- Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when
Spainmoved from the dictatorshipof Francisco Francoto a liberal democratic state. The transition is usually said to have begun with Franco’s death on November 20, 1975, while its completion has been variously said to be marked by the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the failure of Antonio Tejero's attempted coup on February 23, 1981, or the electoral victory of the socialist PSOEon October 28, 1982.
Political role of Juan Carlos I
The death of Franco elevated Don Juan Carlos de Borbón to the throne. Until Franco’s death, Juan Carlos had remained in the background and seemed to follow the dictator’s plans. However, once in power as
King of Spain, Juan Carlos facilitated the development of the current political system, as his father, Don Juan de Borbón, had advocated since 1946.
The transition was an ambitious plan that counted on ample support both within and outside of Spain. The Western countries, headed by the
United States(which had previously supported Franco's dictatorship), now favored a Spanish constitutional monarchy, as did many Spanish and international capitalists.
Nevertheless, the transition proved challenging, as the specter of the Civil War (1936-1939) still haunted Spain. Francoists on the extreme right enjoyed considerable support within the
Spanish Army, and people of the left distrusted a king who owed his position to Franco.
The realization of the democratic project required that the leftist opposition restrain its own most radical elements from provocation, and that the army refrain from intervening in the political process on behalf of Francoist elements within the existing government.
Juan Carlos began his reign without leaving the confines of Franco's legal system. As such, he swore fidelity to the Principles of the "Movimiento Nacional", the sole legal party of the Franco era; took possession of the crown before the Francoist Cortes Generales; and respected the [http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_Org%C3%A1nica_del_Estado "Ley Orgánica del Estado"] (Organic Law of the State) for the appointment of his first
head of government. Only in his speech before the Cortes did he indicate his support for a transformation of the Spanish political system.
First government of the Monarchy (January-July 1976)
The first government of Juan Carlos was presided over by
Carlos Arias Navarro. The King made this appointment in accordance with the guidelines of the 1966 "Ley Orgánica del Estado" ("Organic Law of the State"): the " Consejo del Reino" ("Council of the Kingdom") proposed a list of three candidates, and from among these the King chose Arias Navarro.
The appointment of Arias Navarro did not foretell large political transformations. Nevertheless, the new government included three individuals who had once collaborated with Franco's state but had now become dedicated supporters of the movement toward a democratic state:
José María de Areilza, a member of Don Juan's Privy Council, was given the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, whilst the diplomat Antonio Garrigues y Díaz Cañabatewas named Minister of Justice, and Manuel Fraga Iribarnewas appointed Interior Minister("Ministro de Gobernación"). However, to maintain political balance, the Vice-Chairman for Defensewas an unconditionally pro-Franco military man: General Fernando de Santiago.
Soon, two other officials gained prominence within the movement.
Torcuato Fernández Miranda, a university professor from the ranks of the "Movimiento" was the president of both the Cortes and the Council of the Kingdom. Adolfo Suárez, who also started his career within the "Movimiento", held the position of Secretary-General of the "Movimiento", with the rank of minister.
The new government faced many difficulties. Unrest was on the increase, with frequent calls for amnesty. Meanwhile, in the Basque Country, tensions mounted steadily.
ETAcontinued its attacks and had popular support for many of its actions. A general strikein Vitoria at the beginning of March 1976 lasted for several days. When street protests became violent, police reprisals resulted in the deaths of three people and a loss of prestige for Minister Fraga, already reputed to be heavy-handed.
Meanwhile, the political opposition steadfastly called for the dismantling of the Francoist regime as soon as possible. Opposition forces united in March 1976, forming a new organization, the "
Coordinación Democrática", which declared that it would not accept any political system connected with the old Francoist order. Arias Navarro intended only small changes to the Francoist system, but some of his ministers had already anticipated and embraced the prospect of greater change.
José María de Areilza accompanied the King on a trip to the United States in June 1976, and declared complete support for the implementation of a democratic system in Spain. Adolfo Suárez maintained frequent contacts with moderate members of the opposition to plan the first stages of the transition. Also, the King himself, during the trip to the United States, plainly declared that he favored the re-establishment of democracy in Spain. Finally, in July, as Prime Minister Arias Navarro continued to delay reform and object to democratization, Juan Carlos ordered his resignation.
