- Communications on the Isle of Man
The Isle of Man benefits from an extremely modern and extensive communications infrastructure, which underpins the main sectors of the Island's economy.
The history of Manx telecommunications starts in 1859, when the Isle of Man Electric Telegraph Company was formed on the island with the intention of connecting across the island by
telegraph, and allowing messages to be sent onwards to the UK. In August 1859, a 36 nautical milelong cable was commissioned from Glass, Elliot and Company of Greenwich and laid from Cranstalnorth of Ramsey, Isle of Manto St Beesin Cumbria using the chartered cable ship "Resolute". [ [http://www.stbees.org.uk/misc/telegraph.htm The St Bees - Isle of Man Submarine Telegraph] ] The cable was a single-core, with gutta-perchainsulation.
Twenty miles of overhead cable were also erected from Cranstal south to Ramsey, and on to Douglas. In England, the telegraph was connected to
Whitehavenand the circuits of the Electric Telegraph Company.
The telegraph offices were located at 64 Atholl Street, Douglas (also the company's head office) and at East Quay, Ramsey (now Marina House). [Thwaite's Directory 1863]
10 August 1860the company was statutorily incorporated by an Act of Tynwaldwith a capital of £5,500.
The currents at Cranstal proved too strong, and in 1864 the cable was taken up and relaid further south, at
Port-e-Vullenin Ramsey Bay. It was later relaid to land even further south at Port Cornaa.
Following the 1869 finalisation of UK telegraph nationalisation into a
General Post Officemonopoly, the Isle of Man Telegraph Company was nationalised in 1870 under the Telegraph Act 1870(an Act of Parliament) at a cost to the British Government of £16,106 (paid in 1872 following arbitration proceedings over the value). Prior to nationalisation, the island's telegraph operations had been performing poorly and the company's share price valued it at around £100.
Subsequent to nationalisation, operations were taken over by the GPO. The internal telegraph system was extended within a year to Castletown and Peel, however by then the previous lack of modern communications in Castletown had already started the Isle of Man Government on its move to Douglas.
Due to increasing usage in the years following nationalisation, further cables between Port Cornaa and St Bees were laid in 1875 and 1885.
By 1883 Smith's Directory listed several telegraph offices operated by the Post Office, in addition to those at Douglas, Ramsey, Castletown and Peel the telegraph was also available at Laxey, Ballaugh, and Port St. Mary.
Throughout the First World War, the cable landing station at Port Cornaa was guarded by the
Isle of Man Volunteer Corps.
The undersea telegraph cables have been disused since the 1950s, but remain in place.
The main telephone provider on the Isle of Man today is
In 1889 George Gillmore, formerly an electrician for the GPO's Manx telegraph operations, was granted a licence by the Postmaster General to operate the Isle of Man's first
telephoneservice. Based in an exchange in Atholl Street, early customers of Gilbert's telephone service included the Isle of Man Steam Packet Companyand the Isle of Man Railway. Not having the resources to fund expansion or a link to England, Gillmore sold his licence to the National Telephone Companyand stayed on as their manager on the island.
By 1901 there were 600 subscribers, and the telephone system had been extended to Ramsey, Castletown, Peel, Port Erin, Port St. Mary and Onchan.
1 January 1912, the National Telephone Company was nationalised and merged into the General Post Office by the Telephone Transfer Act 1911. Only Guernsey, Portsmouthand Hull remained outside of the GPO.
The first off-island telephone link was established in 1929, with the laying of a cable by the "CS Faraday" between
Port Erinand Ballyhornanin Northern Ireland, a distance of 57 km, and then between Port Grenaughand Blackpool, primarily to provide a link to Northern Ireland. The cable was completed on 6 June 1929, and the first call between the Isle of Man and the outside world was made on 28 June 1929by Lieutenant Governor Sir Claude Hill in Douglas to the Postmaster General in Liverpool. The cable initially carried only two trunk circuits.
In 1942, a pioneering VHF frequency-modulated radio-link was established between
Creg-na-Baaand the UK to provide an alternative to the sub-sea cable.
