- Brazil–Canada relations
Brazilian-Canadian relations (also Canada-Brazil relationsForeign Affairs Canada [http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/brazil/bilat/index.aspx Canada-Brazil relations] ] ) have been cordial but relatively limited, although the relationship between the two countries has been gradually evolving over time.
Prior to the 1820s
Braziland Canadawere both colonies of European powers, and had no direct contacts. Brazil's independence was much earlier than Canada's, and British control of Canada's relations with foreign governments lasted well into the early twentieth century.
However, trade was important enough that Canada opened its first trade office in Brazil in
1866. Canada’s Embassy in Brazil did not open until 1944, with Jean Désyas Canada’s first Ambassadorto Brazil. In May 1941, Brazil opened a legationin Ottawa. The first Brazilian Ambassador to Canada was João Alberto Lins de Barros.dfait]
Today, in addition to the embassy in
Brasilia, Canada is also represented by consulates general in both São Pauloand Rio de Janeiro, a trade office in Belo Horizonteand a Canadian International Development Agencyoffice in Recife.
Cold War politics also got in the way: while Canada was a founding member of the
Atlantic Allianceand was closely associated with US policies, Brazil was an observer at the Non-Aligned Movementand its leaders held sometimes cool views of America. Canada was very discontected from Latin America and did not even join the Organization of American Statesuntil 1990.
The 1990s saw the relations become more important to both countries as trade and investment links grew, and Canada became interested in regional trade agreements in Latin America. These increasing economic ties lead to several disputes, however.
Two-way trade reached
C$2.33 billion in 2000, making Brazil Canada's second largest market in Latin America. Accumulated Canadian investments in Brazil were estimated at C$6 billion in 2000.
Economic and diplomatic relations famously sunk to all-time lows between 1996 and 2001 because of several disputes over trade policy.
The main bone of contention steams from the rivalry between aerospace manufacturers
Bombardierof Canada and Embraerof Brazil. Each is major player in the market for regional jets. In 1996, Canada went to the World Trade Organizationalleging that the Brazilian state was subsidizing Embraer's costs, and Brazil filed a countrer-claim. In 1999 the WTO ruled that both parties were at fault, and told both countries to clean up their export-promotion programs. Canada complied but Brazil did not, leading the WTO to grant Canada the right to levy C$344.2 million in sanctions a year for six years against Brazil, although the sanction did not go into force.
In February 2001, Canada instiuted a temporary ban on Brazilian
beef, over fears of BSE ("mad-cow disease"), despite Brazil having no cases. Brazilians saw this as a political move linked to the aircraft dispute, and soon retaliated. The Brazilian Congressvoted to suspended the ratification of all treaties with Canada, and popular protests and boycotts against Canada were organized. The ban was lifted three weeks after an inspection by a North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) team.
Canada and Brazil have also clashed over the proposed
Free Trade Agreement of the Americas, which Canada's government actively promoted. Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardosoviewed the proposal more cooly and preferred to create a South American bloc and then negotiate with the United Statesand Canada from a position of strength. The failure of the FTAA and the creation of the Union of South American Nationsseems to have vindicated Brazil's position.
Other disputes have included "Brazilian suspicions of Canada’s relationship and perceived automatic alignment with the United States, and Brazil's claims that Canada has failed to recognize its economic weight and importance as a regional and international actor."Canadian Foundation for the Americas [http://www.focal.ca/pdf/canada_brazil.pdf "“Getting Over the Jet-Lag” Canada–Brazil Relations 2001"] ]
Outside of trade policy, relations have been much warmer. The foreign-policy making groups in each country tend to value multilateralism and human security. Canada is not necessarily opposed to Brazil's main goals of international recognition as a
great power, and regional integration in South America. Canada's main goal in the region is to prevent the emergence of hostile trade blocs separating North and South America, and to ensure Canada has reliable market access.
Sub-national ties are friendly as well. Ties and exchanges between states and provinces, cities, universities, scientific research, cultural and
non-governmental organizations, are important. Canadian universities and colleges received more than 4,000 Brazilian students in 1999 (a record),http://www.focal.ca/pdf/canada_brazil.pdf] while by 2006, almost 12,000 visas were issued to Brazilians to study in Canada, making Canada the number one study abroad destination for Brazilians.Foreign Affairs Canada " [http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/brazil/bilat/index.aspx Canada-Brazil relations] "] . Over a dozen Canadian Studies Centres have been established in Brazilian schools. Both countries' largest cities Torontoand São Pauloare part of a twining agreement. Approximately 50,000 Brazilians per year visit Canada as tourists, and about one third that many Canadians visit Brazil.
Embassy of Brazil in Ottawa
Embassy of Canada in Brasília
List of Brazilian ambassadors to Canada
List of Canadian ambassadors to Brazil
* [http://www.mre.gov.br/ingles/index.htm Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil]
* [http://www.international.gc.ca/ Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada]
* [http://www.brasembottawa.org/ Brazilian Embassy in Ottawa]
* [http://www.canada.org.br/ Canadian Embassy in Brasília]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Brazil–Chile relations — Brazil Chile relations refers to interstate relations between the Republic of Chile and the Federative Republic of Brazil. Currently, both countries are ruled by socialist leaders, Michelle Bachelet in Chile and Lula da Silva in Brazil, whom… … Wikipedia
Australia–Canada relations — Canadian Australian relations Australia … Wikipedia
Canada-Latin America relations — are relations between Canada and Latin America. This includes the bilateral ties between Canada and the individual Latin American states, plurilateral ties between Canada and any group of those states, or multilateral relations through groups… … Wikipedia
Canada–New Zealand relations — Canadian–New Zealand relations Canada … Wikipedia
BRAZIL — BRAZIL, South American federal republic; general population (est.) 183 million (2005); Jewish population 97,000. Jewish history in Brazil is divided into four distinct periods with a specific interval: (a) The presence of new christians and the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
brazil — /breuh zil /, n. brazilwood. [1350 1400; ME brasile < ML < It < Sp brasil, deriv. of brasa live coal (the wood being red in color) < Gmc; see BRAISE] * * * Brazil Introduction Brazil Background: Following three centuries under the rule of… … Universalium
Brazil — Brazilian /breuh zil yeuhn/, adj., n. /breuh zil /, n. a republic in South America. 164,511,366; 3,286,170 sq. mi. (8,511,180 sq. km). Cap.: Brasília. Portuguese and Spanish, Brasil. Official name, Federative Republic of Brazil. * * * Brazil… … Universalium
Brazil — Infobox Country native name = República Federativa do Brasil conventional long name = Federative Republic of Brazil common name = Brazil symbol type = Coat of arms national motto = Ordem e Progresso pt icon Order and Progress national anthem =… … Wikipedia
Canada and weapons of mass destruction — Weapons of mass destruction … Wikipedia
Foreign relations of Brazil — Brazil This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Brazil … Wikipedia