First government of Adolfo Suárez (July 1976 - June 1977)
Fernández Miranda, as president of the Council of the Kingdom, obtained Adolfo Suárez’s placement on the new list of three candidates for
head of the government. The king chose Suárez because he felt he would be able to meet the challenge of the difficult political process that lay ahead: persuading the Cortes (Spanish parliament), which was composed of installed Francoist politicians, to dismantle Franco’s system. In this manner he would formally act within the Francoist legal system and thus avoid the prospect of military intervention in the political process.
Adolfo Suárez quickly presented a clear political program based on two points:
* The development of a "Law for Political Reform" that, once approved by the Cortes and the Spanish public in a
referendum, would open the constituent process for creating a liberal democracyin Spain.
* A call for democratic elections in June 1977 in order to elect a Cortes that would be charged with drawing up a new democratic
This program was clear and unequivocal, but its realization tested the political capacity of Suárez. He had to convince both the opposition to participate in his plan and the army to allow the process to run uninterrupted, and at the same time needed to bring under control the situation in the Basque Country.
Despite these challenges, Suárez's project was carried out without delay between July 1976 and June 1977. In this short period of time Adolfo Suárez had to act on many fronts to achieve his aims.
The Law for Political Reform
The draft of the Law for Political Reform ("Ley para la Reforma Política") was written by
Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, speaker of the Cortes, who handed it over to the Suárez government in July 1976. The project was approved by the Suarez Government in September 1976. [http://www.adurcal.com/iu/historia/historia_de_un_cambio.htm] In order to open the door to parliamentary democracy in Spain, this legislation could not simply create a new political system by eliminating the obstacles put in place by the Franco regime against democracy: it had to liquidate the Francoist system through the Francoist Cortes itself. Fact|date=February 2007 Throughout the month of November the Cortes, under the able presidency of Fernández Miranda, debated this law, which it ultimately approved with 425 votes in favor, 59 against, and 13 abstentions.
The Suárez government sought to gain further legitimacy for the changes through a popular
referendum. On 15 December 1976, with a 77.72% participation rate, 94% of voters indicated their support for the changes. From this moment, it was possible to begin the electoral process (the second part of the Suárez program), which would serve to elect the deputies of the Constituent Cortes, the body that was to be responsible for creating a democratic constitution.
With this part of his plan fulfilled, Suárez had to resolve a crucial issue: should he include the opposition groups who had not participated in the beginning of the transition? Suárez also had to deal with another delicate issue: coming to terms with the anti-Francoist opposition.
Relations of the Suárez government with the opposition
Suárez adopted a series of measured policies to add credibility to his project. In July 1976 he issued a partial political amnesty, freeing 400 prisoners. He extended this in March 1977, and finally granted a blanket amnesty in May of the same year. In December, 1976 the
Tribunal de Orden Público(TOP), a sort of Francoist secret police, was dissolved. In March 1977, the right to strike was legalized, with the right to unionize being granted the following month. Also in March a new electoral law ("Ley Electoral") introduced the necessary framework for Spain's electoral system to be brought into accord with those of other countries that were liberal parliamentary democracies.
Through these and other measures of government, Suárez complied with the conditions that the opposition groups had first demanded in 1974. These opposition forces had met in November 1976 in order to create a platform of democratic organizations.
Suárez had initiated political contact with the opposition by meeting with
Felipe González, secretary generalof the PSOE, in August 1976. The positive attitude of the socialist leader gave further support for Suárez to carry forward his political project, but everyone clearly perceived that the big problem for the political normalization of the country would be the legalization of the Communist Party of Spain("Partido Comunista de España" or PCE), which had, at the time, more activists and was more organized than any other group in the political opposition. However, in a meeting between Suárez and the most important military leaders in September, the officers strongly declared opposition to the legalization of the PCE.
The PCE, for its part, acted ever more publicly to express its opinions. According to the Communists, the Law for Political Reform was anti-democratic, and, moreover, the elections for the Constituent Cortes should be called by a provisional government that formed part of the political forces of the opposition. The opposition did not show any enthusiasm for the Law for Political Reform. Suárez had to risk even more in order to involve the opposition forces in his plan.
