- Peterborough (UK Parliament constituency)
Peterborough Borough constituency for the House of Commons
Boundary of Peterborough in Cambridgeshire.
Location of Cambridgeshire within England.
County Cambridgeshire Electorate 72,787 (December 2010) Current constituency Created 1974 Member of Parliament Stewart Jackson (Conservative) Number of members One 1918–1974 Number of members One Type of constituency County constituency 15411918– Number of members 1541–1885: Two
Type of constituency Borough constituency Overlaps European Parliament constituency East of England
Peterborough is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, formally styled The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.
The serving Member is the Conservative, Stewart Jackson MP. He defeated Labour's Helen Clark in the 2005 general election, and was re-elected in 2010, when Peterborough was 48th on Labour's list of target seats.
- 1 Boundaries
- 2 Franchise
- 3 Members of Parliament
- 4 Elections
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The City of Peterborough formed a parliamentary borough returning two members in 1541. The rest of the Soke was part of Northamptonshire parliamentary county, except the area south of the River Nene in the historic county of Huntingdonshire and Thorney in the Isle of Ely, which was considered part of Cambridgeshire. Until 1832 when the whole of the parish of Saint John the Baptist was encompassed, the boundary, as far as is known, excluded the villages of Longthorpe, Dogsthorpe and Newark with Eastfield. The Great Reform Act did not affect the borough, while the rural portion of the Soke was included in the northern division of Northamptonshire. New Fletton was transferred from Huntingdonshire in 1868 and in 1918 the parliamentary borough was abolished and replaced with a new division of the parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough, including the whole of the Soke and neighbouring parts of the administrative county of Northamptonshire, extending down to and beyond Thrapston and Corby. This became a county constituency under the 1948 revisions, when the boundaries of the constituency were adjusted to correspond to those of the Soke and they remained much the same until 1970. Peterborough became a borough constituency in 1974.
Following their review of parliamentary representation in Cambridgeshire in 2005, the Boundary Commission for England made minor alterations to the existing constituencies to deal with population changes. The electoral wards used to create the modified Peterborough constituency fought at the 2010 general election are: Bretton North, Bretton South, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye and Thorney, Newborough, North, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Walton, Werrington North, Werrington South, and West. These changes increased the electorate from 64,893 to 70,640. On the enumeration date of 17 February 2000, the electoral quota for England was 69,934 voters per constituency.
The Peterborough wards of Barnack, Fletton, Glinton and Wittering, Northborough, Orton Longueville, Orton Waterville, Orton with Hampton, Stanground Central, and Stanground East form part of the North West Cambridgeshire constituency created in 1997 from parts of Peterborough and Huntingdon constituencies. The serving member for North West Cambridgeshire is the Conservative, Shailesh Vara MP, who succeeded Sir Brian Mawhinney, former Secretary of State for Transport and Chairman of the Conservative Party, in 2005. Mawhinney, who had previously served as Member of Parliament for Peterborough from 1979, was created Baron Mawhinney, of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire in 2005. Eye and Thorney was previously included in the North East Cambridgeshire (prior to 1983 Isle of Ely) constituency.
In the unreformed House of Commons in order to be either a candidate or an elector for a county seat, a man had to own (not rent) freehold property valued for the land tax at two pounds a year (women could neither vote nor stand for election). This was known as the 40/- freehold. The franchise for borough seats varied enormously. Originally in Peterborough the dean and chapter had claimed the franchise and held that only residents of Minster Precincts were burgesses. By the interregnum, the city was one of 37 boroughs in which suffrage was restricted to those paying scot and lot, a form of municipal taxation. In 1800 there were 2,000 registered voters in Northamptonshire and 400 in Peterborough. By 1835 this was 576, or about one per cent of the population. Bribery was general until the introduction of the secret ballot under the Ballot Act 1872. Votes were cast by spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings, erected on the Market Place (now Cathedral Square).