This was augmented on
24 June 1943by a 74km long cable between Cemaes Bayin Angleseaand Port Erin, which had the world's first submerged repeater, laid by "HMCS Iris". The repeater doubled the possible number of circuits on the cable, and although it failed after only five months, its replacement worked for seven years.
In 1962 a further undersea cable was laid by "HMTS Ariel" between
Colwyn Bayand the Island.
Historically, the telephone system on the Isle of Man had been run as a monopoly by the British
General Post Office, and later British Telecommunications, and operated as part of the Liverpool telephone district.
By 1985 the privatised British Telecom had inherited the telephone operations of the GPO, including those on the Isle of Man. At this time the Manx Government announced that it would award a 20-year licence to operate the telephone system in a tender process. As part of this process, in 1986 British Telecom created a Manx-registered subsidiary company,
Manx Telecom, to bid for the tender. It was believed that a local identity and management would be more politically acceptable in the tendering process as they competed with Cable & Wirelessto win the licence. Manx Telecom won the tender, and commenced operations under the new identity from 1 January 1987.
28 March 1988an 8000 telephone circuit fibre opticcable, the longest unregenerated system in Europe, was inaugurated. In links Port Grenaugh to Silecroftin Cumbria, and was laid in September 1987. The cable was buried in the seabed along it's entire length.
A further fibre optic cable, known as BT-MT1 was laid in October 1990 between
Millomin Cumbria and Douglas, a distance of 43 nautical miles. Jointly operated by BT and Manx Telecom, it provides six channels each with a bandwidth of 140 Mb/s. This cable remains in use today.
In July 1992,
Mercury Communicationslaid the LANIS fibre-optic cables. LANIS-1 runs for 61 nautical miles between Port Grenaugh and Blackpool, and LANIS-2 runs for 36 nautical miles between the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland. They have six channels each with a bandwidth of 565 Mb/s. The LANIS cables are now operated by Cable & Wireless. The LANIS-1 cable was damaged on 27 November 2006600m off Port Grenaugh, causing loss of the link and resulting in temporary Internet access issues for some Manx customers whilst it was awaiting repair.
17 November 2001, Manx Telecom became part of mmO2 following the demerger of BT Wireless's operations from BT Group, and the company is now owned by Telefónica.
In December 2007, the
Manx Electricity Authorityand its telecoms subsidiary, e-llan Communications, commissioned the lighting of a new undersea fibre-optic link. It was laid in 1999 between Blackpool and Douglas as part of the Isle of Man to England Interconnectorwhich connects the Manx electricity system to the UK's National Grid.
According to the CIA World Factbook, in 1999 there were 51,000 fixed telephone lines in use in the Isle of Man.
The Isle of Man is included within the UK telephone numbering system, and is accessed externally via UK area codes, rather than by its own
country calling code. The area codes currently in use are: +44 1624 (landlines) and +44 7624/7924 (mobiles).
ubmarine communications cables in service
*BT-MT1 (BT/Manx Telecom, 1990 - UK)
*LANIS-1 (Cable & Wireless, 1992 - UK)
*LANIS-2 (Cable & Wireless, 1992 - Ireland)
*Isle of Man to England Interconnector (Manx Electricity Authority, 2007 - UK)
Submarine cables in Manx waters are governed by the Submarine Cables Act 2003 (an
Act of Tynwald).
Telephone service providers
The mobile phone network operated by Manx Telecom has been used by O2 as an environment for developing and testing new products and services prior to wider rollout. In December 2001, the company became the first telecommunications operator in Europe to launch a live
3Gnetwork. In November 2005, the company became the first in Europe to offer its customers an HSDPA(3.5G) service. [http://www.manx-telecom.com/default.asp?id=22 Manx Telecom website] . Retrieved May 16, 2007.]
Broadband internet services are available through four local providers which are
Domicilium, Manx Computer Bureau, Wi-Manxand Manx Telecom.
