Valdemoro


Valdemoro

Spanish city
native_name = Valdemoro
spanish_name = Valdemoro
nickname =
city_motto =
city_motto_means =


image_flag_size =
image_coat_of_arms =
image_coat_of_arms_size =
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image_flag_size =
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image_city_map_size = 260px
image_city_map_caption = Location of Valdemoro
lat_long = coord|40|11.5|N|3|40.5|W
time_zone = CET (GMT +1)
time_zone_summer = CEST (GMT +2)


native_language = Spanish
founded = 1190
community = Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid
community_link = Community of Madrid
province = Madrid
province_link = Community of Madrid
comarca = La Sagra
comarca_link = La Sagra
divisions =
neighborhoods = 12
mayor = José Miguel Moreno Torres
political_party = PP
political_party_link = People's Party (Spain)
area = 64.2
altitude = 615
population = 53,188
date-population = 2007
population-ranking = 131
density = 755.7
date-density = 2007
website = http://www.valdemoro.es/
postal_code = 28340 - 28343
area_code = 91

Valdemoro is a municipal district, located in the Southern zone of the autonomous community of Madrid, Spain. Located 27 kilometers from the capital, Valdemoro is officially part of the comarca of La Sagra, though it is generally also included in the Madrid metropolitan area.

The municipality has experienced strong population growth in the past fifteen years, eventually reaching 53,188 inhabitants (INE 2007).Cite web| title = Instituto nacional de Estadística | url = http://www.ine.es/ | language = español Population statistics through 01/01/2006. Royal Decree 1627/2006, 29 December 2006] Valdemoro's proximity to the capital has favored the demographic and economic development of the area. Due to the recent population boom, Valdemoro has had to construct new transportation, educational, sanitation, health, and entertainment facilities.

The municipality's recent history is closely linked to that of the Guardia Civil. Valdemoro is home to the Colegio de Guardias Jóvenes Duque de Ahumada, an academy open only to children and orphans of existing guardsmen.

Origin of the Name

According to legend, the indigenous inhabitants' resistance to the Moorish invaders inspired the saying "En balde, Moro, te cansas" ("You tire yourself in vain, Moor"). This saying evolved to become the name of the area -- Valdemoro. Taking into consideration the short amount of time it took for the Moors to completely conquer the Iberian Peninsula, it seems more likely that the name comes from "Valle de Moro" ("Valley of the Moor(s)"), a name the area received after the Reconquista.

History

Origins

Copper Age artefacts found in the area include arrowheads, knives, stone chips, and sheets of flint and quartzite. During the Bronze Age, certain strategically-located areas were populated in a number of temporary settlements. The earliest indications of a continuous human presence in the area known as Valdemoro dates back to the Iron Age on the farmlands of El Espartal in the Eastern parts of the municipal district

Without a doubt, the most important archeological discovery in the area is the so-called "Ciempozuelo type" of Bell Beaker. Discovered in the extreme southeast of Valdemoro, close to the city of Ciempozuelos (its namesake), these vases, which date back to circa 1900 BCE, are made of gray or black clay and are decorated with geometric motifs. The remains of Roman villa from the Late Roman period, which operated continuously until the Visigoth invasion, can also be seen in the area. [cite web
last = Urquiaga Cela
first = David
title = YACIMIENTOS ARQUEOLÓGICOS EN EL PARQUE REGIONAL DEL SURESTE (MADRID)
date = 2001
url = http://www.elsoto.org/yacimientos.htm
accessdate = 2007
]

The farmlands of El Espartal have been declared "Bien de Interés Cultural" ("Area of cultural heritage/interest") as an Archeological Zone.

Foundation

The discovery of ruins of ancient methods of water transportation confirms Valdemoro's origins as an ancient Moorish settlement. The area was populated before the Moors' arrival, and this indigenous Gothic population resisted the invasion fiercely.