In 1832 the Great Reform Act enfranchised those who owned or leased land worth £10 or more and the Second Reform Act extended this to all householders paying £10 or more in rent per annum, effectively enfranchising the skilled working class, so by 1868 the percentage of voters in Peterborough had risen to about 20% of the population. The Third Reform Act extended the provisions of the previous act to the counties and the Fourth Reform Act widened suffrage further by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. This system, known as universal manhood suffrage, was first used in the 1918 general election. However, full electoral equality wouldn't occur until the Fifth Reform Act ten years later.
According to the 2001 census, the population count of Peterborough constituency is 95,103 persons, comprising 46,131 males and 48,972 females. 67.56% of those aged 16–74 are economically active, including 5.92% umemployed; a further 12.26% are retired and 3.08% students. Of a total 39,760 households, 63.80% are owner occupied, fewer than the regional (72.71%) and national (68.72%) averages. Turnout at the 2005 general election was 41,194 or 61.0% of those eligible to vote, below the regional (63.6%) and national (61.3%) figures.
Members of Parliament
Peterborough sent two members to parliament for the first time in 1547. Before the civil war, many were relatives of the clergy; then for two hundred years after the restoration there was always a Fitzwilliam, or a Fitzwilliam nominee, sitting as member for Peterborough, making it a Whig stronghold. Representation was reduced to one member under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. From the formal merger of the breakaway Liberal Unionists with the Conservatives in 1912 and the absorption of rural North Northamptonshire in 1918, Peterborough has been predominantly Conservative. The growth in the New Town from 1967 may in part account for Labour's victory here in 1974. Since its formation in 1997, North West Cambridgeshire has been one of the safest Conservative seats in the country. At the election which followed, Peterborough was ranked 93rd in the Conservatives's one hundred most vulnerable seats (the ones which the other parties must take if there is to be a change of government) and 73rd on Labour's target list.
In 1966, the closest poll in the city's history, Sir Harmar Nicholls held the seat by three votes after 17 recounts. Nicholls was the Conservative member from 1950 to 1974, when he lost in the October election of that year to Labour's Michael Ward, having held on by just 22 votes in the election eight months earlier. After he lost his seat he was created Baron Harmar-Nicholls, of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire and served, from 1979 to 1984, as Member of the European Parliament for Greater Manchester South. David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter, winner of 400m hurdles at the 1928 Summer Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee for 48 years and chairman of the organising committee of the 1948 Summer Olympics, was the Conservative member from 1931 to 1943. Lord Burghley, as he then was, succeeded the socialist writer and illustrator, Frank Horrabin, who was born in the city and elected under the leadership of Ramsay MacDonald in 1929.
The most recent Labour MP for Peterborough, Helen Clark (née Brinton), won the seat in 1997. She was defeated at the 2005 general election, following which it was widely reported that Clark was planning to defect to the Conservative Party, an announcement which was not popular locally. However, by early June it emerged that while she had left the Labour Party, she had not in fact joined the Conservatives and did not intend to.
One of the earliest incumbents, Sir Walter Mildmay, member for Peterborough from 1553 to 1554, subsequently became Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1559 to 1589. Later, in the nineteenth century, William Elliot, Whig member from 1802 until his death in 1819, was Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1806 and 1807; the Hon. William Lamb (later the 2nd Viscount Melbourne), Whig member from 1816 to 1819, became Home Secretary in 1830 then Prime Minister from 1834 to 1841; and Sir James Scarlett (later the 1st Baron Abinger), Whig member from 1819 to 1830, was, from 1827, Attorney General for England and Wales.
