Timeline of women's suffrage


Timeline of women's suffrage

Women's suffrage has been granted at various times in various countries throughout the world. In many countries women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women (and men) from certain classes or races were still unable to vote, while some granted it to both sexes at the same time.

The timeline below lists years when women's suffrage was "enacted" in various places. In many cases the first voting took place in a subsequent year.

New Zealand in 1893 is often said to be the first "country" in the world to give women the right to vote. However, it was then a British colony and other sub-national entities had earlier given certain women voting rights.(New Zealand became an independent nation some time between 1907 and 1947 although constitutional historians disagree as to exactly when.) [Colin Campbell Aikman, ‘History, Constitutional’ in McLintock, A.H. (ed),"An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand", 3 vols, Wellington, NZ:R.E. Owen, Government Printer, 1966, vol 2, pp.67-75.]

"Disclaimer: This timeline reflects a vast amount of information from the women's suffrage movement throughout the globe. In many cases, countries passed various laws which progressively gave women the right to vote. Many countries may appear on the list more than once due to the fact that restrictions on suffrage were only lifted slowly." (Former name of nation included at time of rights granted.) This list only states the right to vote; for other rights, see Timeline of Womens Rights (other than voting)

18th century

* 1718
** flag|Sweden Female taxpaying members of the citite's guilds are allowed to vote in local elections (rescinded in 1758) and general elections (rescinded in the new constitution of 1771)
* 1755
** flagicon|Corsica Corsica (rescinded upon annexation by France in 1769)
* 1756-1778
** flagicon|Massachusetts Colonial Massachusetts, Lydia Taft, Uxbridge, Massachusetts town meeting
* 1776
** flag|New Jersey (rescinded in 1807)

19th century

* 1838
** flag|Pitcairn Islands
* 1861
** flag|South Australia (Only property-owning women for local elections, universal franchise in 1894)
* 1862
** flag|Sweden (only in local elections, votes graded after taxation, universal franchise in 1918, which went into effect at the 1921 elections)
* 1864
** flagicon|Victoria Women in Victoria, Australia were unintentionally enfranchised by the "Electoral Act" (1863), and proceeded to vote in the following year's elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error. [ [http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/women.html Women in Parliament - Parliament of Victoria ] ]
* 1869
** flagicon|United Kingdom United Kingdom (only in local elections, universal franchise in 1928)
* 1869-1920
** flagicon|Wyoming States and territories of the USA, progressively, starting with the Wyoming Territory in 1869 and Utah Territory in 1870. The latter was repealed by the U.S. Congress through the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887. Wyoming acquired statehood in 1890 (Utah in 1896) and thus 1892 was the first United States presidential election in which women cast legal votes. The USA as a whole acquired women's suffrage in 1920 (see below) through the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; voting qualifications in the U.S., even in federal elections, are set by the states, and this amendment prohibited states from discriminating on the basis of sex.
* 1881
** flag|Isle of Man (only property-owners until 1913, universal franchise in 1919.)
* 1884
** flag|Canada|1868 Widows and spinsters granted the right to vote within municipalities in Ontario (later to other provinces). [ [http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage.htm Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage] ]
* 1886
** Republic of Tavolara grants universal suffrage. ["Smallest State in the World," "New York Times", June 19, 1896, p 6] ["Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election," "Lowell Daily Sun", Sep 17, 1896] Monarchy restored 1899.
* 1889
** grants universal suffrage. ["Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," "Hawaiian Gazette", Nov 1, 1895, p 1] Loses self-rule within months.
* 1893
** flag|New Zealand September 19 (including Maori women, although barred from standing for election.)
** flag|Cook Islands
* 1894
** flag|South Australia grants universal suffrage, extending the franchise to all women (property-owners could vote in local elections from 1861), the first in Australia to do so. Women are also granted the right to stand for parliament, making South Australia the first in the world to do so.
** flagicon|United Kingdom United Kingdom extends right to vote in local elections to married women.
* 1899
** flag|Western Australia

20th century

1900s

* 1902
** flagicon|Australia Commonwealth of Australia (The Australian Constitution gave the federal franchise to all persons allowed to vote for the lower house in each state unless the Commonwealth Parliament stipulated otherwise. Thus, South Australian and Western Australian women could vote in the first federal election in 1901. During the first Parliament, the Commonwealth passed legislation extending federal franchise to non-Aboriginal women in all states.)
** flag|New South Wales
* 1903
** flag|Tasmania
* 1905
** flag|Queensland
* 1906
** flag|Finland First country to give both the right to vote and stand for elections. First country to give both rights to all women regardless of wealth, race or social class.
** flag|New Hebrides Perhaps inspired by the Franceville experiment, the Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides granted women the right to vote in municipal elections and to serve on elected municipal councils. (These rights applied only to British, French, and other colonists, not to indigenous islanders.) [Bourdiol, Julien (1908), "Condition internationale des Nouvelles-Hebrides", p 106]
* 1908
** flag|Denmark (only in local elections)
** flag|Victoria

