St Ives (UK Parliament constituency)


St Ives (UK Parliament constituency)

UK constituency infobox
Name = St Ives
Map1 = StIves
Map2 = Cornwall
Type = County
Year = 1558
Entity = Cornwall
County = Cornwall
EP = South West England
MP = Andrew George
Party = Liberal Democrat

St Ives is a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Current Boundaries

The constituency comprises the whole of Penwith and the southern part of Kerrier districts. It also includes the Isles of Scilly, not shown on the map (and having only some 1,700 electors out of a total 70,000). It takes in the most southerly (The Lizard) and westerly (Land's End) points of the English mainland. Main towns are Penzance, St Ives and Helston.

Boundary review

Following their review of parliamentary representation in Cornwall, the Boundary Commission for England has increased the county's representation by one seat. This has caused consequential changes to the existing constituencies.

The modified St Ives constituency will be formed from the following electoral wards':
*The Isles of Scilly
*From Penwith - Goldsithney, Guval and Heamoor, Lelant and Carbis Bay, Ludgvan and Towednack, Madron and Zennor, Marazion and Perranuthnoe, Morvah, Pendeen and St Just, Penzance Central, Penzance East, Penzance Promenade, Penzance South, St Buryan, St Erth and St Hilary, St Ives North and St Ives South.
*From Kerrier - Breage and Crowan, Grade-Ruan and Landewednack, Helston North, Helston South, Meneage, Mullion, Porthleven and Sithney, St Keverne

History

St Ives has elected MPs to every Parliament since 1558, except for a brief period during the Protectorate. It was originally a parliamentary borough, and returned two MPs until the Great Reform Act of 1832, when its representation was cut to a single member. In 1885 the borough was abolished, but the St Ives name was transferred to the surrounding county constituency.

t Ives borough

The borough established under Queen Mary consisted of the parish of St Ives in western Cornwall, a seaport and market town in which the main economic interests were fishing and the export of ores mined nearby. In 1831, the population of the borough was 4,776, and contained 1,002 houses.

The franchise was initially restricted to the town corporation, but after a judgment in a disputed election in 1702, the right to vote was exercised by all inhabitants paying scot and lot; in the early 19th century this amounted to a little over 300 voters. This was a wide franchise for the period, and taken with the reasonable size of the town meant that St Ives was one of the few boroughs in Cornwall that could claim not to be a rotten borough.

Elections were usually contested, and although the local gentry were able to exercise considerable influence on the outcome, no one interest was entirely predominant; the result could rarely be taken for granted and it was necessary to court the voters assiduously. From the 17th century, there were at least three competing interests - those of the Hobart family (Earls of Buckinghamshire from 1746), the Praeds of Treventhoe, and the Dukes of Bolton (who owned one of the manors of St Ives) - and by the mid 18th century the Stephens family also had to be taken into account. In 1751, however, John Stephens, who had previously allied himself with the Earl of Buckinghamshire and managed the borough's elections on the Earl's behalf, struck out on his own account and secured the election of his son. Later in the decade Stephens and the Earl once more began to work together, but were unable to prevent Humphrey Mackworth Praed from establishing sufficient influence to secure a hold of one of the two seats.

But by 1761 the alliances had shifted again, Buckinghamshire and Praed on one side nominating candidates against Stephens and the Duke of Bolton on the other. The by-election in 1763, when Buckinghamshire's brother-in-law Charles Hotham was re-elected after being appointed to a position in the Royal Household, cost the Earl £1,175 even though his candidate was eventually returned unopposed - the expenditure included payments of 7 guineas to each of 124 people (all presumably qualified voters, ensuring that it would be futile for his opponents to put up a candidate).

There was a further bitterly-contested election in 1774: allegations of bribery were investigated by a House of Commons committee, whose proceedings are recounted at length by the contemporary historian of electoral abuses, Thomas Oldfield, in his "Representative History of Great Britain and Ireland". Samuel Stephens, defeated by 7 votes, accused William Praed and Adam Drummond (the Duke of Bolton's candidate) of benefited from several types of corruption. Humphrey Mackworth Praed, the candidate's father, was said to have lent large sums to voters on the understanding that repayment would not be demanded provided they voted for Praed and Drummond; but the counsel for Praed and Drummond offered evidence that Stephens had also resorted to bribery. Furthermore, it was alleged that many of Stephens' supporters had been prevented from voting by rating them as not liable for the scot and lot and therefore not eligible to vote; this was a frequent abuse in scot and lot boroughs, but as the petitioners could not bring any evidence of criminal misconduct by the parish overseers the committee decided they had no jurisdiction to interfere at St Ives. In the end, the committee upheld Drummond's election but declared that neither Stephens nor Praed had been properly elected, and a writ was issued for a by-election to fill the second seat.