Parliamentary Borough 1547–1918
Election Senior Member Junior Member 1542 Sir Thomas Moyle 1547 Sir Wymond Carew Richard Pallady 1553 Sir Walter Mildmay Sir William FitzWilliam April 1554 John Gamlin (Gamblin, Gamlyn) Giles Isham Nov. 1554 William Liveley Gilbert Bull 1555 Maurice Tyrell John Mountsteven 1558 Sir William FitzWilliam Robert Wingfield, Jr. 1562 John FitzWilliam 1572 Hugh FitzWilliam Humphrey Mildmay 1584 Sir William FitzWilliam James Scambler 1586 Thomas Hacke 1588 Sir Thomas Reede Thomas Howland 1592 Thomas Hacke 1597 John Wingfield Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley 1601 Nicholas Tufton Goddard Pemberton 1603 Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley Edward Wymarke 1614 Sir William Walter Roger Manwood 1620 Mildmay Fane Walter FitzWilliam 1623 Sir Francis Fane Laurence Whitaker 1624 Sir Christopher Hatton 1625 Mildmay Fane, Lord Burghersh The Short Parliament (April–May 1640) April 1640 David Cecil William FitzWilliam, 2nd Baron FitzWilliam The Long Parliament (1640–1648), the Rump Parliament (1648–1653) and the Barebone's Parliament (1653) Nov. 1640 William FitzWilliam, 2nd Baron FitzWilliam Sir Robert Napier, 2nd Baronet The First Protectorate Parliament (1654–1655); one member only 1654 Col. Alexander Blake The Second (1656–1658) and Third (1659) Protectorate Parliaments 1656 Col. Alexander Blake Francis St John
The Tories (or Abhorrers) and Whigs (or Petitioners) originated in the Court and Country parties that emerged in the aftermath of the civil war, although it is more accurate to describe them as loose tendencies, both of which might be regarded as conservative in modern terms. Modern party politics did not really begin to coalesce in Great Britain until at least 1784.
Election First Member 1st Party Second Member 2nd Party The Rump Parliament recalled (1659) and the Long Parliament restored (1660) 1660 Sir Humphrey Orme Court Charles Fane, Lord le Despencer Country 1666 Edward Palmer Whig 1667 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Baron FitzWilliam Whig 1671 Sir Vere Fane Whig Feb. 1679 Francis St John Whig Aug. 1679 Charles Orme Whig 1681 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Baron FitzWilliam Whig 1685 Charles FitzWilliam Whig Charles Orme Whig 1688 Gilbert Dolben Whig 1689 Sir William Brownlow, 4th Baronet Whig 1698 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig Francis St John Whig 1701 Sir Gilbert Dolben, 1st Baronet Whig 1710 John FitzWilliam, Viscount Miltown Whig Charles Parker Tory 1722 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig 1727 Sir Edward O'Bryan, 2nd Baronet Tory 1727 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig 1728 by-election Joseph Banks Whig 1729 by-election Charles Gounter-Nicoll Whig Jan. 1734 by-election Armstead Parker Tory April 1734 Sir Edward Wortley Montagu Whig 1741 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Earl FitzWilliam Whig 1742 by-election Armstead Parker Tory 1747 Sir Matthew Lamb, 1st Baronet Whig 1761 Armstead Parker Tory March 1768 Matthew Wyldbore Whig Nov. 1768 by-election Henry Belasyse, Viscount Belasyse Whig 1774 by-election Richard Benyon Whig 1780 James Farrel Phipps Whig 1786 by-election Hon. Lionel Damer Whig 1796 Dr. French Laurence Whig 1802 William Elliot Whig 1809 by-election Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock Whig 1812 George Ponsonby Whig 1816 by-election Hon. William Lamb Whig Feb. 1819 by-election Sir James Scarlett Whig Nov. 1819 by-election Sir Robert Heron, 2nd Baronet Whig Aug. 1830 Charles Wentworth-FitzWilliam, Viscount Milton Whig Nov. 1830 by-election John Nicholas Fazakerley Whig 1841 Hon. George Wentworth-FitzWilliam Whig 1847 Hon. William Cavendish Whig 1852 Hon. Richard Watson Whig 1852 by-election George Hammond Whalley Whig 1853 by-election Thomson Hankey Whig 1859 George Hammond Whalley Liberal 1868 William Wells Liberal 1874 Thomson Hankey Liberal 1878 by-election Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam Liberal 1880 George Hampden Whalley Liberal 1883 by-election Sir Sydney Buxton Liberal 1885 representation reduced to one member
In 1832 the Tory Party evolved into the Conservative Party and in 1859 the Whig Party evolved, with Radicals and Peelites, into the Liberal Party. In opposition to Irish home rule, the Liberal Unionists ceded from the Liberals in 1886, aligning themselves with the Conservatives. The Labour Party was later founded, as the Labour Representation Committee, in 1900.