After the Reconquista, the bishops of Segovia and Palencia argued about who would control the settlement at Valdemoro. The settlement was eventually annexed into the Segovian communice in 1190 after the intervention of King Alfonso VIII and the mediation of Pope Clement III. Valdemoro soon became one of the most important municipalities in the Sistema Central mountain range, moreso than Chinchón, Bayona, Villaconejos, Valdelaguna, Seseña, San Martín de la Vega and Ciempozuelos.cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Nuestra historia
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/content.asp?contentid=4165&nodeid=1343
accessdate = 2007
]

Modern Age

In the middle of the 14th century, Adelantado Hernán Pérez de Portocarrero of Castile assimilated Valdemoro into his other holdings. By the end of that century, Valdemoro was assimilated into the ecclesiastical dominion of the Archbishop of Toledo. Soon after, King Enrique III awarded Valdemoro the privileges of the designation of "Villa", which facilitate the area's social and economic development.

In 1577, King Felipe II became so infuriated with the Archbishop of Toledo that he declared Valdemoro "realengo" (under the direct control of the King). Soon after, Melchor de Herrera, the Marquess of Auñón, assumed control of Valdemoro. During this time, the Convento del Carmen religious community is founded. In 1602, de Herrera's heirs sold the village to Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma and favourite of King Felipe III. Under the Duke's rule, the area undergoes significant social development, including the foundation of the Feria Barroca. In 1605, the Fuente de la Villa ("Village Fountain"), one of the area's most emblematic monuments, is built. In 1616, the Convento de Santa Clara is inaugurated. The most important works of art in the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción are created during the second half of the 17th century.

Due to the efforts of hidalgo José Aguado Correa during the 18th century, Valdemoro emerged from a period of deterioration and poverty. The arrival of the House of Bourbon to Spain brought a wave of industrial revolution, giving Aguado Correa the opportunity to establish a textile factory in Valdemoro. By the end of the century, Pedro López de Lerena, a Minister in the Courts of Kings Carlos III and Carlos IV, founded a number of public schools in 1792, and funds the remodeling the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción by artists such as Francisco de Goya, Francisco Bayeu, and Ramón Bayeu. López de Lerena also attempts to revitalize Aguado Correa's factory, but fails, as the population retains its Medieval mindset.

Though the area's economy remained primarily agricultural during the 19th century, the gypsum mining industry began to slowly develop. During this time, Valdemoran wines gained some fame throughout the comarca. These timid attempts at industrialization were interrupted by the Peninsular War. The French army's occupation of Valdemoro resulted in a significant loss of life, art, and contemporary documentation.

In 1822, during the rein of King Fernando VII, Valdemoro was officially declared to be a part of the province of Madrid. In 1851, the ferry line connecting Madrid to Aranjuez is rerouted to stop in Valdemoro. Soon after, in 1855, the Colegio de Guardias Jóvenes "Duque de Ahumada" is constructed on the foundations of the old textile factory. The Colegio remained at this location until it was moved out of the municipality in 1972. The grounds now make up the Parque Duque de Ahumada.

20th Century and the Present

Valdemoro saw a significant loss of life and artistic heritage during the 20th century and especially during the Spanish Civil War. Economic stability wasn't re-established until well into the 1950s.

The restoration of the democracy in 1975 heralded a new era for the district, ushering in widespread urban and industrial growth. The construction of new industrial parks and new neighborhoods (El Restón, UDE Oeste-Norte, Las Comunidades) facilitated Valdemoro's transition from rural municipality to commuter town. This growth continues today, and the population is expected to continue to increase.

Politics and Government

The current mayor of Valdemoro is José Miguel Moreno Torres of the Partido Popular (PP), who has held the position since his election in 2003. In the 2007 regional elections, the PP received 59.32% of the vote and 14 town councillors. Other parties in the area include the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), who received 19.9% of the vote and 4 councillors; the United Left (IU), with 9.81% and 2 councillors; and the local Partido Independiente Vecinos de Valdemoro, who obtained 5.34% of all votes and one town councillor. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Elecciones municipales de 2007
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/cpcontent.asp?contentid=8019&nodeid=5336
accessdate = 2007
]

The government is composed of the mayor, two deputy majors, and thirteen cultural departments:
-

The area is also home to 3 species of amphibians, 7 species of reptiles, and 127 varieties of birds (67 species with stable, reproducing populations). Of these species, 21 are hibernating species and 27 are nomadic.