The cost of electioneering in St Ives seems eventually to have led to both Buckinghamshire and Bolton withdrawing, and by 1784 Praed was considered unchallenged as patron. Nevertheless, the Stephens influence was by no means entirely extinguished, and it was recorded that the patrons at the time of the Reform Act were Samuel Stephens of Tregarron and Sir Christopher Hawkins of Trewithan (who had purchased the manor from Mr Praed).

The Reform Act extended the boundaries of the constituency, bringing in the neighbouring parishes of Lelant and Towednack and increasing the population; nevertheless, the borough lost one of its two seats. There were 584 qualified voters at the first reformed election, that of 1832.

Even with a further extension of the franchise in 1868, the electorate never passed 1,500, and had fallen to barely 1,000 by the next Reform Act, under which the borough was abolished with effect from the general election of 1885.

t Ives county constituency

With the division of counties into new single-member constituencies effected in 1885, Cornwall had six county divisions. The westernmost of these, in which St Ives stood, was formally named The Western or St Ives Division of Cornwall; it was often referred to simply as St Ives or as West Cornwall.

This new constituency also included the towns of Penzance, Paul, Ludgvan and St Just, and stretched not only from Land's End to St Erth but also included the Isles of Scilly. It was a constituency abnormally low in owner-occupiers, with a strong non-conformist presence, and the Conservatives were consequently very weak. However, local sentiment was strongly against Irish Home Rule or independence, seen as a particular threat to the livelihood of the fishermen and other maritime employees who made up much of the electorate, and St Ives therefore became a Liberal Unionist stronghold from 1886. (Even though its MP from 1906, Sir Clifford Cory, was nominally a Liberal rather than a Unionist and standing against Liberal Unionist candidates, he opposed Home Rule and was careful to explain this to the voters at each election.)

After the boundary revisions introduced at the general election of 1918, which brought in most of the villages on the Lizard Peninsula (though not Helston), the constituency was simply called Cornwall, St Ives. It underwent further boundary changes in 1950, bringing Helston into the constituency, and in 1983, when it was again extended to include all those parts of the new Penwith local government district which had previously been excluded.

The character of the constituency was little changed any of these revisions, but party loyalties may have been disrupted by the 1918 changes. Labour put up a candidate for the first time in 1918, and took more than a third of the vote; at the next election, with Labour withdrawing and the Irish issue no longer able to help Cory, a Conservative was elected for the first time. For the next decade St Ives was a Conservative-Liberal marginal, and changed hands four times in the 1920s. However, the split of the National Liberals from the Liberals apparently offered a compromise which suited the voters, and St Ives was thereafter a safe seat for that party, and later for the Conservatives when the National Liberals finally merged with them in the 1960s, until the formation of the Liberal Democrats re-invigorated the competition in the 1990s. Andrew George captured the seat after the retirement of the sitting Conservative MP in 1997, and took over half the vote in both 2001 and 2005.

At general elections, the constituency is usually one of the last in Great Britain to declare a result; the delay in bringing the ballot boxes over from the Isles of Scilly means that counting does not begin until the following day. [ [http://www.election.demon.co.uk/declar2001.html United Kingdom Election Results - Order of Declaration in the 2001 Election] ]

Members of Parliament

t Ives borough

1558-1640

* 1588-1589: Henry Hobart
* 1597-1598: Vincent Skinner
* 1604-1611: John Tregannon
* 1604-1611: William Brook
* 1620-1622: Lord Paulet
* 1621-1622: Robert Bacon

1640-1832

Notes

Election results

Elections in the 2000s

Election box begin
title=General Election 2005: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Andrew George
votes = 25,577
percentage = 50.7
change = -0.9
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Christian Mitchell
votes = 13,968
percentage = 27.7
change = -3.5
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Michael Dooley
votes = 6,583
percentage = 13.1
change = -0.2
Election box candidate with party link
party = United Kingdom Independence Party
candidate = Michael Faulkner
votes = 2,551
percentage = 5.1
change = +1.2
Election box candidate with party link
party = Green Party of England and Wales
candidate = Katrina Slack
votes = 1,738
percentage = 3.4
change = +3.4
Election box majority
votes = 11,609
percentage = 23.0
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 72.4
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Democrats (UK)
swing = +1.3

