Canada–Soviet Union relations

Canada–Soviet Union relations

Canadian-Soviet relations were the relations between Canada and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union).

Diplomatic history

Diplomatic relations did not begin until 1942 after the German invasion of the Soviet Union forced the Soviets and the Western Allies to work together. The Soviet Union's first ambassador to Canada was Georgy Zarubin ["Time" [,9171,778154,00.html?iid=chix-sphere Northern Neighbours] ]

Prior to that date, relations had been hostile. Canada had participated in the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in in general mirrored the hostility towards the Soviet Union demonstrated from London. Canadian authorities suspected Soviet involvement in Canadian labour disturbances such as the Winnipeg General Strike and the Regina Riot, while Canada was the subject of unflattering propaganda in the Soviet Union, and subject to the popular front policy. Besides this, Canada had limited powers over her own foreign affairs until the Statute of Westminster 1931.

During the war, aid and arms were relayed through Canada and Alaska to the Soviets, and relations were improved. However, the wartime relationship ended abruptly with the Gouzenko affair in 1945 and 46. Igor Gouzenko was a clerk at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa who defected to Canada with evidence of Soviet spying in the West. This was combined with the general East-West tension leading up to the early Cold War, led Canada back to an anti-Soviet stance. By 1947 Canadian foreign policy analysts were advocating the creation of a Western Alliance outside of the United Nations. Soon after in 1949, Canada joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an alliance against the Soviet bloc. In 1950 Canada joined in the Korean War against the Soviet-allied North. Once the Soviet Union acquired the nuclear bomb, it became obvious that any Soviet attack on the US would go through Canadian airspace. This led to the construction of the Distant Early Warning Line and Canada's entry in the the North American Aerospace Defense agreement with the US.

After the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, Canada hoped tensions would ease, and then Foreign Minister Lester Pearson traveled to the Soviet Union for talks with Nikita Khrushchev in 1955, the first NATO foreign minister to do so. However tension arose again over the Hungarian Revolution and Suez Crisis in 1956. In 1962 the new Tory Prime Minster John Diefenbaker caused a crisis of his own by refusing to put Canadian forces on alert during and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, and by agreeing to buy nuclear-equipped Bomarc missiles from the US to use against Soviet bombers.

After Pierre Trudeau came to power in Canada, Canadian policy changed dramatically. Trudeau was a left-leaning but free-thinking who had traveled to the Soviet Union in the 1950s and was arrested for throwing a snowball at a statue of Stalin. Trudeau wanted to lessen Canada's reliance on the United States by forging closer ties with other countries and breaking out the of the Cold War straightjacket. During a trip to the Soviet Union in 1971 he identified the United States as a bigger threat to Canada than the remote Soviet Union. The Americans, he said, are "a danger to our national identity from a cultural, economic and perhaps even military point of view." Eventually Trudeau backed from his "Third Option" policy and returned to the Western fold. However at the end of his tenure, when he believed that tension between the US and Soviet Union were again too high, he launched a peace mission to Moscow which the Americans did not approve of.

The government of Conservative Brian Mulroney cast a much more critical eye on the Soviet Union, despite the changes produced in that country by Mikhail Gorbachev's "perestroika" and "glasnost" reforms. As late as January 1989, foreign minister Joe Clark still identified the Soviets as a threat to the West, by May however, he spoke approvingly of Gorbachev's reforms. Canada's changed position was fully shown in November 1989, when Prime Minister Mulroney visited the Soviet Union, accompanied by more than 200 representatives of Canadian business. Numerous agreements were signed during the visit, the most important of which was a Political Declaration calling for Canadian-Soviet cooperation in such areas as the environment, the Arctic, terrorism, and the drug trade. Canadian-Soviet relations were now on friendly terms, until January 1991, when Gorbachev cracked down on independence-seeking Lithuania and Latvia, prompting Canada to suspend credit and technical aid to the Soviet Union. During the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt new foreign affairs minister Barbara McDougall, evoked much criticism by indicating that Canada could work with the plotters, a position that was particularly embarrassing when Gorbachev was quickly returned to office.

As the Soviet Union fell apart, Canada moved speedily to establish full relations with Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. It acted even before the United States, and in December 1991, Canada was the first Western country to recognize the independence of Ukraine. With Gorbachev's resignation that month, the Soviet Union ceased to exist, prompting Canada to recognize Russia as an independent state.

See also

* Canada and the Cold War


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