Oak marble gall


Oak marble gall

Oak marble galls develop as a chemically induced distortion of leaf buds on pedunculate oak ("Quercus robur"), or sessile oak ("Quercus petraea") trees, caused by the parthenogenetic [http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/wildlife/insects_insects_-_marble_gall.html Parthenogenetic gall wasp] gall wasp ("Andricus kollari", (Hartig, 1843)) which lays eggs within leaf buds using their ovipositor. The Turkey oak ("Quercus cerris"), introduced into Britain in 1735, is required for the completion of the life cycle of the gall. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1472-4642.2002.00159.x?journalCode=ddi Turkey oak introduction & gall distribution] The oak marble gall is frequently confused with the oak apple gall, caused by another gall wasp, "Biorhiza pallida". Oak marble galls are also known as the Bullet gall, Oak nut or Devonshire gall. [http://www.freewebs.com/scunthorpetrust/pointsofinterest.htm Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust website] Synonyms for the species are "Cynips kollari", "C. lignicola", "C. quercus-petioli", "C. tinctoria" and possibly "A. circulans".

The physical appearance of the gall

The gall growth first appears as a rounded mass of green plant tissue on the leaf buds of the oak, later becoming hard and brown, being about 18 - 25 mm / 1 to 2 in in diameter. Although nearly spherical, the galls often have a number of little flattened nodules. The rounded growths are filled with a spongy mass and a single wasp larva is located in a hard seed-like cell in the centre. [http://www.bugsandweeds.co.uk/galls%20p1.html#Marble Gall Growth details.] ] The word 'marble' derives from the gall's shape, which is a marble-like rounded structure. As stated, although normally distinctive the oak marble gall can, under some growth conditions, be mistaken for the oak apple gall, caused by a number of gall wasps, such as "Biorhiza pallida". [http://www.bugsandweeds.co.uk/galls%20p1.html# Oak Apple gall.] ] This may be due to the observer's unfamiliarity with the true oak apple gall which grows to be somewhat larger, has red markings, but does grow on the axillary or terminal buds. [http://www.bugsandweeds.co.uk/galls%20p1.html#Marble Gall appearance details.] ] Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 151. The galls sometimes coalesce. The non-parasitised specimens are at the largest end of the size range.

Life-cycle and arrival in Britain

Originally these wasps were introduced to Devon from the Middle East in the 1830s. [http://www.uksafari.com/galls2.htm Oak Apple Gall details] The marble gall has alternating sexual and asexual generations, often taking two years to complete, especially in the north of Britain. The familiar summer gall develops from eggs laid by a sexual female in the developing buds of our two native oaks in May or June; the host trees often being immature or retarded, scrub-oak, specimens; they are rarer on older healthy trees.Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154.

The developing spherical galls are green at first, brown later, and mature in August. Each gall contains a central chamber, with a single female wasp larva of the asexual generation, which emerges through a 'woodworm-like' hole as an adult winged gall-wasp in September. These asexual (agamic) females lay unfertilized eggs in the embryonic bud leaves of the Turkey oak, with galls slowly developing during winter, and are visible in March and April as small oval structures between the bud scales, looking like ant's eggs or pupae."The British Oak. Its History and Natural history." Ed. Morris, M.G. & Perring, F.H (1974) . Pub. Bot. Soc. Brit. Isles. P. 309. The emerging adult gall-wasps in spring are the asexual generation, producing both males and females, which fly to the common oaks to initiate the formation of the summer marble gall.

The abnormal buds develop during summer and the bud is wholly replaced by the gall growth. Marble galls may remain attached to the tree for several years. [http://www.bugsandweeds.co.uk/galls%20p1.html#Oak Apple gall Growth details.] ] [http://www.hainaultforest.co.uk/3Oak%20galls.htm Oak Marble Gall details] The level of attack by the insect varies greatly from year to year. [http://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profiles0900/oak_galls.asp Royal Horticultural Society website.] ]

Gall forming insects

Some herbivorous insects therefore create their own micro-habitats by forming usually highly distinctive plant structures called galls, comprised of plant tissue but controlled by the insect. Galls act as both the habitat, and food sources for the maker of the gall. The interior of a marble gall, formed from the bud, is composed of edible and other structural tissues.

Some galls act as "physiologic sinks", concentrating resources in the gall from the surrounding plant parts. [Larson, K. C., and T. G. Whitham. 1991. Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions. Oecologia 88, P.15 – 21.] Galls may also provide the insect, its parasites and inquilines, with a degree of physical protection from predators. [Weis, A. E., and A. Kapelinski. 1994. Variable selection on Eurosta's gall size. II. A path analysis of the ecological factors behind selection. Evolution 48, P.734 – 745.]

Predators, inquilines, parasitoids and fungi

Mature galls are sometimes broken open by vertebrate predators to recover the larva or pupa. Woodpeckers, such as the lesser spotted woodpecker("Dendrocopus minor"), as well as other birds or squirrels have been suggested. [http://www.boxvalley.co.uk/nature/sns/org/projgall.html Marble Gall project. Suffolk Naturalists' Society] Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154. In territory of former Czechoslovakia, both Bank voles and yellow-necked mice feed on larvae and pupae extracted from Oak marble galls."The British Oak. Its History and Natural history." Ed. Morris, M.G. & Perring, F.H (1974) . Pub. Bot. Soc. Brit. Isles. P. 316.

A number insect inquilines live harmlessly within the oak marble gall and some of these, as well as "Andricus" itself, are parasitised by insects referred to as parasitoids. The chalcid wasp "Torymus nitens" is an example of a parasitoid in oak marble galls. [http://freespace.virgin.net/carol.enhs/chkhymenoptera.htm A parasitoid wasp] The presence of these inquilines and parasites is often visible on older galls by the presence of fine exit-holes, smaller than that of the gall wasp itself.Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154.