Human Geography

The city of Valdemoro borders the following municipal districts: to the North, Pinto and San Martín de la Vega; to the East, Ciempozuelos; to the South, Seseña and Esquivias; to the West, Torrejón de Velasco.


Economy

Up through the 1960s, Valdemoro's economy was primarily agricultural. The territory was divided into 19 agricultural districts: Tenerías, Horcavieja, Espinillo, Cerro del Boticario, Alvarado, Valle de las Monjas, Valle del Infierno, Cuevecillas, Cabeza del Gato, Valdajos, Pocillos, Marguilla, Santiago, Tranzones, Valdereja, Cárcava, Portillo, Mira and Arboledas. Its industry was limited almost exclusively to gypsum quarries which were in the process of going bankrupt due to lack of modernization. Of these, the most important quarry was known as "La Integridad".

Valdemoro experienced a wave of industrialization during the 1980s, which resulted in a subsequent rapid increase in population. By 2002, the distribution of industry was as follows: [cite web
last = Instituto de Estadística de la Comunidad de Madrid
title = Actividad económica de Valdemoro
work =
publisher =
date = 2007
url = http://www.madrid.org/desvan/almudena/FichaMunicipal.icm?codFicha=1&codMunZona=1610&tipoFicha=M&codSolapaActiva=3
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007
]
*Agriculture: 0,16%
*Industry: 39,50%
*Services: 60,34%

Agriculture

Due to its arid climate, Valdemoro's main crop is cereals, and the main livestock is poultry. Much like the rest of the developed areas of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, this sector is rapidly diminishing in both importance and size.

Industry

Due to its proximity to Madrid, Valdemoro's industrial sector is considered fundamentally important. Large national and international companies have located their logistical headquarters in the area, including the wholesaler El Corte Inglés, the automotive supplier Lear, the German toymaker Schuco, and the oil company Total S.A..

Services

The service industry, which includes the commercial sector, is the most developed industry in the area. On average, 14.7% of the population works in these fields. The two commercial centers of Valdemoro are the Calle Estrella de Elola in the historical district, and the Centro Comercial El Restón, located in one of the new residential neighborhoods that are currently under construction. There has been speculation in recent years that El Corte Inglés and/or Carrefour are planning to construct a new mall in the municipal district, though this has not been confirmed at present.

Communication

Printed Press

* [http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/cpcontent.asp?contentid=2867&nodeid=83Boletín Informativo Municipal] : monthly magazine edited by the municipal corporation, detailing its decisions.
* [http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/cpcontent.asp?contentid=2868&nodeid=84Valdemoro Semanal] : weekly municipal publication containing information about local activities and events.
* [http://www.pintoyvaldemoro.comEntre Pinto y Valdemoro] : cultural guide, with entertainment information for the Pinto and Valdemoro municipalities.
* [http://sur.losmercados.es/Mercado Sur] : monthly newspaper with news and information from Pinto, Parla, and Valdemoro.
* [http://www.genteenmadrid.com/cabeceras/pintoyvaldemoro/index.html Gente en Madrid - Pinto y Valdemoro] : weekly newspaper with news and information from Pinto and Valdemoro.
* Vivir Valdemoro: local publication with information about the municipal district.

Online Press

* [http://www.valdeforo.netDiario Digital de Valdemoro] : online daily newspaper with local news.
* [http://www.valde-moro.com/Portal de Valdemoro] : web portal with local news and news from the Comunidad de Madrid.

