- List of papal tiaras in existence
Papal Tiarais the crown of the papacy. For over one millenniumall popes were crowned with a tiara in a Papal Coronation. Though the last pope to be crowned was Pope Paul VIin 1963 it remains one of the key symbols of the papacy, and features on the Vatican coat of arms. Pope Benedict XVI has replaced the tiara on his official coat of arms with a traditional bishop's mitre and the pallium, symbols of the Pontiff's authority as Bishop of Rome.
Though people talk of "the" tiara, there are in fact over twenty surviving tiaras in existence. The earliest dates from the sixteenth century, the latest from 1981. Eleven of them are held in the Vatican and two are permanently on display in the
United Statesat the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conceptionin Washington, D.C.and at the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Indianaat the University of Notre Dame.
The most recent papal tiara was donated to
Pope John Paul IIby Hungary in 1981.
List of some of the papal tiaras still in existence
Tiara of Pope Gregory XIII(1572-1585)—The oldest surviving papal tiara in existence.
Papier-mâché Tiaraof Pope Pius VII(Made for his exiled coronation in Venicein 1800.)
# Tiara of Pope Pius VII (1804) "Napoleon Tiara" from
Napoleon, marking his wedding to Josephine; by Henry August and Marie-Etienne Nitot, House of Chaumet, Paris. Some of the jewels and decoration for this tiara came from earlier tiaras smashed and stolen by the troops of the French Directoryin 1798. The tiara was made deliberately too small, and at 18 pounds (8 kg) too heavy, for the pope to wear.)
Tiara of Pope Pius VII(1820) [http://images.google.ie/imgres?imgurl=http://www.udayton.edu/mary/gallery/CincyExhibit_files/v3_slide0051_image044.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.udayton.edu/mary/gallery/CincyExhibit_files/v3_slide0051.htm&h=471&w=367&sz=35&tbnid=UWUZYt0tvrUJ:&tbnh=125&tbnw=97&hl=en&start=67&prev=/images%3Fq%3DPapal%2BTiara%26start%3D60%26svnum%3D30%26hl%3Den%26lr%3Dlang_en%26safe%3Doff%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN (image)]
Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI (1834)one of the most worn in the papal collection
# Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI (1845).
# Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI (date unknown). Lightweight version of a tiara.
# Tiara of
Pope Pius IX(1846) coronation tiara.
# Tiara of Pope Pius IX (1855) "Spanish Tiara" from Queen
Isabella IIof Spain
# Tiara of Pope Pius IX (late 1850s) from the
Congregation of Holy Crosson permanent display in the Basilica of the Sacred Heart at the University of Notre Dame.
# Tiara of Pope Pius IX (1871) "Belgian Tiara" from the women of the Royal Court of the
King of the Belgiansby Jean Baptiste Bethume of Ghent. (image opposite.)
# Tiara of Pope Pius IX (1870s) lightweight tiara.
# Tiara of Pope Pius IX (1877) "Palatine Tiara" from the Holy See's
Palatine Guardin honour of Pope Pius's jubilee.
# Tiara of Pope Leo XIII (1887) "German Tiara" from Kaiser
Wilhelm I of Germanyin commemoration of the Pope's Golden Jubileeas a priest.
# Tiara of Pope Leo XIII (1888) "Paris Tiara" from the Catholics of Paris to celebrate the Pope's Golden Jubilee. By François Désiré Froment-Meurice.
# Tiara of Pope Leo XIII (1894) "Austrian Tiara" from Kaiser
Franz Joseph of Austria.
# Tiara of Pope Leo XIII (1903) "Golden tiara" given by the
Vicar-General of Romeon behalf of the world's Catholics to commemorate the Pope's Silver Jubileeas pope. [http://www.udayton.edu/mary/gallery/CincyExhibit_files/v3_slide0042_image036.jpg(image)]
Tiara of Pope Pius X(1908) by papal jewellers Tatani to commemorate the Pope's golden jubilee of his ordination as a priest. Made because the pope found other tiaras too heavy.
# Tiara of
Pope Pius XI(1922)
# Tiara of Pope Pius XI (1922) from the Archdiocese of Milan.
# Tiara of
Pope John XXIII(1959) , his home region in honour of his election as pope.
Tiara of Pope Paul VI(1963) .
Tiara of Pope John Paul II(Hungarian Tiara) (1981) ( [http://images.google.ie/imgres?imgurl=http://i236.photobucket.com/albums/ff319/kjk76_95/tiaragp2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://wdtprs.com/blog/2007/11/18/&h=747&w=497&sz=95&hl=en&start=18&tbnid=m6BWybyt0qKiZM:&tbnh=141&tbnw=94&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpapal%2Btiara%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Doff%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DG image] ) presented to Pope John Paul II by Catholics in the then Communiststate of Hungary. As neither John Paul II nor his successor, Pope Benedict XVIhave worn any papal tiara, this tiara remains unworn.
"Note: Because the donation of tiaras was often a private matter not announced by the person making the donation, is is unknown whether any subsequent papal tiaras have been donated. The existence of the Hungarian Tiara, though long rumoured, was only confirmed when images of it featured in the media."
Though Pope Paul VI decided not to wear his tiara again in a gesture of humility and gave it to the Church in the United States, his 1975
Apostolic Constitution, " Romano Pontifici Eligendo" required that his successor be crowned. However Pope John Paul Idecided not to follow the requirement and instead underwent a Papal Inauguration. Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic Constitution " Universi Dominici Gregis" left it up to each future pope to decide whether to be crowned or inaugurated.
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