Election box begin
title=General Election 2001: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Andrew George
votes = 25,413
percentage = 51.6
change = +7.1
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Joanna Richardson
votes = 15,360
percentage = 31.2
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = William Morris
votes = 6,567
percentage = 13.3
change = -1.9
Election box candidate with party link
party = United Kingdom Independence Party
candidate = Michael Faulkner
votes = 1,926
percentage = 3.9
change = +2.9
Election box majority
votes = 10,053
percentage = 20.4
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 49,266
percentage = 66.3
change = -8.9
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Democrats (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1990s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1997: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Andrew George
votes = 23,966
percentage = 44.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = W Rogers
votes = 16,796
percentage = 31.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = C Fegan
votes = 8,184
percentage = 15.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Referendum Party
candidate = Michael Faulkner
votes = 3,714
percentage = 6.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = United Kingdom Independence Party
candidate = P Garnier
votes = 1,926
percentage = 3.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK, 1989)
candidate = G Stephens
votes = 425
percentage = 0.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Independent (politician)
candidate = K Lippiat
votes = 178
percentage = 0.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Independent (politician)
candidate = W Hitchins
votes = 71
percentage = 0.1
change =
Election box majority
votes = 7,170
percentage = 13.3
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 75.2
change =
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Democrats (UK)
loser = Conservative Party (UK)
swing = 8.1

Elections in the 1940s

Election box candidate with party link
party = National Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Nevil Beechman
votes = 14,256
percentage = 47.3
change = -3.1
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = H Brinton
votes = 8,190
percentage = 27.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = E F Allison
votes = 7,692
percentage = 25.5
change = -24.1
Election box majority
votes = 6,066
percentage = 20.1
change = +19.3
Election box turnout
votes = 30,138
percentage = 70.6
change = +4.5
Election box hold with party link
winner = National Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1930s

Election box candidate with party link
party = National Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Nevil Beechman
votes = 13,044
percentage = 50.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Isaac Foot
votes = 12,834
percentage = 49.6
change =
Election box majority
votes = 210
percentage = 0.8
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 25,878
percentage = 66.1
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = National Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

;General election of 1935In the 1935 UK general election, Walter Runciman, National Liberal was elected unopposed.

;General election of 1931In the 1931 UK general election, Walter Runciman, National Liberal was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1920s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Walter Runciman
votes = 12,433
percentage = 43.2
change = +0.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = A Caird
votes = 11,411
percentage = 39.7
change = +0.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = W E Arnold-Forster
votes = 4,920
percentage = 17.1
change = -0.9
Election box majority
votes = 1,032
percentage = 3.5
change = +0.3
Election box turnout
votes = 28,764
percentage = 76.5
change = -0.9
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Hilda Runciman
votes = 10,241
percentage = 42.6
change = -4.4
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = A Caird
votes = 9,478
percentage = 39.4
change = -13.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = F J Hopkins
votes = 4,343
percentage = 18.0
change =
Election box majority
votes = 763
percentage = 3.2
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 24,062
percentage = 77.4
change = +8.3
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
loser = Conservative Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = John Anthony Hawke
votes = 11,159
percentage = 53.0
change = +12.4
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 9,912
percentage = 47.0
change = +0.5
Election box majority
votes = 1,247
percentage = 6.0
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 21,071
percentage = 69.1
change = -2.3
Election box gain with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
loser = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 9,922
percentage = 46.5
change = 0.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = John Anthony Hawke
votes = 8,652
percentage = 40.6
change = -12.9
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = A E Dunn
votes = 2,749
percentage = 12.9
change =
Election box majority
votes = 1,270
percentage = 5.9
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 21,323
percentage = 71.4
change = +5.8
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
loser = Conservative Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = John Anthony Hawke
votes = 10,388
percentage = 53.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = National Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 9,016
percentage = 46.5
change =
Election box majority
votes = 1,372
percentage = 7.0
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 19,404
percentage = 65.6
change = +13.9
Election box gain with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
loser = National Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1910s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Coalition Liberal
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 8,659
percentage = 58.6
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = A E Dunn
votes = 5,659
percentage = 38.4
change =
Election box candidate
party = Independent Conservative
candidate = T F T Michell
votes = 436
percentage = 3.0
change =
Election box majority
votes = 3000
percentage = 20.2
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 14,754
percentage = 51.7
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Coalition Liberal
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election December 1910: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 4,253
percentage = 56.0
change = +0.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Unionist
candidate = R E L V Williams
votes = 3,338
percentage = 44.0
change = -0.6
Election box majority
votes = 915
percentage = 12.0
change = +1.2
Election box turnout
votes = 7,591
percentage = 80.7
change = -4.8
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election January 1910: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir Clifford Cory
votes = 4,458
percentage = 55.4
change = -2.8
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Unionist
candidate = C B Levita
votes = 3,586
percentage = 44.6
change = +2.8
Election box majority
votes = 872
percentage = 10.8
change = -5.6
Election box turnout
votes = 8,044
percentage = 85.5
change = +4.3
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1900s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Clifford John Cory
votes = 4,244
percentage = 58.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Unionist
candidate = P E Pilditch
votes = 3,052
percentage = 41.8
change =
Election box majority
votes = 1,192
percentage = 16.4
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 7,296
percentage = 81.2
change =
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
loser = Liberal Unionist
swing =