Election Member Party 1885 Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam Independent Liberal / Liberal Unionist 1889 by-election Sir Alpheus Cleophas Morton Liberal 1895 Sir Robert Purvis Liberal Unionist / Conservative 1906 Sir Granville Greenwood Liberal 1918 parliamentary borough abolished
The parliamentary borough of Peterborough was abolished under the Representation of the People Act 1918, and the name was transferred to a division of the new parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough. The Peterborough division became a county constituency in 1950.
Election Member Party 1918 Sir Henry Brassey, 1st Baronet Coalition Conservative 1929 James Francis Horrabin Labour 1931 David Cecil, Lord Burghley Conservative and Unionist 1943 by-election John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale Conservative and Unionist 1945 Stanley Tiffany Labour Co-operative 1950 Sir Harmar Nicholls, 1st Baronet Conservative and Unionist Feb. 1974 county constituency abolished
Peterborough was redefined as a borough constituency with effect from the February 1974 general election. Successors of the historic parliamentary boroughs, the spending limits for election campaigns are slightly lower in borough constituencies.
MPs since 1974
Election Member Party Feb. 1974 Sir Harmar Nicholls, 1st Baronet Conservative Oct. 1974 Michael John Ward Labour 1979 Sir Brian Stanley Mawhinney Conservative 1997 Helen Rosemary Brinton, Mrs. Clark Labour 2005 Stewart James Jackson Conservative
General Election 2010: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Conservative Stewart Jackson 18,133 40.4 −2.9 Labour Ed Murphy 13,272 29.5 −4.8 Liberal Democrat Nick Sandford 8,816 19.6 +2.9 UKIP Frances Fox 3,007 6.7 +3.5 English Democrats Rob King 770 1.7 N/A Green Fiona Radic 523 1.2 N/A Independent John Swallow 406 0.9 N/A Majority 4,861 10.8 Turnout 44,927 63.9 +4.8 Conservative hold Swing +0.9
General Election 2005: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Conservative Stewart Jackson 17,364 42.1 +4.1 Labour Helen Clark 14,624 35.5 −9.6 Liberal Democrat Nick Sandford 6,876 16.7 +2.2 UKIP Mary Herdman 1,242 3.0 +0.6 National Front Terry Blackham 931 2.3 N/A Motorcycle News Marc Potter 167 0.4 N/A Majority 2,730 6.6 N/A Turnout 41,194 61.0 −0.4 Conservative gain from Labour Swing +7.0 General Election 2001: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Labour Helen Brinton 17,975 45.1 −5.2 Conservative Stewart Jackson 15,121 38.0 +2.8 Liberal Democrat Nick Sandford 5,761 14.5 +3.8 UKIP Julian Fairweather 955 2.4 +1.7 Majority 2,854 7.1 −8.0 Turnout 39,812 61.4 −11.4 Labour hold Swing −4.0
General Election 1997: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Labour Helen Brinton 24,365 50.3 +10.1 Conservative Jacqueline Foster 17,042 35.2 −13.1 Liberal Democrat David Howarth 5,170 10.7 +2.8 Natural Law Charles Brettell 334 0.7 +0.4 UKIP John Linskey 317 0.7 N/A ProLife Alliance Stephen Goldspink 275 0.6 N/A Majority 7,323 15.1 N/A Turnout 48,427 72.8 −2.3 Labour gain from Conservative Swing +13.4 General Election 1992: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Conservative Dr. Brian Mawhinney 31,827 48.3 −1.1 Labour Julie Owens 26,451 40.2 +6.5 Liberal Democrat Amanda Taylor 5,208 7.9 −8.2 Liberal Erbie Murat 1,557 2.4 N/A Referendum Party Philip Slater 924 1.9 N/A BNP Roy Heaton 311 0.5 N/A People's Party Pamela Beasley 271 0.4 N/A Natural Law Charles Brettell 215 0.3 N/A Majority 5,376 8.1 Turnout 65,840 75.1 +1.6 Conservative hold Swing −3.8
General Election 1987: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Conservative Dr. Brian Mawhinney 30,624 49.4 +2.3 Labour Andrew MacKinlay 20,840 33.7 +4.7 Liberal D W Green 9,984 16.1 N/A Green N A Callaghan 506 0.8 −0.1 Majority 9,784 15.7 Turnout 61,951 73.5 +0.2 Conservative hold Swing −1.2 General Election 1983: Peterborough Party Candidate Votes % ±% Conservative Dr. Brian Mawhinney 27,270 47.1 −1.7 Labour B W Fish 16,831 29.0 −10.8 Social Democrat Lady Walston 13,142 22.7 N/A Ecology N A Callaghan 511 0.9 N/A Workers Revolutionary D E Hyland 155 0.3 +1.0 Majority 10,439 18.1 Turnout 57,909 73.3 −4.6 Conservative hold Swing +4.6
- List of Parliamentary constituencies in Cambridgeshire
- North West Cambridgeshire (UK Parliament constituency) 1997–date
- North Northamptonshire (UK Parliament constituency) 1832–1919
