- Cats in ancient Egypt
Felis silvestris catus)", known in ancient Egyptas the miw, played a large role in ancient Egyptian society. Beginning as a wild, untamed species, cats were useful for keeping down verminpopulations in the Egyptians' crops and harvests; through exposure to humans, the cat population became domesticatedover time and learned to coexist with the human population. The people inhabiting the area which would later become unified and known as Upper and Lower Egypthad a religion centering around the worship of animals, of which the cat became one.
Originally praised for its aid to humans in controlling vermin and its ability to fight and kill snakes (such as
cobras), the domesticated cat slowly became a symbol of grace and poise. The goddess Mafdet, the deification of justiceand execution, was a fierce lion-headed goddess. The cat goddess Bast (also known as "Bastet") eventually replaced the cult of Mafdet, and Bast's image softened over time and she became the deity representing protection, fertility, and motherhood.
As a revered animal and one very important to Egyptian society and religion, the cat was afforded the same mummification after death as humans were. Mummified cats were given in offering to Bast; in 1888, an Egyptian farmer accidentally uncovered a large tomb containing tens of thousands of mummified cats and kittens. This discovery outside the town of
Beni Hasancontained around eighty thousand cat mummies, dating back to 1000-2000 BC.
Cats in everyday life in Ancient Egypt
Feral cats, or "wild cats", naturally preyed upon the rats and other vermin that would otherwise eat from the royal granaries. They earned their place in towns and cities by killing mice, poisonous
snakesand other pests. They were worshiped by the Egyptians and given jewelry in their hieroglyphics.
The two main breeds of cat native to Egypt were the jungle cat "
Felis chaus" and the African wildcat " Felis silvestris lybica". The latter of these was domesticated, largely due to its temperament. The jungle cat was not nearly as peaceful, and was probably not especially helpful in the initial phases of domestication.
The African wildcat, the more placid of the two, easily coexisted with the human population who were eager to rid their streets of
vermin. In return the cats received protection from humans, in the sense that they would be safe from other predators as long as they remained near human habitats. These two species eventually fused to create a new breed of cat.
The change in temperament is attributed to two principal factors: heredity and learned tolerance of humans. The changes due to domestication follow a pattern similar to other domesticated animals including
wolves(dogs), and cattle. These changes include coloration as there is less need for camouflage in captivity than in the wild, smaller brain size due to the gradual elimination of unnecessary survival instincts, and an overall decrease in size due to the change in diet and habitat.
In "Cats: The Rise of the Cat",
Roger Taborsuggests that the domestication process is due to two possible reasons. Gaining confidence around humans through frequent contact at the granaries, cats began to venture into settlements, attracted by the indigenous birdand verminpopulation. Breeding within itself, a large population of cats could develop, and would continue on doing so at an exponential rate. Additionally, familiarity with human society was aided by the association of cats with the goddess Bast - Egyptian temple priests would often keep cats at their temple as a representative of the goddess.
Additionally, in their book "Wild Cats of the World", Mel Sundquist and Fiona Sundquist suggest that a likely route to domestication was through the rearing of kittens captured from the wild. Fashionable Egyptian society tamed wild animals of all kinds using this method, including
baboons, lions and gazelles in menageries at the most wealthy households.
Cats in Egyptian mythology
Egypt was not always unified; initially, it was a land with many regional
tribes and nomes. Many nomes had a totemistic system of religion, centering the worship of an animal as a spiritual symbol. Some peoples would choose a totem animal because of the services it provided, some for admirable qualities, some out of fear. Regardless, when war broke out between peoples, the tribe that won was able to demand more respect for their totem, and mandated its worship. Eventually an empire was formed under Menescirca 3100 BCE, and a more pluralisticform of totemism was established. Ibises, eagles, and beetles were among the totems worshipped alongside cats.
The Egyptians viewed their gods not as simple spirits but as intelligences that could be personified in a body. The earliest evidence of cats as deities comes from a 3100 BCE crystal cup decorated with an image of the lion-headed goddess
Mafdet. The goddess Bast was originally depicted as a fiercely protective and warlike lion, but as her image "softened" over time she became more strongly associated with domestic cats.
As cats were sacred to Bast, the practice of mummification was extended to them, and the respect that cats received after death mirrored the respect they were treated with in everyday life. The Greek historian
Herodotuswrote that in the event of a fire men would guard the fire to make certain that no cats ran into the flame. Herodotus also wrote that when a cat died, the household would go into mourning as if for a human relative, and would often shave their eyebrows to signify their loss.
Such was the strength of feeling towards cats that killing one, even accidentally, incurred the death penalty. Another Greek historian,
Diodorus Siculus, describes an interesting example of swift justice imposed upon the killer of a cat: about 60 BCE, he witnessed the chariot of a Roman soldier accidentally run over an Egyptian cat. An outraged mob gathered and, despite pleas from pharaoh Ptolemy XII, killed the soldier.
Bubastis and the Cult of the Cat
Although the cat cult was a significant religious movement by the birth of the
New Kingdomit gained new importance when Shoshenq Ideveloped Bubastis, chief centre of worship for the goddess Bast, located east of the Nile Delta, into an important city. At the same time, Bast developed into an immensely popular and important deity representing fertility, motherhood, protection and the benevolent aspects of the sun - along with Sekhmet, she was known as the Eye of Ra. The cult of the cat garnered a huge following and thousands of pilgrims journeyed each year to Bubastis to celebrate. Bubastis also became another name by which the goddess was known.
Close to the centre of the city lay a large temple to Bast. This temple was in a depression which sited it at a lower elevation to the rest of the city, which had been raised to minimize flood damage from the nearby Nile. Of this Herodotus, who visited the city in 450 BCE, wrote that although the size of the shrine to Bast was perhaps 'not as large as those of other cities, and probably not as costly, no temple in all of Egypt gave more pleasure to the eye'.
