2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak


2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreak

Infobox tornado outbreak
name = 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak
image location = Noaa-outbreak-graphic.png

date = February 5–6, 2008
duration = 15 hours, 20 minutes
fujitascale = EF4
tornadoes = 87 confirmed
total damages (USD) = ≥$507 million (2008 USD) [http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~storms Storm Events database] National Climatic Data Center. Accessed May 13, 2008.] [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/stormdata/feb08.pdf Monthly Storm Data] - National Weather Service, Memphis. Accessed July 25, 2008.]
total fatalities = 57
areas affected = Parts of the Southern United States
enhanced = yes
The 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreakcite web
author = NWS Mobile
title = Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/mob/020608Storm/
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] was a deadly tornado outbreak which affected the Southern United States and the lower Ohio Valley on February 5 and 6, 2008. The event began on Super Tuesday, while 24 U.S. states were holding primary elections and caucuses to select the presidential candidates for the upcoming presidential election. Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Alabama, and Tennessee were among the affected regions in which primaries were being held. Some voting locations were forced to close early due to the approaching severe weather. cite news
author = CNN
title = Voters turn out in droves for Super Tuesday
publisher = CNN.com
url = http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/02/05/super.turnout/index.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Eighty-seven tornadoes occurred over the course of the outbreak. The storm system produced several destructive tornadoes in heavily populated areas, most notably in the Memphis metropolitan area, in Jackson, Tennessee, and the northeastern end of the Nashville metropolitan area. At least 57 people were killed across four states and 18 counties, with hundreds of others injured.cite news
author = CNN
title= Severe weather, tornadoes kill dozens across South
publisher = CNN.com
url = http://www.cnn.com/2008/US/weather/02/06/tornadoes/index.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The outbreak is the deadliest of the modern NEXRAD doppler radar era (fully implemented in 1997.) As well as the largest single outbreak since the May 31, 1985 outbreak, which killed 76 across Ohio and Pennsylvania, as well claiming 12 victims in Ontario, Canada. It was also the deadliest outbreak in both Tennessee and Kentucky since the 1974 Super Outbreak. cite news
author = TVNZ
title = Tornado toll rises to 57
publisher = TVNZ.co.nz
url = http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/1318360/1574408
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

The weather system which produced the tornadoes also caused significant straight-line wind damage, hail as large as softballs – convert|4.5|in|cm|0 in diameter – major flooding, significant freezing rain, and heavy snow across many areas of eastern North America.

Meteorological synopsis

[
February 5, 2008 at 1939 UTC (1:39 pm CST)] A series of strong low pressure systems formed across the southern Great Plains on February 4,cite web | title = HPC SYNOPTIC SCALE ANALYSES LOOP - 080205/1200Z - 080206/0900Z | publisher = Storm Prediction Center | date = February 5, 2008 | url = http://w1.spc.woc.noaa.gov/exper/archive/events/080205/hpcsfcloop.shtml | format = Java | accessdate = 2008-05-06] contributing to record warmth on February 4 and 5 in the southern Plains and lower Mississippi River Valley. High temperatures across many areas reached the 70's°F (21–26 °C), and in Alabama temperatures reached the low 80's°F (27 °C) with dewpoint temperatures in the middle 60's° (17–20 °C). A strong cold front trailing the low pressure area approached the region from the west.

The high temperatures and dew points created moderate instability across the outbreak area. CAPE values, a measurement for the level of tropospheric instability, were over 1000 J/kg, and helicity levels, a measurement of the potential for rotating winds, reached over 200 m²/s².cite web
author = NWS Little Rock
title = Severe Weather on February 5, 2008 (Pg1)
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lzk/html/svr0208.htm
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The upper level jet stream also contributed a large amount of wind shear. These factors were all indicative of a high potential for severe weather.cite web
author = Storm Prediction Center
title = Feb 5, 2008 1630 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/archive/2008/day1otlk_20080205_1630.html
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

On February 5 at 7:00 am CST (1300 UTC), the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) issued a high risk of severe storms for most of Arkansas;cite web | title = Feb 5, 2008 1300 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook | publisher = Storm Prediction Center | date = February 5, 2008 | url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/archive/2008/day1otlk_20080205_1300.html | accessdate = 2008-05-06] the first such issuance in February since February 10, 1998.cite web
author = Wehrle, Andre R.
title = Some high-risk days of the 1980s and 1990s
url = http://web.archive.org/web/20070208162834/sphs.angeltowns.net/A_R_Wehrle/pasthighrisk.html
accessdate = 2008-03-28
] Later in the morning at 10:30 am CST (1630 UTC), the high risk area was extended farther northeast to include western Kentucky, northwestern Mississippi, the Missouri Bootheel, West Tennessee, and Southern Illinois.cite web
last = Hales
title = Feb 5, 2008 1630 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook
publisher = Storm Prediction Center
date = February 5, 2008
url = http://spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/archive/2008/day1otlk_20080205_1630.html
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] A moderate risk of severe weather was issued for northwestern Alabama, the rest of Arkansas, the rest of southern Illinois, southern Indiana, most of the rest of Kentucky, northern Louisiana, central Mississippi, parts of southeastern Missouri, southwestern Ohio, eastern Oklahoma, middle Tennessee and northeastern Texas. A total of fifteen watches were issued by the SPC during the outbreak, including thirteen tornado watches (two of which were PDS watches) and two severe thunderstorm watches. cite web
author = Storm Prediction Center
title = Tornado Watch 34
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/watch/ww0034.html
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite web
author = Storm Prediction Center
title = Tornado Watch 48
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/watch/ww0048.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Early on the morning of February 5, a squall line developed across eastern Texas northward into Missouri and moved east towards the high risk area. Ahead of the squall line, the cap took longer than expected to break, but when it finally did in the late afternoon hours, numerous supercell thunderstorms quickly formed across Arkansas and southern Missouri.cite web
last = Racy
title = Mesoscale Discussion 161
publisher = Storm Prediction Center
date = February 5, 2008
url = http://spc.noaa.gov/products/md/md0161.html
format = HTML
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] A cap is a layer of relatively warm air aloft (usually several thousand feet above the ground) which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms; the cap often prevents or delays thunderstorm development even in the presence of extreme instability. However, if the cap is removed or weakened, then explosive thunderstorm development can occur.cite web
title = Weather glossary for storm spotters
publisher = National Weather Service, Norman, Oklahoma
date = March 11, 2008
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/severewx/glossary2.php#c
accessdate = 2008-03-16
] Some of the most powerful tornadic supercells were situated across the Memphis and Jackson areas between 5:00 and 6:30 pm CST (2300 to 0030 UTC) while numerous other tornadoes were reported across northern Mississippi northwest of Tupelo, Mississippi. One of these supercells traveled across central Tennessee including the Nashville metropolitan area and south-central Kentucky, where several deadly tornadoes were reported during the evening hours between 7:30 pm and 10:00 pm CST (0130 to 0400 UTC). Meanwhile, the squall line that developed from near Dallas to Kansas City moved eastward throughout the late evening and overnight hours causing numerous reports of damaging wind along with many spin-up tornadoes from Louisiana to Ohio and Indiana. It then moved through the southeast U.S. during the early morning hours. Additional strong thunderstorms developed ahead of the front across the southeast during the overnight and early morning hours, spawning additional tornadoes. cite web
author = NWS Birmingham, Alabama
title = Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak February 5th & 6th, 2008
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/significant_events/2008/02_06/
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] A record of five tornado emergency declarations were issued on February 5; four for Tennessee, and one in Alabama. cite web
author = NWS Huntsville
title = Severe Weather Statement
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/data/warn_archive/HUN/SVS/0206_092645.txt
accessdate = 2008-03-29
]

On February 6, a slight risk of severe weather was issued for much of the eastern United States from Pennsylvania to the Florida Panhandle as the squall line raced eastward ahead of the cold front.cite web
last = Mead
title = Feb 6, 2008 0600 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook
publisher = Storm Prediction Center
date = February 6, 2008
url = http://spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/archive/2008/day1otlk_20080206_1200.html
format = HTML
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] After two additional tornadoes touched down in Alabama during the morning hours, the primary severe weather threat became damaging wind across the Mid-Atlantic States.cite web
title = Storm reports for 02/06/2008
publisher = Storm Prediction Center
date = February 6, 2008
url = http://spc.noaa.gov/climo/reports/080206_rpts.html
format = HTML
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] No additional tornadoes were reported during the afternoon as the cold front exited into the Atlantic Ocean, although wind damage was reported across eastern Kentucky, eastern Pennsylvania and most of Georgia. Farther north, snow and freezing rain, at times heavy, continued from Iowa to Quebec until February 7 as the center of the system moved slowly out of the area.

Tornadoes reported

Tornado Chart
Total=87
F0=31
F1=30
F2=16
F3=5
F4=5
F5=0
Enhanced=yes

North-central Arkansas tornado

The first long-lived supercell, which spawned the tornado with the longest continuous track of any single tornado in this outbreak, developed around 5:00 pm CST (2300 UTC) southeast of Centerville in Yell County. The tornado tracked into Pope County, striking the community of Atkins. Four people died in Atkins and much of the town was destroyed. cite news
author = KTHV (Little Rock, AR)
title = Atkins Community Works Together In Tornado Aftermath
publisher = KTHV
url = http://www.todaysthv.com/news/tornado_story.aspx?storyid=60145
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The tornado continued on and crossed into Conway County where it killed two more people, injured five others, and destroyed numerous homes. cite news
author = Hart, Sydney (KARK 4)
title = Tornado to Blame for Two Deaths in Conway County
publisher = Arkansasmatters.com
url = http://arkansasmatters.com/content/fulltext/?cid=65250
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The next hard hit town was Clinton in Van Buren County, where three people died. One of these deaths occurred at a boat manufacturing facility which was destroyed. cite news
author = Akers, Jennifer
title = Friends Remember Tornado Victim
publisher = FOX 16.com
url = http://www.fox16.com/news/local/story.aspx?content_id=3c36e5fc-888d-4ab7-89d2-ad3e1e16ef6a&rss=315
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The tornado continued into Stone County, where one person was killed. In the town of Mountain View the local hospital lost its roof and a fire station was destroyed. cite news | author = Yeager, Melissa
title = Tornado that hit Mountain View peeled roof off hospital
publisher = KY3.com
url = http://www.ky3.com/news/local/15453281.html
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The tornado affected mostly rural areas for the rest of its path, but two additional people were killed in Izard County before it lifted back into the clouds northeast of Highland in Sharp County. cite web
author = Carbin, Greg & Thompson, Daphne
title = Preliminary Tracks/County-Fatalities and State-Fatalities for Feb 5-6, 2008 Outbreak
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/wcm/noaa-outbreak-graphic.png date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

An aerial survey later determined that the damage across the seven counties was caused by one tornado, with a track estimated at 122 miles (196 km) in length. This was the longest single tornado track recorded in Arkansas since detailed record keeping began in 1950. The tornado was rated an EF4 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale.cite web
author = Region 8 Storm Center
title = Tornadic Damage Rating Upgraded to EF4
publisher = KAIT 8 (Jonesboro, AR)
url = http://www.kait8.com/global/story.asp?s=7845919
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Twelve people were killed by this tornado, and about 140 people were injured. Approximately 200 homes and businesses were destroyed along the tornado's path. cite web
author = Arkansas Department of Emergency Management
title = State Situation, Tornado Summary
publisher = Arkansas Department of Emergency Management
url = http://www.adem.arkansas.gov/documents/Situation%20Reports/2008/Sit%20Sum%20Storms%2002-05-08.htm
date = February 9, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Damage from this tornado was estimated at nearly $120 million across the seven counties. cite web
author = National Climatic Data Center
title = Storm Events Database
publisher = NOAA
url = http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~storms
date = May 16, 2008
accessdate = 2008-05-16
]

Memphis area tornado

At 5:32 pm CST, a supercell thunderstorm produced a tornado in Southaven, Mississippi, inflicting heavy damaging upon Southaven High School. cite news
author = The Associated Press
title = At least two tornadoes hit Mississippi
publisher = The Natchez Democrat
url = http://www.natchezdemocrat.com/news/2008/feb/06/least-two-tornadoes-hit-mississippi/
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The tornado quickly tracked across the Mississippi – Tennessee state line and into southeastern portions of Memphis, where WREG tower cameras showed the tornado tracking across Memphis' southeastern suburbs, particularly over Southaven, Mississippi. cite web
author = WREG-TV (Memphis, TN)
title = Tornadoes in the Mid-South 2-5-2008
publisher = wreg.com
url = http://www.wreg.com/Global/category.asp?C=124862&nav=menu93_2_2
date = 2008-02-05
accessdate = 2008-04-01
] National Weather Service officials issued a tornado emergency (the first of five in the outbreak) for most of the Memphis metropolitan region. cite web
author = NWS Memphis
title = Severe Weather Statement
publisher = NOAA
url = http://cc.msnscache.com/cache.aspx?q=72948976399444&lang=en-US&w=a1fd940f
date = 2008-02-05
accessdate = 2008-03-29
Dead link|date=April 2008] Dead link|date=April 2008 This tornado produced a swath of extensive damage over residential and commercial areas. cite news
author = Callahan, Jody
title = Storms slice through Mid-South
publisher = Commercial Appeal.com
url = http://www.commercialappeal.com/news/2008/feb/05/roof-blows-across-paul-barret-injures-three-motori/
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Hickory Ridge Mall suffered damage when portions of a wall and roof were destroyed. cite news
author = CTV News via The Associated Press
title = Tornadoes rip through U.S. South, at least 15 dead
publisher = CTV.ca
url = http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080205/south_tornadoes_080205/20080205/
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Major damage was also reported in the Pleasant Ridge area of Germantown in the southern end of Memphis. In addition, damage was reported at Memphis International Airport, where a hangar lost its roof, the FedEx freight terminal's fire station suffered roof damage, (FedEx service was disrupted due to flight delays and closed roads from the tornado damage in surrounding areas) airstair trucks were thrown 100 yards (91 m), and aircraft were moved around, including a Boeing 737 that was moved one foot. cite web
author = Storm Prediction Center
title = SPC Storm Reports for February 5, 2008
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.spc.noaa.gov/climo/reports/080205_rpts.html
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The airport weather station's reporting equipment recorded a wind gust of 73 knots (84 mph, 135 km/h).cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Tornado touchdown, storm damage reported across Memphis area
publisher = WMC-TV (Memphis)
url = http://www.wmcstations.com/Global/story.asp?S=7828443
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The Hardy Bottling Company facility was also damaged, which released 120,000 pounds (54,500 kg) of anhydrous ammonia into the atmosphere, although no public health impacts were reported. cite web
author = TNEMA
title = Tornado Emergency Summary Feb 5-6, 2008
publisher = TNEMA.com
url = http://www.tnema.org/PDF%20Files/febtornadositrep10.pdf
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Electricity was also briefly cut to about 65,000 customers in Memphis.cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Official: Could take 3 weeks to get power to area of Memphis
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS15/80207019/0/NEWS15
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

The National Weather Service rated the tornado as an EF2. Four people in the metropolitan area were killed; three of whom were in a warehouse when it collapsed in the Hickory Hill section of Memphis. A spokesperson for the state's Emergency Management Agency also reported one fatality at the Hickory Ridge Mall, although the NWS office in Memphis did not confirm this. Thirty-six other people were injured in Shelby County by the tornadoes. One additional death took place southeast of Hebron from a separate EF3 tornado. cite news
author = Associated Press
title = At least 8 people dead after tornadoes hit Tenn.
publisher = WMC-TV (Memphis)
url = http://www.wmctv.com/Global/story.asp?S=7829113
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Shelby County Election Commission administrator James Johnson stated the weather did not interfere with Super Tuesday primary voting.

Jackson area tornado

Farther northeast near Jackson, Tennessee, a tornado touchdown caused the issuance of another tornado emergency at 7:00 pm CST (the second of the outbreak). This tornado was spawned by the same supercell that had affected Memphis just about an hour earlier. cite news
author = Brown, George
title = REAL TIME STORM
publisher = WREG-TV (Memphis)
url = http://www.wreg.com/Global/story.asp?S=7827071
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Several cars and at least 15 tractor trailers were overturned by the tornado along Interstate 40 between mile markers 68 and 79. In addition, the areas southwest of Jackson also saw severe damage, including destroyed homes and major damage to a church and I-40 rest area.cite web
author = NWS Memphis
title = February 5, 2008 - Storm Damage Survey
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/events/20080205/stormSurvey.php
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] Major damage was also reported in a commercial area near the U.S. Route 45 bypass and to the northeast of Jackson.

The most severe damage was at the devastated Union University, where a total of 31 buildings on the campus received damage of varying degrees.cite web
author = Union University
title = UURecovery : An official site for recovery information on Union University
publisher = Union University Recovery
url = http://www.uurecovery.com/
accessdate = 2008-02-17
] Hurt, Watters, and McAfee dormitories were the hardest hit with approximately 80% of them rendered uninhabitable. cite news
author = Lane, Rosemary
title = Tornados tear apart Union University
publisher = The Marquette Tribune
url = http://media.www.marquettetribune.org/media/storage/paper1130/news/2008/02/12/News/Tornados.Tear.Apart.Union.University-3201661.shtml
date = February 12, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Twelve students at the university were trapped in damaged buildings but all were eventually rescued. Due to the damage, the university was closed until February 18.

The National Weather Service rated the tornado as an EF4 and later determined that there were two distinct tornado tracks, with an EF3 satellite tornado to the southwest of the main tornado. It was originally believed a third tornado (an EF3) touched down but it was later found to be linked to the main tornado that hit Union University. This was the third violent tornado to hit Jackson in 10 years. Two other tornadoes, both rated F4, devastated the community on January 17, 1999 cite web
author = NWS Memphis
title = The January 17-22, 1999 Tornado Outbreak --- Preliminary Synopsis
publisher = NOAA
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/writeup.php
accessdate = 2008-05-07
] and May 4, 2003. cite web
author = NWS Memphis
title = Madison County Tornado May 4 2003
publisher = NOAA
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/may03/madisonCo050403.html
accessdate = 2008-05-07
]

Over 60 people in the Jackson area were treated for injuries as a result of the severe weather, 50 of whom were released immediately. cite news
author = News Channel 5
title = Storms Devastate Union University
publisher = Newschannel5.com
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=7834368
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] No fatalities were caused by these tornadoes, however two fatalities were reported in the Huntersville community, located west of Jackson, from a separate tornado. cite news
author = Cheshier, Tajuana, Smith-King, Tonya, Isom, Wendy & Hunter, Ned
title = Two dead in Huntersville area, students trapped at Union
publisher = The Jackson Sun
url = http://www.jacksonsun.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080205/NEWS01/80205041
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Estimates indicate that the tornadoes caused about $47 million worth of damages in Madison County, with $40 million of that total occurring at Union University alone. cite news
author = Cheshier, Tajuana & Anthony, Ashley
title = Union's damage estimates may reach $40M
publisher = The Jackson Sun
url = http://www.jacksonsun.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS01/802070326
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Northeast Nashville region tornado

Just after 9:00 PM CST, a supercell that spawned tornadoes over northern Mississippi as well as fatalities in Hardin County, Tennessee, moved to the northeast over Nashville as a funnel cloud, no significant damage was reported in the city. At the time the supercell moved over Nashville, a National Hockey League game between the Nashville Predators and the Carolina Hurricanes, which was nationally televised on Versus, was being played at the Sommet Center. With just over nine minutes left in the third period, Predators head coach Barry Trotz was told that the game may have to be stopped.cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Predators deal with Hurricanes, then tornadoes in Nashville
publisher = NHL.com
url = http://www.nhl.com/nhl/app/?service=page&page=NewsPage&articleid=352489
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Although the game continued to completion, at the games end fans were not allowed to leave the arena until the storm had passed.cite news
author = WTVF (Nashville)
title = Hockey Fans Take Refuge In Arena
publisher = NewsChannel5.com
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=7828577
date = February 5, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

After the supercell moved through Nashville a tornado did touch down, devastating areas of Middle Tennessee in the late evening hours and killing 23 people. cite news
author = Bard, Travis
title = Tennessee Tornado Death Toll Revised
publisher = Myeyewitnessnews.com
url = http://www.myeyewitnessnews.com/news/local/story.aspx?content_id=3e0b8d51-e2c9-4471-9343-1fbf307b2b4a
format = HTML
date = February 14, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The twister touched down near Castalian Springs and Westmoreland, Tennessee, a rural area in Sumner County, Tennessee, just after 10:00 pm CST. Eight fatalities were confirmed in Castalian Springs due to the tornado, the last of which didn't occur until two weeks later.cite web
last = AP writers
title = Tornado death count up 1 to 32
publisher = WMCtv.com
date = February 18, 2008
url = http://www.wmctv.com/global/story.asp?s=7889407
format = HTML
accessdate = 2008-03-16
] The 19th century Wynnewood Inn, a national historical landmark, a suffered major damage to its second level and grounds during the storm. cite news
author = Marshall, Anne
title = Historic Inn Suffers Damage In Storms
publisher = WSMV-TV (Nashville)
url = http://www.wsmv.com/tennessee-tragedy/15238386/detail.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

The tornado then tracked into Trousdale County and left three people dead, two of whom were found at a home along U.S. Route 231.cite web
author = Sisk, Chas
title = Trousdale County feels forgotten
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080210/NEWS15/802100431
date = February 10, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] From there the tornado continued northeast to Macon County, Tennessee where 13 people died. cite web
title = TORNADO EMERGENCY SUMMARY
publisher = Tennessee Emergency Management Agency
url = http://www.tnema.org/PDF%20Files/febtornadositrep09.pdf
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] As a result of the tornado, a major fire occurred at a natural gas plant near the small community of Green Grove in the extreme southwestern portion of the county . The area was evacuated and no one was injured at the plant. cite news
author = News Channel 5
title = Natural Gas Plant Erupts In Flames
publisher = Newschannel5.com
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=7828823
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Widespread damage in the area was also reported to houses and trailers, particularly in the community of Lafayette. cite news
author = Newschannel 5
title = Tornado Victims Rebuild In Macon County
publisher = Newschannel5.com 2008
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=8048774
date = March 20, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Debris from the Lafayette area was found as far north as Sano, Kentucky in Adair County, approximately convert|70|mi|km|0 to the northeast. cite web
author = NWS Louisville
title = Debris found in Adair County
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/?n=adaircounty5feb08
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Sixteen thousand TVA electricity customers in Macon and Trousdale Counties lost power, some of whom didn't have their service restored for a week.cite news
author = The Tennessean
title = Power restored in Macon County seat
publisher = The Tennessean
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS15/80207013
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = The Tennessean
title = Trousdale to get power at 10 p.m.
publisher = The Tennessean
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080208/NEWS15/80208150/-1/NEWS15
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Macon County schools were closed until February 19. cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Emergency officials say 24 killed by storms in Tennessee
publisher = WMC-TV (Memphis)
url = http://www.wmctv.com/Global/story.asp?S=7829825
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = The Tennessean
title = Macon: Gas fire erupts; at least 10 deaths reported
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080206/NEWS/80206067
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Sledge, Colby & Howard, Kate
title = Macon death toll now at 14
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS15/80207023
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = The Tennessean
title = Macon County schools closed until Feb. 19
publisher = The Tennessean
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080208/NEWS15/80208028
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In total, about 260 houses in the three counties were destroyed, and damage amounts were estimated at $78 million in Macon County alone.cite news
author = The Tennessean
title = Tornadoes destroyed hundreds of homes
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS15/80207031/0/NEWS15
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = News Channel 5
title = Tornado Damage Estimates Coming In
publisher = Newschannel5.com
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=7856138
date = February 11, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In addition, due to being critically injured, the tornado claimed the life of a 14th Macon County resident on March 13, 2008.cite web
author = J. Ellefson
title = Tornado Claims 14th Victim
publisher = maconcountychronicle.com
url = http://www.maconcountychronicle.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=101&Itemid=30
date = March 17, 2008
accessdate = 2008-10-08
]

The tornado continued across the state boundary into Kentucky where a metal warehouse, two homes and two mobile homes near Gamaliel were destroyed, and several other structures suffered extensive damage. Thirteen people from an adjacent trailer park hid inside a basement and were trapped by debris for up to 30 minutes. cite web
author = NWS Louisville
title = National Weather Service Monroe County Storm Survey Details
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/?n=monroecountytornadopage
accessdate = 2008-03-29
]

Preliminary surveys by the National Weather Service confirmed that the 23 deaths (which was revised downward from 24 initially due to double-counting) were caused by a single tornado, which was rated an EF3. The tornado path was 51 miles (82 km) long and up to convert|.75|mi|km|2 wide. cite web
author = NWS Nashville
title = Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak - February 5-6, 2008
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bna/surveys/images/020508/supertuesdaypns.php
accessdate = 2008-04-01
] National Weather Service Meteorologist Bobby Boyd theorized that cold air downbursts impinging the tornado forced it to lift up from the ground and remain a funnel cloud as it crossed over Davidson County and downtown Nashville before touching down again east of the city. cite web
author = Boyd, Bobby (NWS Nashville)
title = Why Did The Tornado Skip Nashville & Davidson County - A Meteorologist's Theory
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bna/surveys/images/020508/ss080205_why_not_nashville.php
accessdate = 2008-02-22
]

The devastation was described by Governor Phil Bredesen as "It looks like the Lord took a Brillo pad and scrubbed the ground" while surveying by helicopter. cite news
author = Associated Press
title = At least 54 dead in destructive onslaught of tornadoes in the South
publisher = News8austin.com (Austin, Texas)
url = http://www.news8austin.com/content/top_stories/default.asp?ArID=199755
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] This tornado is the deadliest single tornado to strike Middle Tennessee in over 75 years, and the deadliest single US tornado since the Evansville Tornado of November 2005 (which killed 25).

North-central Alabama tornado

At approximately 1:00 am CST, the broken squall line that had affected Oklahoma and Missouri entered the state of Alabama. cite news
author = NWS Huntsville
title = "Super Tuesday" Outbreak Weather Summary
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hun/stormsurveys/2008-02-06/weather.php
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Individual supercell storms began to develop ahead of the squall line on the Alabama/Mississippi border due to the strengthening of the upper level jet stream. A supercell that developed over Starkville, Mississippi and tracked over Lamar, Marion and Fayette Counties in Alabama then spawned a tornado in Lawrence County, Alabama.cite web
author = NWS Birmingham
title = EF-1 Beaverton - Guin Tornado - February 6, 2008
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/significant_events/2008/02_06/Lamar_Marion/index.php
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] cite web
author = NWS Birmingham
title = EF-2 Newtonville - Oakman Tornado - February 6, 2008
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/significant_events/2008/02_06/Fayette_Tcl_Walker/index.php
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] The tornado touched down by Pinhook near the Bankhead National Forest. Many houses were damaged or destroyed and a church was flattened. Three fatalities from a single family occurred north of Aldrich Grove. cite web
author = NWS Huntsville, Alabama
title = Lawrence/Morgan County Tornado
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hun/stormsurveys/2008-02-06/lawrence.php
accessdate = 2008-03-29
] An elderly woman was also killed by the storm, and 20 – 25 others were injured.cite news
author = Decatur Daily
title = 4th tornado victim dies
publisher = Decatur Daily.com
url = http://www.decaturdaily.com/stories/4698.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Thomas, Ronnie
title = Family of 3 killed when twister shreds home in Lawrence
publisher = Decatur Daily.com
url = http://www.decaturdaily.com/stories/4676.htm
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The tornado was initially classified as an EF3 but it was upgraded to EF4 in a later survey. cite web
author = Spann, James
title = New Huntsville Storm Survey Info
publisher = WBMA-LP (Birmingham, Alabama)
url = http://www.alabamawx.com/?p=5444
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The hardest hit communities were the towns of Wren, Speake and Five Points. The tornado moved into Morgan County and threatened the Decatur area, resulting with the NWS in Huntsville issuing a tornado emergency (the fifth in the outbreak) for Morgan County and southern Limestone County. The tornado lifted before reaching Decatur. The same supercell then moved over the Huntsville Metro area but no tornadoes were reported.

Non-tornadic events

Numerous reports of damaging winds were associated with the passage of the cold front. Wind gusts from Arkansas to Indiana exceeded 50 mph (80 km/h), bringing down numerous trees and power lines, and causing numerous power outages across many areas. A 67 mph (108 km/h) wind gust was recorded during the passage of a squall line at Little Rock National Airport.cite web
author = NWS Little Rock
title = Severe Weather on February 5, 2008 (Pg2)
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lzk/html/svr0208a.htm
date = February 9, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The highest recorded wind gust associated with the passage of the squall line was 82 mph (131 km/h) in Terre Haute, Indiana. Hail as large as softballs (convert|4.5|in|cm|0 in diameter) was reported in several communities. In Canada, unseasonably early thunderstorms brought bouts of heavy rain to parts of southern Ontario in the late night hours of February 4.cite web
title = Hourly Data Report for February 04, 2008 (Toronto Pearson Airport)
publisher = Environment Canada
url = http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climateData/hourlydata_e.html?timeframe=1&Prov=XX&StationID=5097&Year=2008&Month=2&Day=4
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Flooding

Heavy rains falling from thunderstorms on February 4 to February 6 and the melting of snow that was previously on the ground caused flooding across parts of Illinois, New York, Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio.cite news
author = Associated Press
title = 800 vehicles trapped on Wisconsin interstate
publisher = CNN.com
url = http://edition.cnn.com/2008/US/weather/02/07/winter.weather.ap/index.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Among the hardest hit areas by the flooding rivers and streams were the Miami Valley north of Dayton, areas along the Blanchard River in Findlay and parts of northern Indiana between Indianapolis and north of Fort Wayne along the Tippecanoe, St. Marys and Wabash Rivers. Several streets in Fort Wayne were under water, and there was also flooding between Lafayette and Terre Haute.cite news
author = Associated Press
title = NEW: 3 bodies found in flooded quarry as swollen rivers crest
publisher = Tribstar.com
url = http://www.tribstar.com/local/local_story_038161318.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Rivers begin to recede, still causing problems
publisher = NBC 24. com (Toledo, OH)
url = http://www.nbc24.com/news/news_story.aspx?id=93384
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Grimes, Becky
title = Flooding Extensive In The Northern Miami Valley
publisher = WHIO-TV 7 (Dayton, OH)
url = http://www.whiotv.com/news/15233391/detail.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite web
author = NWS Indianapolis
title = Significant to near Major Flood for Western and Southern Indiana
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=ind&storyid=12788&source=0
date = February 10, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Winter storm

The same low pressure systems that caused the tornado outbreak also caused a major snowstorm from the Central Plains to the western Great Lakes where winter storm warnings were issued. From 10 to 15 inches (25–38 cm) of snow fell from eastern Iowa to southern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois, with local amounts from 18 to 21 inches (45–53 cm) of snow in parts of southeastern Wisconsin.cite web
author = NWS Milwaukee/Sullivan
title = February 5-6, 2008 Major Winter Storm Southern Wisconsin
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mkx/?n=020608_snow
date = February 11, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite web
author = NWS Quad Cities, IA/IL
title = Snowfall Reports from February 5th & 6th
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=dvn&storyid=12840&source=0
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In Michigan, up to 14 inches of snow (35 cm) fell north of Grand Rapids.cite web
author = NWS Grand Rapids
title = Major Winter Storm Hits Central and Southern Lower Michigan
publisher = National Weather Service
url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=grr&storyid=12856&source=0
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Environment Canada also issued freezing rain and winter storm warnings for Southern Ontario where some areas north of Lake Erie received close to 1 inch (25 mm) of ice due to freezing rain.cite news
author = CTV (Southwestern Ontario)
title = Winter storm and freezing rain warnings in effect for some areas
publisher = CTV
url = http://www.southwesternontario.ctv.ca/news.php?id=752&PHPSESSID=1707c5b8e346900c8bff03bc68149661
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = CTV News
title = GTA hit by second snowstorm in less than 24 hours
publisher = CTV
url = http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080206/to_storm_080206/20080206?hub=TopStories
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In Toronto, two waves of moderate to heavy snow accompanied by thunder and lightning, along with ice pellets brought up to one foot (30 cm) of snow over February 6 and 7. Other areas from Windsor to Ottawa as well as southwestern Nova Scotia received from 4 to 20 inches (10–50 cm) of snow.cite web
author = Environment Canada (Southern Ontario/Ottawa-Gatineau)
title = Weather summary for all of southern Ontario and The national Capital region
publisher = vaughanweather.com via Environment Canada
url = http://www.vaughanweather.com/wikipedia/February_2008_tornado_outbreak/AWCN11_CWTO_072040.txt
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = City News Toronto
title = GTA Digs Out From Biggest One Day Feb. Snowfall In 30 Years
publisher = CityNews.ca
url = http://www.citynews.ca/news/news_19360.aspx
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Numerous flight cancellations were reported at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (over 1,000) and at Toronto's Pearson International Airport.cite news
author = Black, Lisa, Fergus, Mary Ann & Wang, Andrew L.
title = Fickle storm delivers a slushy punch
publisher = Chicago Tribune
url = http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chi-weather_07_webfeb07,0,7747217.story
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = CBC News
title = Winter storm moves east out of GTA
publisher = CBC
url = http://www.cbc.ca/canada/toronto/story/2008/02/07/gta-storm.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In Milwaukee, white out conditions and 13 inches (33 cm) of snow briefly shut down the General Mitchell International Airport.cite news
author = Jones, Meg & Garza, Jesse
title = Snowstorm living up to advance billing
publisher = Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel
url = http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=715255
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] Meanwhile near Madison, Wisconsin, 1000 vehicles were stranded and stuck on Interstate 90 due to the snow. Wisconsin Governor Jim Doyle declared a state of emergency for the area and activated the Wisconsin National Guard.cite news
author = Associated Press/WMAQ-TV (Chicago)
title = Chicago Recovering From Latest Bout Of Snow
publisher = NBC5.com
url = http://www.nbc5.com/news/15245014/detail.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] On February 6, numerous schools, colleges, government buildings, churches, businesses, and shopping malls were forced to close throughout southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois due to the inclement weather. The winter storm was responsible for at least four deaths: one each in Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan and Quebec.cite news
author = Associated Press/NBC Detroit
title = Metro Detroit Digs Out, Cleans Up
publisher = ClickonDetroit.com
url = http://www.clickondetroit.com/news/15242918/detail.html
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Associated Press
title = Fatal Interstate Crash
publisher = NBC 15 WMTV (Madison, WI)
url = http://www.nbc15.com/news/headlines/15359811.html
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Hughes, Graham
title = Very slippery
publisher = The Ottawa Citizen
url = http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/features/storm/story.html?id=01c4b52b-761b-4ef3-add8-3410b8ec4828&k=30067
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

Aftermath

On February 7 a federal disaster declaration was made by President George W. Bush for 11 counties in Arkansas and five counties in Tennessee. Sixteen additional counties in Tennessee requested federal aid,cite web
author = Federal Emergency Management Agency
title = President Declares Major Disaster For Arkansas
publisher = US Department of Homeland Security
url = http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=42500
date = February 7, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
last = Paine
first = Anne
coauthors = Colby Sledge; Rachel Stults
title = Tennessee rallies to help storm-tossed counties
publisher = The Tennessean.com
url = http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080208/NEWS15/802080408
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] cite news
author = Associated Press
title = President Bush declares Tenn. counties major disaster area
publisher = WMC-TV (Memphis)
url = http://www.wmctv.com/Global/story.asp?S=7841532
date = February 8, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] and on February 12, Tennessee Governor Bredesen announced that eight counties in Tennessee became eligible. cite news
author = Tennessee Government
title = Bredesen Announces Eight Additional Counties Approved For Federal Disaster Aid
publisher = Tennesseeanytime.org
url = http://www.tennesseeanytime.org/governor/viewArticleContent.do?id=1183
date = February 12, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] President Bush also visited Tennessee to tour the devastated areas on February 8. cite news
last = UPI writers
title = Bush to visit tornado-struck Tennessee
publisher = United Press International
url = http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/02/06/bush_to_visit_tornado-struck_tennessee/2833
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

The American Red Cross, the Salvation Army, the United Way and other charitable groups also quickly mobilized volunteers to assist survivors in the aftermath across the regions affected. In the three hardest hit Middle Tennessee counties alone, the Red Cross sent out over 100 volunteers to deliver meals and supplies. Emergency assistance was also offered by the Tennessee Department of Human Services for low income victims in the counties affected by the tornadoes.cite web
author = WPTY-TV (Memphis)
title = TN Department Of Human Services Offers Assistance To Tornado Victims
publisher = Myeyewitnessnews.com
url = http://www.myeyewitnessnews.com/news/local/story.aspx?content_id=bab861d0-2a91-4c2a-8c4f-5e94719cf881&rss=59
date = February 9, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] In addition, the Nashville Predators announced that for their game on February 7 against the Tampa Bay Lightning, half of the revenue made from tickets for the game would be donated to the American Red Cross to help with their efforts, and that fans could make additional donations to Red Cross volunteers at the arena's main entrances. cite web
author = Nashville Predators
title = Predators to Donate Half of Remaining Ticket Sales to Feb. 7 Game to Tornado Relief Efforts
publisher = Nashville Predator/National Hockey League
url = http://predators.nhl.com/team/app?articleid=352570&page=NewsPage&service=page
date = February 6, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
] The National Football League's Tennessee Titans along with the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management of Nashville organized a donation drive during the weekend of February 9 at LP Field. cite news
author = WTVF (Nashville)
title = Titans Help Storm Victims
publisher = NewsChannel5.com
url = http://www.newschannel5.com/Global/story.asp?S=7849067&nav=menu374_2
date = February 9, 2008
accessdate = 2008-04-26
]

ee also

* List of North American tornadoes and tornado outbreaks
* Tornadoes of 2008
* Winter storms of 2007-08

References

External links

* [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=pah&storyid=12797&source=0 NWS Paducah, KY storm summary]
** [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/pah/?n=Feb508tornadoes NWS Paducah, KY storm survey page]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hun/stormsurveys/2008-02-06/index.php NWS Huntsville, AL storm summary]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/significant_events/2008/02_06/ NWS Birmingham, AL storm summary]
* [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=jkl&storyid=12835&source=0 NWS Jackson, KY storm summary]
* [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/lmk/?n=february5-6,2008outbreak NWS Louisville, KY storm summary]
* [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/crnews/display_story.php?wfo=ind&storyid=12819&source=0 NWS Indianapolis, IN storm summary]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/shv/events/ArpTornado/ NWS Shreveport, LA storm summary]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ohx/surveys/images/020508/poststorm_020508.php NWS Nashville, TN storm summary]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/events/20080205/stormSurvey.php NWS Memphis, TN storm summary]
** [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/meg/events/20080205/slideshow/index.php Gallery of damage in Jackson, TN]
* [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lzk/html/svr0208.htm NWS Little Rock, AR storm summary]
* [http://www.wmctv.com/Global/story.asp?S=7827446 WMC-TV (Memphis, TN storm damage gallery] (Adobe Flash required)
* [http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=4249491&contentIndex=1&page=1 ABC News storm damage gallery]
* [http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=NEWS15 "The Tennessean" section on the outbreak]
* [http://www.ctv.ca/gallery/html/tornado_080206/photo_0.html CTV storm damage gallery]
* [http://www.14wfie.com/Global/story.asp?S=7832971 WFIE-TV, Evansville, IN, report regarding storm damage to Muhlenberg County, KY]
* [http://news25.us/dsp_story.cfm?storyid=5067&RequestTimeout=500 WEHT-TV, Evansville, IN, report regarding storm damage to Muhlenberg County, KY]
* [http://www.jacksonsun.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080207/NEWS01/802070332 "The Jackson Sun" report listing county-by-county damage in Tenneessee]
* [http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/601 CIMSS Satellite blog of the outbreak]
* [http://robslink.com/SAS/democd31/storms.htm Interactive tornado map]


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