1910s

* 1913
** flag|Norway
* 1915
** flag|Denmark (full voting rights, with Iceland)
* 1916
** flag|Canada|1868 (Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan only, others later on)
* 1918
** flagicon|Azerbaijan|1918 Azerbaijan
** flag|Austria
** flag|Canada|1868 on federal level (last province to enact women's suffrage was Quebec in 1940)
** flag|Estonia
** flag|Germany|empire
** flag|Latvia
** flag|Poland
** flag|Russian SFSR|1918
** flagicon|United Kingdom United Kingdom ("see Representation of the People Act 1918": women above the age of 30, compared to 21 for men and 19 for those who had fought in World War One. Various property qualifications remained.)
* 1919
** flag|Armenia
** flag|Belarus|1991 Fact|date=July 2007
** flag|Belgium (only at municipal level)
** flag|Georgia|1990
** flag|Hungary (full suffrage granted in 1945)
** flag|Luxembourg
** flag|Netherlands (right to stand in election granted in 1917)
** flag|New Zealand (along with voting rights, women now allowed to stand for election into parliament)
** flag|Ukraine

1920s

* 1920
** flag|Albania
** flag|Czechoslovakia (country created in 1918, first constitution in 1920 granted universal suffrage.)
** flag|United States|1912 (All remaining states)
* 1921
** flag|Lithuania
** flag|Romania (with restrictions)
** flag|Sweden
* 1922
** flagicon|Ireland Irish Free State - now known as the Republic of Ireland - (equal suffrage granted upon independence from UK)
** flag|Burma
** flag|Yucatán, Mexico (regional and congress elections only)
* 1924
** flag|Mongolia (No electoral system in place prior to this year)
** flag|Saint Lucia|1875
** flag|Tajik SSR
* 1925
** flag|Italy (local elections only)
* 1927
** flag|Turkmen SSR
* 1928
** flag|United Kingdom (franchise equal to that for men)
* 1929
** flag|Ecuador
** flag|Puerto Rico (to vote)

1930s

* 1930
** flag|South Africa|1928 (only granted to white women on the same basis as white men; black women did not qualify for the vote even though some black men did)
** flag|Turkey
* 1931
** flag|Portugal (with restrictions following level of education)
** flag|Spain|1931
** flag|Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
* 1932
** flag|Brazil - "Berta Lutz"
** flag|Maldives
** flag|Thailand (Siam)
** flag|Uruguay
* 1934
** flag|Chile (only at municipal level)
** flag|Cuba
** flag|Portugal expands suffrage
** flag|Turkey expands suffrage
** flag|Tabasco, Mexico (regional and congress elections only)
* 1935
** flag|British Raj (Same year as men) (Retained by India and Pakistan after independence in 1947).
** flag|Myanmar (Burma)
* 1937
** flag|Philippines
* 1938
** flag|Bolivia
** flag|Uzbek SSR
* 1939
** flag|El Salvador

1940s

* 1940
** flag|Quebec becomes the final Canadian province to give female suffrage.
* 1941
** flag|Panama (with restrictions)
* 1942
** flag|Dominican Republic
* 1944
** flag|Bermuda (property-holding whites only)
** flag|Bulgaria
** flag|Jamaica
* 1945
** flag|France (October 21)
** flag|Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)
** flag|Japan (with restrictions)
** flag|Senegal
** flag|Togo (French Togoland)
** flag|Yugoslavia
* 1946
** flag|Cameroon
** flag|Djibouti (French Somaliland)
** flag|Guatemala
** flag|Kenya
** flag|North Korea [http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/suffrage.htm]
** flag|Italy (June 2)
** flag|Liberia (Americo women only; indigenous men and women were not enfranchised until 1951)
** flagicon|Palestine|Mandate The British Mandate of Palestine
** flag|Romania (with restrictions)
** flag|Venezuela|1930
** flag|Vietnam
* 1947
** flag|Argentina
** flag|China (with restrictions)
** flag|Malta
** flag|Mexico|1934 (only at municipal level)
** flag|Nepal
** flag|Pakistan
** flag|Singapore
* 1948
** flagicon|United Nations The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN includes Article 21: "The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures."
** flag|Belgium
** flag|Israel
** flag|Iraq
** flag|Italy
** flag|South Korea
** flag|Niger
** flag|Dutch Guiana (now Suriname)
* 1949
** flag|Chile
** flag|China
** flag|Costa Rica
** flag|Syria|1932