He went on to describe the temple in detail. A canal within this depression gave the temple the appearance of a man-made island. In the courtyard was a grove of trees leading the way to the interior, which contained a massive statue of Bast - and a great number of sacred cats, cared for by the temple priests with donations from pilgrims. The temple's cat population, while respected, was extremely large and needed to be moderated by the periodic sacrificial culling of kittens, which were then mummified and sold to pilgrims as
Bubastis became a marketplace for merchants of all sorts; artisans came forth with thousands of
bronzesculptures and amulets depicting cats to worshippers of Bast. These amulets commonly featured an image of a cat and its kittens and were often used by women trying to have children, praying to Bast that they be granted the same number of children as kittens depicted on the amulet.
Herodotus wrote that the annual festival of Bast held in the city was the one of the most popular of all, with attendees from all over Egypt, who would raft down the
Nilecelebrating and feasting all the way. When they arrived in Bubastis, they feasted yet more and made sacrifices to Bast.
The famed revelling and commercialism of Bubastis even made its way into the
Hebrew Bible. In the sixth century BCE, the prophet Ezekielwrote that "The young men of Aven and of Pibeseth [Bubastis] shall fall by the sword: and these cities shall go into captivity" (Ezekiel 30:17). God revealed to Ezekiel that He would punish these cities, like Nineveh, for their paganismand sin.
By 525 BCE, Egypt was essentially the only empire not conquered by the Persians. At that point
Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, set out to do just that. Cambyses and his army crossed the fifty-six mile stretch of desert to the Egyptian outpost of Pelesiumon camelback; they then clashed down upon the Egyptian army who were reluctant to strike back at the sacred symbol of the cat upon the Persian shields.
Herodotus noted that cats who died anywhere in Egypt were often taken to Bubastis to be mummified and buried in the great
cemetery, but this may or may not have been the case. At the burial site in Bubastis the Swiss Egyptologist Édouard Navillefound more than 20 m³ (720 cubic feet) of cat remains but also a great deal of evidence of cremation. Naville found stacks of cat bones in many pits, the walls of which were made up of bricks and clay. Near each pit lay a furnace, its bricks blackened from fire. This discovery causes some problems. The mummification and preservation of the body was intended to make it possible for the deceased's "ka" to locate its host and subsequently be reborn into the afterlife. As the body would have to be intact for this process to occur, cremation would seem an undesirable way of dealing with the body of a sacred creature with a "ka". Nevertheless, many cats were afforded the full embalming ceremony and buried in other great cemeteries along the Nile.
In her book "The Cult of the Cat",
Patricia Dale-Greenstates that, "The cat's body was placed in a linensheet and carried amidst bitter lamentations by the bereaved to a sacred house where it was treated with drugs and spices by an embalmer". She goes on to state that although the cat of an Egyptian noble would receive more extravagant burial status, the body of a worker's cat would still be carefully prepared and the embalming carried out with the same conscientiousness as for a human body, often with provisions for the afterlife such as pots of milk and even mummified mice.
Nowhere, perhaps, is this appreciation shown more than in the colossal tomb at the temple of Bast discovered in 1888. This tomb, outside of
Beni Hasan, held more than nineteen tonnes of animal mummies and remains, the vast majority being cats but a number of mongooses, dogs and foxes were amongst the specimens that made it to the British Museum. The farmer who made the discovery sold most of the tomb's contents to be ground up as fertilizer, but fortunately a number of specimens made it into the hands of scientists for testing and examination. Some of these are on display at the British Museum.
The sole Egyptologist to visit the site,
William Martin Conway, wrote: "The plundering of the cemetery was a sight to see, but one had to stand well windward. The village children came [...] and provided themselves with the most attractive mummies they could find. These they took down the river bank to sell for the smallest coin to passing travelers. The path became strewn with mummy cloth and bits of cats' skulls and bones and fur in horrid positions, and the wind blew the fragments about and carried the stink afar". (quoted in Tabor p26).
Recently, during the making of his documentary for the BBC, "Cats: The Rise of the Cat", Roger Tabor discovered a further cat cemetery at Bast's temple. This find consists of a twenty centimetre-thick layer of compressed mummies which spans more than sixty metres in length.
Cats in other religions
Feline reverence is not peculiar to
Ancient Egyptian civilization. Muslimtheology maintains that the prophet Muhammadonce found a cat sleeping on the sleeve of his robe; instead of waking it, he cut the sleeve off so as not to disturb the animalFact|date=June 2008. If held true by scholars, the story teaches caring and mercifulness to all animals, not only cats. This reverence can be found in ancient Indian texts, where records of cats involved with human society can be found in two ancient Indian great epics, the Ramayanaand Mahabharata, circa 500 BCE. As the Hinduand Parseereligions respected all forms of life and were especially sympathetic towards cats, all good Hindus were expected to take care of at least one cat during their lives. By contrast, the Islamic culture generally regards dogs as ritually impure (unhygienic) animals. Christianity used to consider cats in league with the devil thanks to their aloof and independent natureFact|date=May 2008, though this opinion was later dropped and cats are kept as rat catchers in many churches and monasteries throughout the world.
"'= The decline of cat-worship =
The cult of Bast was officially banned by imperial decree in 390 CE. Egypt has since experienced a decline in the respect once held for cats and although they are still kept as pets and tolerated elsewhere because they catch pests, the cat has lost all religious significance in modern Egypt.
* [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/religion/cats.html Minnesota State University - Cats in Ancient Egypt]
History of cats
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