A gall can contain the cynapid wasp as the host that made the gall; up to 5 species of inquilines ("Ceroptres arator", "Synergus gallaepomiformis", "S. pallidipennis", "S. reinhardi" and "S. umbraculus") eating the hosts food; as well as up to 13 parasitoid species ("Eurtoma brunniventris", "Sycophila biguttata", "S. variegata", "Megastigmus dorsalis", "M. stigmatizans", "Torymus geranii", "T. auratus", "Caenacis lauta", "Hobbya stenonota", "Mesopolobus amaenus", "M. fasciiventris", "M. sericeus", "Eupelmus urozonus")living on the host, inquilines and each other. [http://hedgerowmobile.com/Cynipoidea.html A Checklist of British Species.] ]

Many old galls bear numerous dark brown excrescences, due to the fungus "Phoma gallorum".Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154.

Uses of oak marble galls

The galls contain large amounts of tannic acid, which was used for making iron gall ink and for dying cloth. [http://www.uksafari.com/galls2.htm Oak Apple Gall details] [http://www.freewebs.com/s horpetrust/pointsofinterest.htm Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust website] According to recent research, traces of iron-gall ink have been found on the Dead Sea scrolls and on the 'lost' Gospel of Judas. Iron-gall ink may have been used for 1,800 years, but it does not withstand the test of time well. Over the course of centuries, the ink fades, and discolours and damages the paper. [http://www.scienceinschool.org/2007/issue6/galls Science in schools Gall ink project] Other water-proof formulae, better suited for writing on paper, became available in the 20th century. Iron gall ink is manufactured chiefly by artists enthusiastic about reviving old methods or possibly forgers of old documents.

A recipe for preparing the ink is as follows: Take one lb. of bruised galls, one gallon of boiling water, 5 1/2 oz of ferrous sulfate in solution, 3 oz of gum arabic previously dissolved, and a few drops of an anti-septic, such as carbolic acid. Macerate the galls for 24 hours, strain the infusion and add the other ingredients.

British galls have too little tannic acid (about 17%) for the best results - Aleppo galls have three times as much.Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154.

Powdered galls mixed with hog's lard and applied to the posterior were said to be good for curing piles."Brook, Richard. New Cyclopaedia of Botany and Complete Book of Herbs." Pub. W. M. Clark, London. P. 497.]

Infestations of oak marble galls

Removing and destroying galls before they dry and the wasps emerge from a hole may help to reduce the infestation. While fairly large, spectacular, and sometimes present in quite large numbers, they cause no measurable harm. The galls were the subject of considerable Press controversy in the mid-nineteenth century when it was thought that the acorn crop would be ruined and its rapid spread would deprive farmers of valuable pannage (fodder) for their pigs.Darlington, Arnold (1968). "The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in colour". Pub. Blandford Press. Dorset. ISBN 0-7137-0748-8 P. 154.

ee also

*Knopper gall
*Oak artichoke gall
*Rose bedeguar gall

References

External links

* [http://www.cababstractsplus.org/google/abstract.asp?AcNo=20033212111 British Plant Gall Society]
*cite web | title=Gall | work=Infoplease encyclopedia | url=http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0820047.html | accessmonthday = March| accessyear=2006
* [http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=2169011 A photograph of a Marble Gall]
* [http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/art98/robwill1.html A photograph of Andricus kollari]
* [http://www.knaw.nl/ECPA/ink/ink_ingredients.html Iron gall Ink]
* [http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/ink/make_ink.html A recipe for Iron Gall ink]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Oak artichoke gall — Oak artichoke galls, Oak hop galls, Larch cone galls or Hop strobileDarlington, Arnold (1975) The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in Colour. Pub. Blandford Press. Poole. ISBN 0 7137 0748 8. P. 156.] …   Wikipedia

  • marble gall — (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The hard spherical gall of Cynipidae Adleria kollari , usually on oak that produce the agamic generation of that species …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

  • Gall wasp — Gall Wasps Neuroterus albipes, parthenogenetic generation females, from galls on Quercus robur Scientific classification …   Wikipedia

  • Oak apple — An oak apple on a tree in Worcestershire, England Oak apple is the common name for a large, round, vaguely apple like gall commonly found on many species of oak. Oak apples range in size from 2 5cm. Oak apples are caused by chemicals injected by… …   Wikipedia

  • Gall — For other uses, see Gall (disambiguation). Kalanchoë infected with crown gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens …   Wikipedia

  • Oak — Quercus redirects here. For other uses, see Quercus (disambiguation). This article is about oaks (Quercus). For other uses of Oak , see Oak (disambiguation). Oak Foliage and acorns of Quercus robur …   Wikipedia

  • gall wasp — any wasp of the family Cynipidae, the larvae of which form characteristic galls on plants. [1875 80] * * * ▪ insect  any of a group of wasps in the family Cynipidae (order Hymenoptera) that are notable for their ability to stimulate the growth of …   Universalium

  • Iron gall ink — Oak galls and iron(II) sulfate, ingredients of iron gall ink Iron gall ink (also known as iron gall nut ink or oak gall ink) is a purple black or brown black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources. It was the st …   Wikipedia

  • Knopper gall — Knopper galls develop as a chemically induced distortion of growing acorns on Pedunculate Oak ( Quercus robur ) trees, caused by gall wasps which lay eggs within buds using their ovipositor. The gall thus produced can greatly reduce the fecundity …   Wikipedia

  • Red-pea gall — Mature gall on a Pedunculate Oak leaf Scientific classification Domain …   Wikipedia