Radio

* Antena Boreal: local radio (103.3 MHz FM)

Transportation

Roads

National "Autovías"
*A-4: (Madrid-Córdoba-Sevilla-Cádiz)Toll "Autopistas"
*R-4: (M-50-Ocaña)First-level Autonomous Roads
*M-506 (Villaviciosa de Odón-Fuenlabrada-San Martín de la Vega-Arganda del Rey)
*M-410 (Arroyomolinos-Parla-Valdemoro) (Under construction)
*M-423 (Variante Oeste de Valdemoro) (Under construction)Second-level Autonomous Roads
*M-404 (Navalcarnero-Griñón-Chinchón-Villarejo de Salvanés) Third-level Autonomous Roads
*M-942 (M-404-Valdemoro)

Rail System

Valdemoro has a train station, with service along the Cercanías Madrid C-3 Line. (Atocha-Aranjuez)There has been some discussion of the creation of a second station in the western zone, but so far no official project has been created. In the last "Plan General de Urbanismo" ("General Plan of Urbanization"), several tracks of land have been reserved for the creation of a new railway line and station. In June 2006, with the start of the urban expansion project of El Espartal, the government announced that the C-3 Line would make a new stop between the stations of Valdemoro and Ciempozuelos. In addition, plans exist for a high speed train, part of the Alta Velocidad Española Madrid-Levate line, to run through the southern parts of Valdemoro. [cite web
last = Ministerio de Fomento
title = Fomento impulsa, a través de Adif, la conexión Madrid - Levante con la adjudicación de obras y suministros por importe global de 231,6 M€
date = 2007
url = http://www.fomento.es/NR/rdonlyres/F93FF9DC-66AA-4A4D-A9FB-D434F334C4AF/27832/07062910.pdf
accessdate = 2007
]

Buses

Valdemoro has the second-most bus routes in the Community of Madrid, with 7 lines and 572 routes. Only Alcalá de Henares has more daily service. [cite web
last = Consorcio Regional de Transportes de Madrid
title = Memoria del Consorcio de Transportes Públicos Regulares de Madrid. Ejercicio 2006
date = 2007
url = http://www.madrid.org/cs/Satellite?blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobcol=urldata&blobkey=id&blobheadervalue1=filename%3DMemoria+Consorcio+2006_baja.pdf&blobwhere=1181239957499&blobheadername1=Content-Disposition&ssbinary=true&blobheader=application%2Fpdf
accessdate = 2007
]

Light Rail

The government has been studying the viability of a light rail system for the past few years. [cite news
title = MINTRA saca a concurso la redacción del proyecto del Metro Ligero de Valdemoro
language = Spanish
publisher = ML1 Valdemoro
date = 2007
url = http://metroligerovaldemoro.wordpress.com/2007/07/09/mintra-saca-a-concurso-la-redaccion-del-proyecto-del-metro-ligero-de-valdemoro/
] The proposed line would connect Valdemoro's Cercanías station with the El Restón and UDE Norte-Oeste nighborhoods and the Hospital. The project is part of the "Plan de Ampliación de la Red de Metro de Madrid 2007-2011" ("Plan to Expand the Network of the Madrid Metro"). The project was licensed to MINTRA on 9 July 2007.

Public Health

The Hospital Infanta Elena opened 24 November 2007, providing services to Valdemoro, San Martín de la Vega, Ciempozuelos and Titulcia. It has 100 beds, 8 operating rooms, and 2 maternity rooms, in addition to urgent care facilities. [cite web
last = Portal de Salud de la Comunidad de Madrid
title = Hospital de Valdemoro
date = 2007
url = http://www.madrid.org/cs/Satellite?vest=1156827010168&pagename=PortalSalud%2FPage%2FPTSA_pintarContenidoFinal&|idioma=es&cid=1160580308293
accessdate = 2007
]

Valdemoro also has two other health centers operated by the Consejería de Sanidad de la Comunidad de Madrid: [cite web
last = Portal de Salud de la Comunidad de Madrid
title = Centros de Atención Primaria del Área Sanitaria 11 de la Comunidad de Madrid
date = 2007
url = http://www.madrid.org/cs/Satellite?blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobcol=urldata&blobkey=id&blobwhere=1158630676722&ssbinary=true&blobheader=application/pdf
accessdate = 2007
]
*"Valdemoro" Health Center
*"El Restón" Health Center

Culture and Tourism

The main cultural center in Valdemoro is the Centro Cultural Juan Prado. The Centro includes a hall of expositions, a library, the Teatro Municipal Juan Prado, and the offices of the Department of Culture, Tourism, and Cultural Heritage. More cultural activities are available at the Centro Lúdico ("Recreational Center") of the El Restón neighborhood.