- ^ "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. http://www.boundarycommissionforengland.org.uk/electoral-figures/electoral-figures.htm. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- ^ ELECTION 2005: Jackson says he's ready to fight Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 7 May 2005
- ^ Target Seats UK Polling Report (retrieved 19 August 2008)
- ^ a b Fraser, Hugh (1918). The Representation of the People Act 1918, with Explanatory notes. London: Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 515–516. http://www.archive.org/stream/representationof00frasrich#page/515/mode/1up.
- ^ Youngs, Frederic A. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England Volume II: Northern England (Part III: Parliamentary Constituencies) Royal Historical Society, London, 1991
- ^ Clegg QC, William Final Recommendations for Parliamentary Constituencies in the Counties of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Boundary Commission for England, 19 January 2005
- ^ Clegg QC, William General Review of Parliamentary Constituency boundaries in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Assistant Commissioner's report to the Chairman and Members of the Boundary Commission for England, 18 March 2004
- ^ Knight, Charles Peterborough in 1840 Old Towns of England Originally published in The Penny Magazine by The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
- ^ Forrester, E.G. Northamptonshire County Elections and Electioneering 1695–1832 Oxford University Press, 1941
- ^ Pelling, Henry Mathison A Social Geography of British Elections 1885–1910 (pp.96-97 & 106-124) Macmillan, London, 1967
- ^ 2001 Census Area Statistics Office for National Statistics, April 2001
- ^ Wentworth-Fitzwilliam family of Milton Peterborough City Council (retrieved 22 September 2007)
- ^ Tebbs, Herbert F. Peterborough: A History (pp.192-194) The Oleander Press, Cambridge, 1979. See also Bromund, Ted A Complete Fool's Paradise: The Attack on the Fitzwilliam Interest in Peterborough 1852 Parliamentary History, vol.12 no.1 (pp.47-67) Edinburgh University Press, 1993 and Howarth, Janet The Liberal Revival in Northamptonshire 1880–1895: A Case Study in Late Nineteenth Century Elections The Historical Journal, vol.12 no.1 (pp.78-118) Cambridge University Press, 1969
- ^ The Liberal candidate was Peter J. Boizot, founder of the Pizza Express restaurant chain and now Deputy Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire
- ^ Craig, Frederick Walter Scott British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1970 (4 vols.) Macmillan, London, 1971–1977 and Stenton, Michael and Lees, Stephen (eds.) Who's Who of British Members of Parliament 1832–1979: a biographical dictionary of the House of Commons based on annual volumes of Dod's Parliamentary Companion and other sources (4 vols.) Harvester Press, Hassocks, 1976–1981
- ^ Ousted MP defects to the Tories BBC News, 8 May 2005 17:35 BST
- ^ POLITICS: 'A slap in the face' Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 9 May 2005
- ^ Moss, Stephen Thrown out of the house The Guardian, 1 June 2005
- ^ The History of Parliament The House of Commons: 1509–1558 (3 vols.) Bindoff, S.T., 1558–1603 (3 vols.) Hasler, P.W., 1660–1690 (3 vols.) Henning, Basil Duke, 1715–1754 (2 vols.) Sedgwick, Romney, 1754–1790 (2 vols.) Namier, Sir Lewis Bernstein and Brooke, John, 1790–1820 (5 vols.) Thorne, R.G. Martin Secker and Warburg (reissued by Her Majesty's Stationery Office) for the History of Parliament Trust, London, 1964–1986
- ^ "History of Parliament". http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/moyle-thomas-1500-60. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- ^ Carter, P. R. N. Carew, Sir Wymond (1498–1549) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/61138, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Airs, Malcolm Pallady, Richard (b. 1515/16, d. in or before 1563) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21163, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Ford, L. L. Mildmay, Sir Walter (1520/21–1589) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18696, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Riordan, Michael Henry VIII, privy chamber of (act. 1509–1547) Sir William Fitzwilliam (c.1506–1559) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/70829, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Bindoff, op. cit. (p.186)
- ^ Bindoff, op. cit. (p.537)