1950s

* 1950
** flag|Barbados
** flag|Haiti
** flag|India (Same year as men)
* 1951
** flag|Antigua and Barbuda|colonial
** flag|Dominica
** flag|Grenada|1903
** flag|Nepal
** Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
** flag|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines|colonial
* 1952
** flag|United Nations enacts Convention on the Political Rights of Women
** flag|Bolivia
** flag|Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
** flag|Greece
** flag|Lebanon
* 1953
** flag|Bhutan
** flag|British Guiana (now Guyana)
** flag|Hungary
** flag|Mexico (extended to all women and for national elections)
* 1954
** flag|British Honduras (now Belize)
** flag|Colombia
** flag|Gold Coast (now Ghana)
* 1955
** flag|Cambodia
** flag|Ethiopia|1897 (and Eritrea, as then a part of Ethiopia)
** flag|Honduras
** flag|Nicaragua
** flag|Peru
* 1956
** flag|Dahomey (now Benin)
** flag|Comoros
** flag|Egypt|1952
** flag|Gabon
** flag|Mali (French Sudan)
** flag|Mauritius
** flag|Pakistan (right extended to national level)
** flag|Somalia (British Somaliland)
* 1957
** flag|Malaya (now Malaysia)
** flag|Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
* 1958
** flagcountry|Republic of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)
** flag|Chad
** flag|Guinea
** flag|Laos
** flag|Nigeria|colonial-South-
* 1959
** flag|Brunei
** flag|Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)
** flag|San Marino
** flag|Tanganyika|colonial (now Tanzania)
** flag|Tunisia

1960s

* 1960
** flag|Cyprus
** flag|Gambia
** flag|Tonga
* 1961
** flag|Burundi
** flag|Mauritania
** flag|Malawi
** flag|Paraguay
** flag|Rwanda|1959
** flag|Sierra Leone
* 1962
** flag|Algeria
** flag|Australia: franchise extended to Aboriginal men and women.
** flag|Brunei "Revoked" (including men)
** flag|Monaco
** flag|Uganda
** flag|Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)
* 1963
** flag|Congo
** flag|Equatorial Guinea
** flag|Fiji
** flag|Iran|1925 (See Iranian constitutional referendum, 1963)
** flag|Kenya
** flag|Morocco
* 1964
** flag|Bahamas
** flag|Libya
** flag|Papua New Guinea (Territory of Papua & Territory of New Guinea)
** flag|Sudan
* 1965
** flag|Afghanistan|1931 (revoked under Taliban rule 1996-2001) [ [http://womenshistory.about.com/od/suffrage/a/intl_timeline_3.htm Woman Suffrage Timeline International - Winning the Vote Around the World ] ]
** flag|Botswana (Bechuanaland)
** flag|Lesotho|1966 (Basutoland)
* 1967
** flag|Democratic Republic of the Congo|1966
** flag|Ecuador
** flag|Kiribati (Gilbert Islands)
** flag|Tuvalu (Ellice Islands)
** flag|South Yemen
* 1968
** flag|Bermuda (universal)
** flag|Nauru
** flag|Swaziland

1970s

* 1970
** flag|Andorra
** flag|Yemen|1962 (North Yemen)
* 1971
** flag|Switzerland (on the federal level; introduced on the Cantonal level from 1958-1990)
* 1972
** flag|Bangladesh
* 1974
** flag|Jordan
** flag|Solomon Islands
* 1975
** flag|Angola
** flag|Cape Verde
** flag|Mozambique
** flag|São Tomé and Príncipe
** flag|Vanuatu (New Hebrides)
* 1976
** flag|Portugal (restrictions lifted)
* 1977
** flag|Guinea-Bissau
* 1978
** flag|Marshall Islands
** flag|Micronesia
** flag|Moldavian SSR
** flag|Nigeria-North-
** flag|Palau

1980s

* 1984
** flag|Liechtenstein
* 1986
** flag|Central African Republic
* 1989
** flag|Namibia (South-West Africa)

1990s

* 1990
** flag|Samoa (Western Samoa)
** flag|Switzerland (the Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden is forced by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland to accept women's suffrage)
* 1994
** flag|Kazakhstan
** flag|South Africa: franchise extended to black men and women.
* 1997
** flag|Qatar (municipal elections in 1999)

21st century

* 2002
** flag|Bahrain
* 2003
** flag|Oman
* 2005
** flag|Kuwait (subject to Islamic law)
** flag|Qatar (national elections in 2008)
* 2006
** flag|United Arab Emirates (limited; to be expanded by 2010)

References

* http://www.hist.uu.se/historikermote05/program/Politik/52_Karlsson_Sjogren.pdf
* Åsa Karlsson-Sjögren, "Männen, kvinnorna och rösträtten : medborgarskap och representation 1723-1866". "

See also

* Timeline of Womens Rights (other than voting)
* Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries

External links

* [http://humandevelopment.bu.edu/dev_indicators/show_info.cfm?index_id=286&data_type=2 Timeline Site]
* [http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/statistics/indicators/256.html Another Timeline]


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