In addition to the library of the Centro Cultural, Valdemoro has two libraries in the Viva Verde and El Restón neighborhoods, in addition to the new Biblioteca Central built in 2007. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Nueva Biblioteca Central Municipal de Valdemoro
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/cpcontent.asp?contentid=7280&nodeid=4420
accessdate = 2007
]

Valdemoro is home to 4 hotels and 6 hostels, with a combined total of 546 rooms. The district's proximity to the Parque Warner Madrid and to the capital are key factors to the development of the local hotel economy.

Holidays and Celebrations

*San Marcos (25 April): Annual holiday celebated in the Parque Bolitas del Airón. Historically, the "Fiesta" was a religious holiday in which residents made offerings to guarantee agricultural prosperity. The holiday now celebrates sports and other entertainment and cultural activities. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = San Marcos
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/content.asp?contentid=4018&nodeid=1197
accessdate = 2007
]
*Santísimo Cristo de la Salud (Early May): The first patronal celebrations of the municipal district. These holidays originate around the year 1650, when local inhabitants sought permission to celebrate an annual holiday in honor of their patron saint. Celebrations consist of concerts, cultural events, and bull fights. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Fiestas del Santísimo Cristo de La Salud
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/content.asp?contentid=4018&nodeid=1194
accessdate = 2007
]
*Nuestra Señora del Rosario (8 September): The second patronal celebrations of the district, dating back approximately five centuries. Much like the "fiestas" of Cristo de la Salud, celebrations consist of bull fights, cultural events, and various forms of entertainment. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Fiestas de Nuestra Señora del Rosario
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/content.asp?contentid=4018&nodeid=1195
accessdate = 2007
] .
*Virgen del Pilar (12 October): A recently created feastday for the Virgen del Pilar, for whom there is dedicated a parish in the El Restón neighborhood.
*Feria Barroca (Early October): An annual artisan market from the 17th century, the Feria Barroca was revived in 2004. [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Feria Barroca
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/contenidos/cpcontent.asp?contentid=7250&nodeid=4390
accessdate = 2007
]

Parks and Gardens

*Parque Bolitas del Airón: The 440 km2 green "heart" of the municipality, the Parque is the city's most emblematic park. It contains the Comunidad de Madrid's largest population of Russian silverberry trees ("Elaeagnus angustifolia").
*Parque Tierno Galván: Named after the mayor of Madrid from 1979 to 1986, the Parque is the second-largest park in Valdemoro at 120 km2. It contains a lake and various small waterways, in addition to a track and a number of playgrounds.
*Parque de España: This 45 km2 park located in the El Restón neighborhood contains two lakes, a bike track, and several playgrounds.
*Parque de la Alberiza: Constructed at two different altitudes on a small hill, this 11 km2 park contains a central fountain and is surrounded by an arbor of rosebushes.
*Parque del Duque de Ahumada: Located within the historical district, on the grounds of the ancient Colegio de Guardias Jóvenes, the park consists of lawns and gardens of rosebushes and flowers in addition to two fountains and a stand of Japanese wisteria ("Wisteria floribunda").
*Jardín del Duque: Located next to the Parque del Duque de Ahumada, the garden contains an ornamental fountain and a sculpture of a Guardia Civil guardsman.
*Parque Anadlucía: This 6.7 km2 park is located at the Northern entrance to the municipal district. It contains a playground and an ornamental fountain where residents enjoy bathing during the summer months.