- ^ Lyons, Mary Ann Fitzwilliam, Sir William (1526–1599) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9664, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Wright, Stephen Fane, Mildmay, second earl of Westmorland (1602–1666) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9139, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Mercer, Malcolm Fane, Sir Thomas (d. 1589) Francis Fane, first earl of Westmorland (1583/4–1629) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9130, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ "Humphrey Orme was elected ... and there was an immediate complaint against his sitting on the grounds that he was neither a good puritan nor a stable parliamentarian;" see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.94). "Although its election committee certainly received and examined evidence concerning a disputed and possibly double return at Peterborough, it is not clear what part, if any, the Council played in the final decision in favour of Alexander Blake;" see Gaunt, Peter Cromwell’s Purge? Exclusions and the First Protectorate Parliament (p.16) Parliamentary History, vol.6 no.1 (pp.1-22) May 1987. "The defeated candidate ... had allegedly been supported by disaffected and disqualified voters; Orme himself had married a recusant and was probably a Royalist sympathiser;" Ibid. at footnote 80 (p.21)
- ^ Both terms were originally pejorative, deriving respectively from tóraidhe, one of the dispossessed Irish who became outlaws and whiggamor, a Scots Gaelic word for a cattle or horse drover
- ^ a b c d e Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 1)
- ^ Double return between Lord le Despencer and Francis St John. Lord le Despencer declared elected
- ^ Unseated on petition in favour of Baron Fitzwilliam of Milton Hall in 1667
- ^ Hainsworth, D. R. Fitzwilliam, William, first Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1643–1719) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67100, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Rigg, J. M. Dolben, Sir Gilbert, first baronet (1658/9–1722) (rev. D. W. Hayton) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7774, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ "Charles Parker ... in 1728, was High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and at that time not pro-Fitzwilliam. His action at the election of that year led to a case before the Bar of the House of Commons to settle a controversy over the powers of the Bailiffs of the City [and of the Soke] as returning officer at the election. Parker, as Sheriff, sent the election writ to Robert Smith, the Bailiff of the Liberty who returned Earl Fitzwilliam [at that time in the Peerage of Ireland only] and an unknown nominee of [the Earl of Exeter] ... James Pix, the City's Bailiff, contested the return and won, so the sitting members ... were declared elected," even though Wortley Montagu had died six months earlier; see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.95) which incorrectly refers to Sidney's son Edward Wortley Montagu
- ^ Turner, Roger Lamb, Sir Matthew, first baronet (1705?–1768) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15919, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Lambert, Elizabeth R. Laurence, French (1757–1809) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16126, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Kelly, James Ponsonby, George (1755–1817) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22495, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Mandler, Peter Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15920, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Barker, G. F. R. Scarlett, James, first Baron Abinger (1769–1844) (rev. Elisabeth A. Cawthon) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24783, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Courtney, W. P. Heron, Sir Robert, second baronet (1765–1854) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13091, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Smith, G. B. Fitzwilliam, Charles William Wentworth, third Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Great Britain and fifth Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1786–1857) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9653, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Wallis, Frank H. Whalley, George Hammond (1813–1878) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29158, retrieved 6 October 2007). Unseated on petition in 1853; at the subsequent by-election he was again returned, but his election was again declared void
- ^ Courtney, W. P. Hankey, Thomson (1805–1893) (rev. A. C. Howe) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12197, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Clarke, Ernest Wells, William (1818–1889) (rev. John Martin) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29019, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Resigned by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead in 1883 and was adjudged bankrupt later that year
- ^ Waley, Daniel Buxton, Sydney Charles, Earl Buxton (1853–1934) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32224, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Pelling, loc. cit. confirms that Wentworth-Fitzwilliam contested the election against an official Liberal candidate and that the Conservative candidate withdrew in his favour. He became a Liberal Unionist the following year and died as a result of a riding accident in 1889
- ^ Ryder, Richard D. Greenwood, Sir Granville George (1850–1928) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/41162, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ Sitting member for North Northants. from 1910
- ^ Cole, Margaret Horrabin, James Francis (1884–1962) (rev. Amanda L. Capern) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33995, retrieved 6 October 2007)
- ^ McWhirter, Norris Cecil, David George Brownlow, sixth marquess of Exeter (1905–1981) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30910, retrieved 6 October 2007). Resigned his seat in 1943 when he was appointed Governor of Bermuda
- ^ Roth, Andrew Lord Harmar-Nicholls: Self-made Tory peer more adept at business than politics The Guardian, 18 September 2000
- ^ a b London Gazette: . 7 March 1974. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- ^ Election 2010, BBC News (retrieved 8 May 2010)
- ^ Seat Profile UK Polling Report (retrieved 12 August 2008)
- ^ Reville, Matthew Election 2010: Meet the candidates - Peterborough Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 4 May 2010
- ^ Percentage changes based on 2005 notional results due to boundary changes.
- ^ Candidates Independent Network (retrieved 12 April 2010)
- ^ Election 2005 BBC News, 6 May 2005 02:29 BST
- ^ Vote 2001 BBC News (retrieved 1 July 2007)
- ^ Election 97 BBC News (retrieved 1 July 2007)
- ^ Ask Aristotle The Guardian Unlimited (retrieved 1 July 2007)
- ^ "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge92/i16.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
- ^ a b Boothroyd, David United Kingdom Election Results 1983-97 (retrieved 8 May 2010)
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Chelmsford (UK Parliament constituency) — Chelmsford Borough constituency for the House of Commons Boundary of Chelmsford in Essex … Wikipedia
Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency) — Coordinates: 52°12′11″N 0°07′52″E / 52.203°N 0.131°E / 52.203; 0.131 … Wikipedia
Colchester (UK Parliament constituency) — Colchester Borough constituency for the House of Commons Boundary of Colchester in Essex … Wikipedia
Clacton (UK Parliament constituency) — Clacton County constituency for the House of Commons Boundary of Clacton in Essex for the 2010 general election … Wikipedia
Cambridgeshire (UK Parliament constituency) — UK former constituency infobox Name = Cambridgeshire Type = County Year = 1918 Abolition = 1983 members = one UK former constituency infobox Name = Cambridgeshire Type = County Year = 1290 Abolition = 1885 members = 2 (1290 1832), 3 (1832… … Wikipedia
Wisbech (UK Parliament constituency) — UK former constituency infobox Name = Wisbech Type = County Year = 1885 Abolition = 1918 members = oneWisbech is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was created upon the abolition of an undivided Cambridgeshire county… … Wikipedia
North West Cambridgeshire (UK Parliament constituency) — Coordinates: 52°27′11″N 0°12′00″E / 52.453°N 0.200°E / 52.453; 0.200 … Wikipedia
North Northamptonshire (UK Parliament constituency) — For the constituency in the north of Northampton, see Northampton North (UK Parliament constituency). North Northamptonshire Former County constituency for the House of Commons County Northamptonshire … Wikipedia