The public-service commercial
radiostation for the island is Manx Radio. Manx Radio is partly funded by government grant, and partly by advertising.
There are two other Manx-based FM radio stations, Energy FM and
3 FM. [ [http://www.three.fm/ 3 FM] ] .
BBC national radio stations are also relayed locally via a transmitter located to the south of Douglas, relayed from
Sandale transmitting stationin Cumbria. The Douglas transmitter also broadcasts the BBC's DAB digital radio services and Classic FM.
Manx Radio is the only local service to broadcast on AM medium wave. No UK services are relayed via local AM transmitters. No
longwavestations operate from the Island, although one ( Musicmann279) was proposed.
A Channel 4 operated DAB multiplex is proposed, but there are currently no proposals to broadcast any of the three insular FM stations on DAB.
* Snaefell - Manx Radio, Energy FM, 3 FM
* Foxdale - Manx Radio (AM)
* The Howe (near Port St. Mary) - Energy FM
* Jurby - Energy FM, Manx Radio
* Ramsey - Energy FM, 3 FM
* Dreemskerry - Energy FM
* Douglas - Manx Radio, Energy FM, 3 FM, Radio 1, Radio 2, Radio 3, Radio 4, Classic FM, BBC DAB multiplex
There is no Island-specific television service. Local transmitters retransmit analogue broadcasts of
BBC 1and BBC 2(with BBC North Westregional programmes), ITV Border Televisionand Channel 4. Five is not available via the Island's analogue transmitters.
Many TV services are available by satellite, such as Sky Digital, and
Freesatfrom the Astra 2/Eurobird 1group, as well as services from a range of other satellites around Europe such as Astra 1and Hotbird.
In some areas,
terrestrial television(including digital terrestrial) from the United Kingdom(Freeview) or Republic of Irelandcan be received.
Analogue television transmission will cease between 2008 and 2009, and limited local transmission of
digital terrestrial televisionwill then commence. The UK's television licence regime extends to the Island.
There is no Island-specific opt-out of the BBC regional news programme "North West Tonight", in the way that the
Channel Islandsget their own version of "Spotlight". ITVtelevision has been available on the Isle of Man since 1 September 1961when Border Television was launched, initially only directly from the Caldbeck transmitting stationin Cumbria. On 26 March 1965, Border Television commenced relay of their signal through a local transmitter on Richmond Hill, 542 ft above sea level and three miles from the centre of Douglas. The site allowed reliable reception of the Calbeck signal, which is rebroadcast on a different frequency. The 200 ft high transmission tower was re-sited from London, where it had been used for early ITV transmissions.
The four analogue channels are now transmitted from a 195 ft high transmitter on a hill to the south of Douglas. The transmitter is operated by
National Grid Wirelessand rebroadcasts signals received from Caldbeck. There are further sub-relay transmitters across the island.
The Broadcasting Act 1993 (An Act of Tynwald) [ [http://www.epra.org/content/english/about/countries/BROADCASTING%20ACT%201993_isle%20of%20Man.doc Broadcasting Act 1993] ] allows for the establishment of local television services. Only one application for a licence to run such a service was received by the
Communications Commission. That application was rejected. [ [http://www.gov.im/lib/news/communications/tvLicence.xml Application for TV Station Licence - Communications Commission News Release - Isle of Man Government] ]
According to the CIA World Factbook, as of 1999 there were 27,490 televisions in use in the Isle of Man.
* Kimmeragh (Bride)
* Beary (St Johns)
* Glen Maye
* Port St. Mary
* Carnane (Douglas)
* Union Mills
Isle of Man Postissues its own stamps for use within the island and for sending post off-island. Only Manx stamps are valid for sending mail using the postal system. The Isle of Man adopted postcodesin the 1990s using the prefix IM to fit in with the already established UK postcode system.
List of postal codes in the Isle of Man
Isle of Man Post
* [http://www.gov.im/government/boards/cc.xml Communications Commission]
* [http://www.gov.im/isleofman/communication.xml Communications summary]
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