In December 1976, the
PSOEcelebrated its 27th Congress in Madrid, and began to disassociate itself from the demands of the PCE, affirming that it would participate in the next call for elections for the Constituent Cortes. In the beginning of 1977, the year of the elections, Suárez decided to confront the problem of legalizing the PCE. After the public indignation lifted by the Massacre of Atocha in January 1977 against trade-unionists and Communists, Suárez decided to talk with PCE secretary general Santiago Carrilloin February. Carrillo's willingness to collaborate without prior demands and his offer of a "social pact" for the period after the elections pushed Suárez to take the riskiest step of the transition: the legalization of the PCE in April 1977. However, throughout this critical period the government began a strategy of providing greater institutional space to the UGT Socialist union in comparison to the then Communist oriented CCOO. The manner in which a unified trade union was strategically countered is an important feature of the Spanish transition as it limited radical opposition and created the basis for a fractured industrial relations system.
Relations of the Suárez government with the army
Adolfo Suárez knew well that the "
Búnker"—a group of hard-line Francoists led by José Antonio Girónand Blas Piñar, using the newspapers " El Alcázar" and " Arriba" as their mouthpieces— had close contacts with officials in the army and exercised influence over important sectors of the military. These forces could constitute an insurmountable obstacle if they brought about military intervention against political reform.
To resolve the issue, Suárez intended to support himself with a liberal group within the military, centered on General
Díez Alegría. Suárez decided to give the members of this group the positions of authority with the most responsibility. The most notable personality of this faction within the army was General Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado. But in July 1976, the Vice President for Defense Affairs was General Fernando de Santiago, a member of a hardline group within the army. De Santiago had shown his restlessness before, during the first amnesty in July 1976. He had opposed the law granting the right to unionize. Suárez dismissed Fernando de Santiago and nominated instead Gutiérrez Mellado. This confrontation with General de Santiago caused a large part of the army to oppose Suárez, an opposition that further intensified when the PCE was legalized.
Meanwhile, Gutiérrez Mellado promoted officials who supported political reform and removed those commanders of security forces ("
Policía Armada" and the "Guardia Civil)" who seemed to support preserving the Francoist regime.
Suárez wanted to demonstrate to the army that the political normalization of the country meant neither anarchy nor
revolution. In this, he counted on the collaboration of Santiago Carrillo, but he could in no way count on the collaboration of terrorist groups.
Resurgence of terrorist activity
The Basque Country remained, for the better part of this period, in a state of political turbulence. Suárez granted a multi-stage amnesty, but the confrontations continued between police and protesters.
ETA, which in the summer of 1976 seemed open to a limited truce, resumed armed confrontation again in October ; 1978–1980 would be ETA's three deadliest years ever [http://www.guardiacivil.org/terrorismo/acciones/estadistica07.jsp] . But it was between December 1976 and January 1977 when a series of attacks brought about a situation of high tension in Spain.
GRAPO("Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre") began its armed struggle by bombing public locations, and then continued with the kidnapping of two important figures of the regime: the President of the Council of the State José María de Oriol, and General Villaescusa, President of the Superior Council of the Military Justice. From the right, during these kidnappings, members of the neo-fascist " Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista" murdered six members of the PCE, five of them labor lawyers, in an office on Atocha Street in Madrid in January 1977.
In the midst of these provocations, Suárez convened his first meeting with a significant number of opposition leaders, who published a condemnation of terrorism and gave their support to Suárez's actions. During this turbulent time, the Búnker capitalized on the instability and declared that the country was on the brink of chaos.
Despite the increased violence, elections for the Constituent Cortes were carried out in June 1977.
First elections and the draft of the Constitution
The elections that were held on
June 15, 1977, confirmed the existence of four important political forces at the national level. The votes broke down in the following manner:
*Union of the Democratic Center (UCD-"Unión de Centro Democrático"): 34.61%
*Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE-"
Partido Socialista Obrero Español"): 29.27%
*Communist Party of Spain (PCE-"
Partido Comunista de España"): 9.38%
*Popular Alliance (AP-"
Alianza Popular"): 8.33% [Library of Congress Country Studies: Spain. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/spain/es_appen.html#table2]
With the success of the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV-"
Partido Nacionalista Vasco") and the Democratic Pact for Catalonia (PDC-" Pacte Democrátic per Catalunya") in their respective regions, nationalist parties also began to show their political strength in these elections.
The Cortes began to draft a constitution in the summer of 1977 and, in
1978, the Moncloa Pactwas formed, under which all major parties agreed on major provisions of a new constitution to ensure its passage through the Constituent Cortes. The Spanish Constitution of 1978went on to be approved in a referendum on the December 6, 1978.
Governments of the UCD
The UCD received a
plurality, but not an absolute majority, in both the June 1977 and March 1979 elections. In order to exercise power, the UCD had to form parliamentary coalitions with other political parties.
The government spent much of its time from 1979 working to hold together the many tendencies within the party itself, as well as their coalitions. In 1980, the Suárez government had for the most part accomplished its goals of transition to democracy and lacked a further clear agenda. Many UCD members were fairly conservative and did not want further change. For example, a bill to legalize
divorcecaused much dissension inside the UCD, in spite of being supported by the majority of the populace Fact|date=February 2007. The UCD coalition fell apart.
The clashes among the several tendencies inside the party eroded Suárez's authority and his role as leader. The tension exploded in 1981: Suárez resigned as the head of government, and
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelowas appointed, first to lead the new cabinet and later to the presidency of the UCD; social democratsled by Francisco Fernández Ordóñezdefected from the coalition.
While the democratic normalization had succeeded in convincing
ETA (pm), the "political-military" faction of ETA, to abandon arms and enter parliamentary politics, it did not stop the continuation of terrorist attacks by ETA (m)("ETA Military"; later simply "ETA"), and, to a lesser extent, by GRAPO. Meanwhile, restlessness in various sections of the armed forces created fear of an impending military coup. The attempted coup known as 23-F, in which Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejeroled an occupation by a group of "Guardia Civil" of the Congress of Deputies on the afternoon of February 23, 1981failed, but demonstrated the existence of insurrectionary elements within the army.
The PSOE in government
Calvo Sotelo dissolved parliament and called elections for October 1982. In the 1979 election the UCD had achieved a plurality, but in 1982 it suffered a spectacular defeat. The elections gave an absolute majority to the PSOE, which had already spent many years preparing its image of an alternative government.
In the 28th Congress of the PSOE (May 1979), secretary-general Felipe González resigned rather than ally with the strong revolutionary elements that seemed to dominate the party. A special congress was called that September, and realigned the party along more moderate lines, renouncing
Marxismand allowing González to take charge once more.
Throughout 1982, the PSOE confirmed its moderate orientation and brought in the social democrats who had just broken from the UCD.
Winning an absolute majority in parliament in two consecutive elections (1982 and 1986), and exactly half the seats in 1989, allowed the PSOE to legislate and govern without establishing pacts with the other parliamentary political forces. In this way, the PSOE could make laws to achieve the goals of its political program, "el cambio" ("the change"). At the same time, the PSOE led many local and regional administrations. This comfortable political majority allowed the PSOE to give the country a long period of tranquility and stability, after the intense years of the transition.
Spanish society after the democratic transition
1977 Massacre of Atocha
* Josep M. Colomer. Game Theory and the Transition to Democracy. The Spanish Model, Edward Elgar, 1995.
* Daniele Conversi. 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', "National Identities", vol. 4, no 3, November 2002, pp. 223-244
* Richard Gunther ed. Politics, Society, and Democracy: The Case of Spain. Boulder, Co.: Westview.
* Paul Preston. The Triumph f Democracy in Spain. London: Routledge, 2001.
* Javier Tusell. Spain: From Dictatorship to Democracy. London: Blackwell, 2007.
*" [http://www.adurcal.com/iu/historia/historia_de_un_cambio.htm Historia de un Cambio] " (in Spanish). Retrieved on
August 24, 2006.
* [http://countrystudies.us/spain/25.htm LOC Country Studies-Spain Post-Franco Era]
* [http://voicesofthetransition.110mb.com/ Voices of the Transition - A Political History of Spain, 1975-1982]
* [http://nick.frejol.org/democracy-and-after/ Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy and After, 1975–2007]
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