;General election of 1900In the 1900 UK general election, Edward Hain, Liberal Unionist was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1890s

;General election of 1895In the 1895 UK general election, Thomas Bedford Bolitho, Liberal Unionist was elected unopposed.

;General election of 1892In the 1892 UK general election, Thomas Bedford Bolitho, Liberal Unionist was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1880s

;St Ives By-Election 9th July 1887In the 1887 St Ives by-election, Thomas Bedford Bolitho, Liberal Unionist was elected unopposed.

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Unionist
candidate = Sir John St Aubyn
votes = 3,395
percentage = 79.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = S Barrow
votes = 888
percentage = 20.7
change =
Election box majority
votes = 2,507
percentage = 58.6
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 4,283
percentage = 56.3
change = -21.1
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Unionist
loser = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Sir John St Aubyn
votes = 3,313
percentage = 56.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Charles Campbell Ross
votes = 2,576
percentage = 43.7
change =
Election box majority
votes = 737
percentage = 12.6
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 5,889
percentage = 77.4
change =
Election box gain with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
loser = Conservative Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1830s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = William Tyringham Praed
votes = 256
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = F H Stephens
votes = 248
percentage =
change =
Election box majority
votes = 8
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 504
percentage =
change =
Election box Registered electors
reg. electors = 566
Election box hold with party link
winner = Tory Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1837: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = James Halse
votes = 272
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = William Tyringham Praed
votes = 223
percentage =
change =
Election box majority
votes = 49
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 495
percentage =
change =
Election box Registered electors
reg. electors = 579
Election box hold with party link
winner = Tory Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1835: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = James Halse
votes =
percentage =
change =
Election box Registered electors
reg. electors = 599
Election box hold with party link
winner = Tory Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1832: St Ives
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = James Halse
votes = 302
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = W M Praed
votes = 168
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Tory Party
candidate = H L Stephens
votes = 39
percentage =
change =
Election box majority
votes = 134
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 509
percentage =
change =
Election box Registered electors
reg. electors = 584

Candidates for the next general election

Confirmed candidates for St Ives at the next UK general election: [ [http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/guide/seat-profiles/stives St Ives] , UKPollingReport]

* Liberal Democrats: Andrew George (incumbent)
* Conservative Party: Derek Thomas
* UK Independence Party: Mick Faulkner
* Mebyon Kernow: Richard Clark

ee also

*List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cornwall

References

*F. W. S. Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1832 - 1885"
*F. W. S. Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1885 - 1918"
* [http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/area/uk/edates.htm Election results, 1950 - 2005]
* [http://www.angeltowns.com/town/peerage/scommons1.htm Historical list of MPs]
*Robert Beatson, "A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament" (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [http://books.google.com/books?vid=024wW9LmFc5kXY0FI2&id=Gh2wKY2rkDUC&printsec=toc&dq=Return+of+Members+of+Parliament&as_brr=1&sig=SK5GVtGLfWQ9ovZDbyZObAyIO5I#PPP9,M1]
*D Brunton & D H Pennington, "Members of the Long Parliament" (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
*"Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803" (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [http://www2.odl.ox.ac.uk/gsdl/cgi-bin/library?e=p-000-00---0modhis06--00-0-0-0prompt-10---4------0-1l--1-en-50---20-about---00001-001-1-1isoZz-8859Zz-1-0&a=d&cl=CL1]
* Michael Kinnear, "The British Voter" (London: BH Batsford, Ltd, 1968)
* Lewis Namier & John Brooke, "The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1754-1790" (London: HMSO, 1964)
* J E Neale, "The Elizabethan House of Commons" (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
* T H B Oldfield, "The Representative History of Great Britain and Ireland" (London: Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, 1816)
* Henry Pelling, "Social Geography of British Elections 1885-1910" (London: Macmillan, 1967)
* J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
* Edward Porritt and Annie G Porritt, "The Unreformed House of Commons" (Cambridge University Press, 1903)
* Frederic A Youngs, jr, "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol I" (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979)


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