap" in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland, Scania and the sea of Kattegat.
provinces of Swedenserve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is almost coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland Countyand Skåne County.
Halland has a population of 287,558. Of these, 272,142 are counted among
Halland County; 13,363 within Västra Götaland County, and 2,053 in Skåne County.
Halland was granted its arms at the time of the funeral of
Charles X Gustav of Swedenin 1660. The province is a duchy and the arms are represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued, armed and dente Gules." Unlike Blekinge, neither Skånenor Halland had their own coat or arms while part of Denmark.
The streams of Lagan,
Ätran, Nissan and Viskanflow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known for its good soil and as an agricultural district.
Bronze Agewas probably a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of new settlements and the numerous archaeological remains. Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds are found.
The end of the Bronze Age witnesses an over-consumption of the resources. Large areas were deforested. This might have been a result of a high demand charcoal in smelting
goldor bronzeamong the local elites.
The worsening climate at the beginning of the
Iron Agemeant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extant as before. As a result the social structures collapsed.
The early Iron Age social structures seems to have been relatively egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there is a trend where
villages form larger communities and small kingdoms. This is likely to have been a distant influence from the growing roman empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created; they grew larger as time passed. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge.
It was not just the social structure that changed, so too did the settlement structure. New villages were formed, while old were abandoned. The new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during
According to information from a trader travelling from
Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjordto Hedebyin the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time. It would stay so for the larger part of recorded historical times.
Iron extraction is known to have taken place in
Hishultand Tvååker/ Sibbarpduring the Iron Age.
As part of
Scanian lands(then part of he Kingdom of Denmark, Halland came under the Scanian Lawand participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Thing electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge.
Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as
Sweden, Denmarkand to some degree Norwayfought for supremacy in Scandinavia. The many wars came made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by the military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; people lacked the motivation to invest in their land and properties as it was likely to be destroyed anyway.
The county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256
Haakon IV of Norwayinvaded, followed by Magnus I of Swedenin 1277 and Eric VI of Denmarkin 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with river Ätranforming a boundary. The lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo.
Kalmar Unionwas formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to have a rather central position. The king was to be elected, according to the union treaty, in Halmstad.
rebellionof Engelbrektin 1434 the fortress in Falkenbergwas burnt down and two years later Lagaholmwas captured by the Swedes. The Swedish-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland.
Count's Feud, the Northern Seven Years' Warand the Kalmar Warcame all to affect Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtornatook place in Halland.
Halland was temporally (for a period of 30 years) transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the
Treaty of Brömsebro. The conquest was later made permanent by ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskildein 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebroat August 17, 1676, during the Scanian War.
The more peaceful conditions that followed meant that the province could start to develop again. The 19th century saw the farming develop quickly to become one of the more efficient in the country by the end of the century. Parts of the province did however remain poor and
erosionand blown sand remained a problem for much of the century. The county did therefor see a lot of emigration, continuing well into the 20th century.
The 20th century has seen the province becoming one of the fastest growing in Sweden, as it has doubled its population since the
second world war. This is in part due to the northern parts, such as Kungsbackaand Onsala, becoming suburbs of Gothenburg.
Privileges to towns in Halland was during the Danish time granted to:
Varberg(approximately 1100)Such privilegies have no official significance nowadays.
Hundreds of Swedenwere provincial divisions until early 20th century, when they lost importance. Halland's hundreds were: Faurås Hundred, Fjäre Hundred, Halmstad Hundred, Himle Hundred, Höks Hundred, Tönnersjö Hundred, Viske Hundredand Årstad Hundred.
The language varieties spoken in Halland are together called "Halländska", though they belong to two main dialectal groups. In northern Halland a variation of the
Götalanddialect is spoken and in the south the spoken language is a variety of Scanian.
Varberg Fortresswas built in the 13th century and improved with higher walls in the 15th century.
Dukes of Halland
Already in 13th century, (southern) Halland was given as duchy to a branch of the Danish royal dynasty. In 14th century, it was given to various relatives of Danish and Swedish royal families, such as
Benedict, Duke of Halland1353-57.
Since 1772, Swedish Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces. This is solely a nominal title.
* Prince Bertil (1912-1997)
List of Dukes of Halland
*"Kungsvägen genom Halland - Bidrag till halländsk kulturhistoria och underlag för vägminnesvårdsprogram. Stellan Haverling. 1996. Gothenburg: Vägverket"
* [http://www.hallandsturist.se/ Halland] - Tourist site
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Look at other dictionaries:
Halland — Halland … Deutsch Wikipedia
Halland — Administration Pays Sued … Wikipédia en Français
Halland — er et nu svensk område i Götaland, der administrativt er en del af Hallands Len. Mod syd danner Hallandsåsen grænse mod Skåne, i øst grænser Halland op til Småland, i nord til Västergötland og mod vest ligger Kattegat. Halland er en del af det… … Danske encyklopædi
Halland — (d.i. Hochland), s.u. Halmstad 1) … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Halland — Halland, Landschaft im südlichen Schweden, die in administrativer Hinsicht das Hallandslän bildet, grenzt im N. an das Län Gotenburg, im O. an Elfsborg, Jönköping und Kronoberg, im S. an Christianstad und im W. an das Kattegat und hat auf 4913… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Halland — Halland, Landschaft und Län (H. oder Halmstad) in Südschweden, am Kattegat, 4921 qkm, (1904) 142.671 E.; Ackerbau, Fischfang. Hauptstadt Halmstad … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Halland — Hạlland, Verwaltungsbezirk (Län) und Landschaft in Südwestschweden, am Kattegat, 5 454 km2 Landareal, 264 600 Ew; Hauptstadt ist Halmstad. Halland umfasst einen 150 km langen und 20 km breiten Küstenstreifen, wo der größte Teil der Bevölkerung … Universal-Lexikon
Halland — ▪ county, Sweden län (county) of southern Sweden, coextensive with the traditional landskap (province) of Halland. It is a low, undulating region of heaths and ridges that rise above gently sloping sandy beaches. The coastline is smooth… … Universalium
Halland — La Provincia de Halland (en sueco Hallands län) es una de las 21 que conforman Suecia. Está localizada al occidente del país, en la costa del mar de Kattegatt. Limita con las provincias de Västra Götaland, Kronoberg, Jönköping y Escania. Está… … Enciclopedia Universal
Halland — Sp Hãlandas Ap Halland L P Švedijos lenas … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė