- Industrial applicability
patent law, industrial applicability or industrial application is a patentabilityrequirement according to which a patent can only be granted for an inventionwhich is susceptible of industrial application, i.e. for an invention which can be made or used in some kind of industry. In this context, the concept of "industry" is far-reaching: it includes indeed agriculturefor instance. An example of invention which would "not" be susceptible of industrial application is "a method of contraception[...] to be applied in the private and personal sphere of a human being". [ [http://legal.european-patent-office.org/dg3/biblio/t930074ep1.htm Decision T 74/93] of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office ]
In relationship with United States patent law, the utility requirement is a more or less corresponding, but different, requirement.
European patent law
At the European Patent Office (EPO), the requirement that an invention is susceptible of an industrial application has generally been taken to be more or less automatically fulfilled but a 2005 decision of the Boards of Appeal of the EPO saw this requirement analysed in new detail. In decision T870/04 it was held that the mere fact that a substance can be made in some way does not necessarily mean that the requirements of EPC Article|57 are fulfilled, unless there is also some "profitable use" for which the substance can be employed. [ [http://legal.european-patent-office.org/dg3/biblio/t040870eu1.htm Decision T 870/04] ] When an alleged invention does not comply with the generally accepted
laws of physics, the industrial application requirement is related to the requirement of sufficiency of disclosure, i.e. the fact that a "patent application must disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for it to be carried out by a person skilled in the art". [ "In T 541/96 the board noted that according to Art. 52(1) EPC a European patent could be granted for an invention which was, inter alla, susceptible of industrial application. This concept was related to the obligation on an applicant to give a sufficient description of the invention, as required by Art. 83 EPC. An invention or an application for a patent for an alleged invention which would not comply with the generally accepted laws of physics would be incompatible with the requirements of Art. 57 EPC and Art. 83 EPC because it could not be used and therefore lacked industrial application. The description would moreover be insufficient to the extent that the applicant would not be able to describe how it could be made to work." [http://www.european-patent-office.org/legal/case_law/pdf/clr_all_en.pdf "Case Law of the Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office"] , Fourth Edition, December 2001, Page 143. ] [ See also, for cases at the United Kingdom Patent Office ( UK-IPO), [http://ipkitten.blogspot.com/2008/06/uk-ipo-gets-tougher-on-perpetual-motion.html "UK-IPO gets tougher on perpetual motion"] , IPKat, 12 June 2008. Consulted on June 12, 2008. ]
EPC Article|52|4 old fact excludes "methods for treatment of the human or animal body by
surgeryor therapyand diagnosticmethods practised on the human or animal body" from patentability, because these methods are regarded as not susceptible of industrial application. [ EPC Article|52|4 old fact ] The purpose of this exclusion is "to deny patent protection to methods which serve medical purposes, so that no one could be hampered in the practice of medicine by patent legislation." [ [http://www.european-patent-office.org/epo/pubs/oj007/08_07/special_edition_6_case_law_boards_of_appeal.pdf Special edition 6/2007, EPO Board of Appeal Case Law 2006] , pages 17-18. ]
References and notes
* [http://www.european-patent-office.org/legal/epc/e/ar57.html#A57 Article 57] of the
European Patent Convention
* [http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/articles/a33.htm Article 33] of the
Patent Cooperation Treaty, see in particular paragraph (4).
* [http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/paris/trtdocs_wo020.html#P71_4054 Article 1] of the
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, see in particular paragraph (3) for guidances as to how the word "industry" should be interpreted.
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