Notable Inhabitants

;People born in Valdemoro

*Juan de Castro, architect.
* Friar Alonso de la Cruz, Franciscan mystic.
*Juan Manuel Sotomayor, Mexican judge.
* Friar Pedro Aguado, Franciscan writer.
* Friar Pedro de Palacios, Dominican, professor, and bishop of Guadix.
*Alejandro Aguado, professor at the Universidad de Alcalá and historian of the Spanish Inquisition.
*Diego de Pantoja, missionary.
*Pedro López de Lerena, Viceroy of Chile.
*Nicolasa Escamilla, bullfighter.
*Miguel de los Santos, journalist.
*Fernando García Morcillo, composer.
*David Santisteban, singer and composer.
*Jesús España, athlete.
*Vicente López y López de Lerena, Doctor, priest, and writor.

;People who lived in Valdemoro

*Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, novelist.
*Manuel Bretón de los Herreros, dramaturg, poet and journalist. [cite web
last = Mercado Sur
title = Historia de Valdemoro
publisher = Diario Los Mercados
date = 2007
url = http://sur.losmercados.es/historia-valdemoro.html
accessdate = 2007
]
*Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, politician and historian.
*Antonio Cánovas del Castillo y Vallejo, (AKA: "Kaulak"), photographer.
*Pedro Duque, astronaut.

Curiosities

* Valdemoran wines are mentioned in Arturo Pérez-Reverte's novel "Las aventuras del capitán Alatriste". The novel takes place during the 17th century, during which time Valdemoran wines were well known in Madrid.

* A number of films and novels are set in Valdemoro. Among these are:
**"Marianela" by Benito Pérez Galdós
**"The Pride and the Passion" (1957), with Sophia Loren, Frank Sinatra, and Cary Grant
**"La Lola se va a los puertos" (1993), with Rocío Jurado and Francisco Rabal
**"El Arte de Morir" (1999), with Fele Martínez and Elsa Pataki

* In 1918, Francisco Franco moved to Valdemoro to study at the Escuela Central de Infantería, where he met Lt. Colonel José Millán Astray. [cite web
last = Aguilar
first = Miguel Ángel
title = Estatuas Ecuestres
publisher = Diario Cinco Días
date = 2006
url = http://www.cincodias.com/articulo/opinion/Estatuas/ecuestres/cdscdi/20060616cdscdiopi_2/Tes/
accessdate = 2007
]

* In all of Spain, there are 449 people with the last name Valdemoro: 220 with it as the first surname; 226 with it as the second; and 3 with both surnames Valdemoro. [cite web
last = Instituto Nacional de Estadística
title = Mapa de Distribución de Apellidos
date = 2007
url = http://www.ine.es/fapel/FAPEL.INICIO
accessdate = 2007
]

* "La feria de Valdemoro" is a zarzuela by José Clavijo y Fajardo. [cite web
last = Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte
first = Plan de Fomento de la Lectura
title = Obras de José Clavijo y Fajardo
date = 2007
url = http://www.planlectura.es/recursos/aniversarios/clavijo/obra.htm
accessdate = 2007
] It's an adaptation of "Il mercato di Malmantile", by the Italian dramaturg Carlo Goldoni. Clavijo y Fajardo wrote the zarzuela in honor of the wedding of the Princess María Luisa and Archduke Leopold II of Austria. [cite web
last = Diario Digital Valdeforo
title = Moda barroca en Valdemoro
date = 2006
url = http://www.valdeforo.net/noticia.php?dia=2006-10-12&sec=1
accessdate = 2007
]

* 16 municipalities have a "Calle Valdemoro" (Valdemoro Street): [Información sacada de callejeros web] :

Col-begin|width=50%
*Agoncillo, (La Rioja)
*Alcorcón
*Burgos, (Burgos)
*Cartagena, (Murcia)
*Esquivias, (Toledo)
*Fuenlabrada
*Getafe
*Leganés
*Madrid
*Moraleja de Enmedio
*Pinto
*Pozuelo de Alarcón
*Roquetas de Mar, (Almería)
*San Javier, (Murcia)
*San Martín de la Vega
*Seseña, (Toledo)Col-end

