- Supramolecular assembly
A supramolecular assembly or "supermolecule" is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. While a supramolecular assembly can be simply composed of two molecules (e.g., a
DNA double helixor an inclusion compound), it is more often used to denote larger complexes of molecules that form sphere-, rod-, or sheet-like species. The dimensions of supramolecular assemblies can range from nanometers to micrometers. Thus they allow access to nanoscale objects using a bottom-up approach in far fewer steps then a single molecule of similar dimensions.
The process by which a supramolecular assembly forms is called
molecular self-assembly. Some try to distinguish self-assemblyas the process by which individual molecules form the defined aggregate. Self-organization, then, is the process by which those aggregates create higher-order structures. This can become useful when talking about liquid crystals and block copolymers.
Supramolecular assemblies are being investigated as new materials in a variety of contexts. For instance,
Samuel Stuppand coworkers at Northwestern Universityshowed that a supramolecular assembly of peptide amphiphilesin the form of nanofibers could be used to promote the growth of neurons.Ref|Stupp A great advantage to this supramolecular approach is that the nanofibers will degrade back into the individual peptide molecules that can be broken down by the body.
Another example with implications at the
biology/ materials scienceinterface is of self-assembling dendritic dipeptides, which form hollow cylindrical supramolecular assemblies in solution and in bulk. The cylindrical assemblies possess internal helical order and self-organize into columnar liquid crystalline lattices. When inserted into vesicular membranes, the porous cylindrical assemblies mediate transport of protons across the membrane.Ref|Percec1
Self-assembling dendrons have also been used to generate arrays of nanowires.Ref|Percec2 Electron donor-acceptor complexes comprise the core of the cylindrical supramolecular assemblies, which further self-organize into two-dimensional columnar
liquid crystaline lattices. Each cylindrical supramolecular assembly functions as an individual wire. High charge carrier mobilities for holes and electrons were obtained.
# "Selective Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells by High-Epitope Density Nanofibers" Gabriel A. Silva, Catherine Czeisler, Krista L. Niece, Elia Beniash, Daniel A. Harrington, John A. Kessler, Samuel I. Stupp Science Volume 303, Issue 5662, Pages 1352-1355 2004 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/303/5662/1352 Abstract]
# "Self-assembly of Amphiphilic Dendritic Dipeptides into Helical Pores" Virgil Percec, Andrés E. Dulcey, Vekatachalapathy S. K. Balagarusamy, Yoshiko Miura, Jan Smidrkal, Mihai Peterca, Sami Nummelin, Ulrica Edlund, Steven D. Hudson, Paul A. Heiney, Hu Duan, Sergei N. Magonov & Sergei A. Vinogradov "Nature" 2004, "430"(7001), 764-768 [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7001/abs/nature02770.html Abstract]
# "Self-organization of Supramolecular Helical Dendrimers into Complex Electronic Materials" V. Percec, M. Glodde, T. K. Bera, I. Shiyanovskaya, K. D. Singer, V. S. K. Balagarusamy, P. A. Heiney, I. Schnell, A. Rapp, H.-W. Spiess, S. D. Hudson & H. Duan "Nature" 2002, "419"(6905), 384-387.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Supramolecular chemistry — refers to the area of chemistry that focuses on the noncovalent bonding interactions of molecules. [cite journal | author=Lehn JM | title=Supramolecular chemistry | journal=Science | volume=260 | issue=5115 | year=1993 | pages=1762–3 |… … Wikipedia
Supramolecular electronics — is the experimental field of supramolecular chemistry that bridges the gap between molecular electronics and bulk plastics in the construction of electronic circuitry at the nanoscale 1. In supramolecular electronics, assemblies of pi conjugated… … Wikipedia
Molecular self-assembly — An example of a molecular self assembly through hydrogen bonds. Molecular self assembly is the process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source. Th … Wikipedia
Montaje supramolecular — Este artículo o sección sobre biología necesita ser wikificado con un formato acorde a las convenciones de estilo. Por favor, edítalo para que las cumpla. Mientras tanto, no elimines este aviso puesto el 31 de enero de 2011. También puedes ayudar … Wikipedia Español
self-assembly — noun Date: 1966 the process by which a complex macromolecule (as collagen) or a supramolecular system (as a virus) spontaneously assembles itself from its components • self assemble intransitive verb … New Collegiate Dictionary
self-assembly — self as·sem·bly ə sem blē n, pl blies the process by which a complex macromolecule (as collagen) or a supramolecular system (as a virus) spontaneously assembles itself from its components self as·sem·ble bəl vi … Medical dictionary
Nanotechnology — Part of a series of articles on … Wikipedia
Supermolecule — The term supermolecule or supramolecule, was introduced by K.L. Wolf ( Übermoleküle ) in 1937 to describe hydrogen bonded acetic acid dimers. [Wolf, K. L. , Frahm, H. Harms, H. (1937). Z Phys. Abt. B 36, 237.Chem.] [… … Wikipedia
Cucurbituril — Computer models of Q5, Q6, and Q7. Top row is the view into the cavity and the bottom is the side view Cucurbiturils are methylene linked macrocyclic molecules made of glycoluril [=C4H2N4O2=] monomers. The oxygen atoms are located along the edges … Wikipedia
Outline of nanotechnology — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to nanotechnology: Nanotechnology – study of physical phenomena on the nanoscale, dealing with things measured in nanometres, billionths of a meter. Contents 1 Branches of… … Wikipedia