* The Consejería de Obras Públicas (Ministry of Public Works) of Madrid was in the process of planning a monorail line between Valdemoro and Parque Warner Madrid during the early 1990s. These plans fell through in favor of the construction of a Cercanías Madrid commuter line from Pinto station. [cite web
last = V.G.O.
title = Obras Públicas renuncia a llevar el tren al futuro parque temático de San Martín de la Vega por su elevado coste
publisher = Diario El País
date = 1997
url = http://www.elpais.com/articulo/madrid/MADRID/SAN_MARTiN_DE_LA_VEGA_/MADRID/MADRID/Obras/Publicas/renuncia/llevar/tren/futuro/parque/tematico/San/Martin/Vega/elevado/elpepuespmad/19970325elpmad_9/Tes
accessdate = 2007
]

* Valdemoro is one of the only municipal districts in the Community of Madrid that has an Osborne's bull. It has been located at the 28 kilometer marker of the A-4 since the 1970s, and was pardoned in 1994. [Citation
last = Céspedes
first = Jana
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = El alcalde dice que va a indultar un toro de Osborne
newspaper = Diario El Mundo
pages =
year =
date = 1994
url = http://www.elmundo.es/papel/hemeroteca/1994/10/20/madrid/9826.html
]

Sister Cities

*flagicon|Western_Sahara Zug, Auserd daïra, Western Sahara. Status affirmed November 2007 [cite web
last = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
title = Valdemoro y el municipio saharaui de Zug firman un protocolo de hermanamiento
date = 2007
url = http://www.valdemoro.es/ficheros/descargar.asp?FileId=374
accessdate = 2007
] .

References

Footnotes

Bibliography

* cite book
last = López y López de Lerena
first = Vicente
title = Historia de la Villa de Valdemoro
date = 1875
publisher = Madrid, Spain
isbn = 84-89796-13-0

* cite book
last = de la Calle Hernández
first = Anastasio
title = Memoria médico-topográfica de Valdemoro
date = 1890
publisher = Madrid, Spain
isbn = 84-89796-11-4

* cite book
last = Baillo
first = Román
title = Valdemoro
date = 1891
publisher = Madrid, Spain
isbn = 84-89796-12-2

* cite book
last = Celdrán
first = Pancracio
title = Diccionario de topónimos españoles y sus gentilicios
date = 2006
publisher = Espasa
isbn = 84-670-0146-1

* cite book
last = Martín García
first = Nuria
title = Edificios que son Historia: Valdemoro
date = 2007
publisher = Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro
isbn = 84-606-4133-3

See also

*La Sagra
*Madrid metropolitan area
*Madrid (autonomous community)

External links

* [http://www.valdemoro.es/ Ayuntamiento de Valdemoro] Official website of the government of Valdemoro. (Spanish)
* [http://www.turismomadrid.es/ESPA/CMAD/pagina/CMADpuebloValdemoro.htm Información turística] (Spanish)
* [http://www.inm.es/cgi-bin/locali.cgi?ig=28775 Instituto Nacional de Meteorología] Meteorological predictions for up to seven days for Valdemoro, from the National Instutute of Meteorology. (Spanish)

Statistics

* [http://gestiona.madrid.org/desvan/desvan/AccionBuscarSeries.icm?ambito=CM&palabras=Valdemoro Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Valdemoro] (Spanish)
* [http://www.madrid.org/desvan/almudena/FichaMunicipal.icm?codMunZona=1610 Instituto de Estadística de la Comunidad de Madrid > Ficha municipal] (Spanish)
* [http://www.madrid.org/desvan/almudena/arbolalmudenalista.jsp?codMunic=1610&litMunic=Valdemoro Instituto de Estadística de la Comunidad de Madrid > Series estadísticas del municipio] (Spanish)

Directory, Maps, and Aerial Photography

* [http://gestiona.madrid.org/nomecalles/Inicio.icm?munic=1610 Instituto de Estadística de la Comunidad de Madrid > Nomenclátor Oficial y Callejero] (Spanish)


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