Halifax (UK Parliament constituency)


Halifax (UK Parliament constituency)

UK constituency infobox
Name = Halifax
Map1 = Halifax
Type = Borough
Map2 = WestYorkshire
Entity = West Yorkshire
County = West Yorkshire
Year = 1832
MP = Linda Riordan
Party = Labour
EP = Yorkshire and the Humber

Halifax is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Boundaries

This constituency covers the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire. It also includes the town of Sowerby Bridge which adjoins Halifax but until 1974 was a separate Urban District.

Members of Parliament

1832-1918

Elections in the 1910s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1918: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = John Henry Whitley
votes = 22,136
percentage = 84.6
change = N/A
Election box candidate
party = Socialist Labour Party
candidate = Arthur McManus
votes = 4,046
percentage = 15.4
change = N/A
Election box majority
votes = 18,100
percentage = 69.2
change = N/A
Election box turnout
votes = 16,172
percentage = 53.4
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1920s

;:John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed

;:John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed

;:John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed

Election box begin
title=Halifax by-election, 1928
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Arthur Longbottom
votes = 17,536
percentage = 42.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = Harry Barnes
votes = 12,585
percentage = 30.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = F. S. Crossley
votes = 10,804
percentage = 26.4
change =
Election box majority
votes = 4,951
percentage = 12.0
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 40,925
percentage = 78.7
change = +24.3
Election box gain with party link
winner = Labour Party (UK)
loser = Liberal Party (UK)
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1929: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Arthur Longbottom
votes = 22,776
percentage = 42.2
change = −0.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Gilbert Gledhill
votes = 16,713
percentage = 29.7
change = +3.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = G.E. Dodds
votes = 15,823
percentage = 28.1
change = −2.8
Election box majority
votes = 7,063
percentage = 12.5
change = +0.5
Election box turnout
votes = 55,312
percentage = 81.3
change = +2.6
Election box hold with party link
winner = Labour Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1930s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1931: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Gilbert Gledhill
votes = 36,731
percentage = 65.7
change = +36.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Arthur Longbottom
votes = 16,601
percentage = 29.7
change = −12.5
Election box candidate
party = Independent Liberal
candidate = F. Sykes [At the 1931 general election, the local Liberal Association chose not to field a candaidate against the National Government; Sykes stood as an "Independent Liberal" candidate]
votes = 2,578
percentage = 4.6
change = N/A
Election box majority
votes = 20,130
percentage = 36.0
change = +23.5
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 80.5
change = −0.8
Election box gain with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
loser = Labour Party (UK)
swing = +24.2

Election box begin
title=General Election 1935: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Gilbert Gledhill
votes = 24,103
percentage = 44.4
change = −21.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Arthur Longbottom
votes = 21,471
percentage = 39.5
change = +9.8
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = A. Mitchell
votes = 8,736
percentage = 16.1
change = N/A
Election box majority
votes = 2,632
percentage = 4.9
change = −31.1
Election box turnout
votes = 54,310
percentage = 76.9
change = −3.6
Election box hold with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
swing = −15.6

Elections in the 1940s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1945: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Dryden Brook
votes = 25,605
percentage = 46.5
change = +7.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Gilbert Gledhill
votes = 14,824
percentage = 26.9
change = -17.5
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = A. Gelder
votes = 14,631
percentage = 26.6
change = +10.5
Election box majority
votes = 10,781
percentage = 19.6
change = +14.7
Election box turnout
votes = 55,060
percentage = 77.4
change = +0.5
Election box gain with party link
winner = Labour Party (UK)
loser = Conservative Party (UK)
swing = +11.3

Elections in the 1950s

Elections in the 1960s

Elections in the 1970s

Elections in the 1980s

Elections in the 1990s

Elections in the 2000s

Election box begin
title=General Election 2001: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Alice Mahon
votes = 19,800
percentage = 49.0
change = −5.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = James Walsh
votes = 13,671
percentage = 33.8
change = +1.7
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = John Durkin
votes = 5,878
percentage = 14.6
change = +2.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = United Kingdom Independence Party
candidate = Helen Martinek
votes = 1,041
percentage = 2.6
change = +1.0
Election box majority
votes = 6,129
percentage = 15.2
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 40,390
percentage = 57.8
change = −12.7
Election box hold with party link
winner = Labour Party (UK)
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 2005: Halifax
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Linda Riordan
votes = 16,579
percentage = 41.8
change = −7.2
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Kris Hopkins
votes = 13,162
percentage = 33.2
change = −0.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Michael Taylor
votes = 7,100
percentage = 17.9
change = +3.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = British National Party
candidate = Geoff Wallace
votes = 2,627
percentage = 6.6
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate
party = National Front
candidate = Thomas Holmes
votes = 191
percentage = 0.5
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 3,417
percentage = 8.6
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 39,659
percentage = 61.1
change = +3.3
Election box hold with party link
winner = Labour Party (UK)
swing = −3.3

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Philip Allott
votes =
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Diane Park
votes =
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Linda Riordan
votes =
percentage =
change =

Historical precursor

The parliamentary borough returns two members. The county borough was created in 1888. The municipal borough was under a mayor, 5 aldermen and 45 councillors. Area, 13,967 acres.

At the time of the Norman Conquest, Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John, earl Warrenne (c. 12451305). The prosperity of the town began with the introduction of the cloth trade in the 15th century, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520. Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbors. The trade is said to have been increased by the arrival of certain merchants driven from the Netherlands by the persecution of the duke of Alva.

Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution taking place in 1650.

In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given. to them for that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve governors from among themselves. Halifax was a borough by prescription, its privileges growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. Since the Reform Act of 1832 the burgesses have returned two members to parliament. In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on the 24th of June, the other on the 11th of November. Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810 and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.

During the Civil War Halifax was garrisoned by parliament, and a field near it is still called the Bloody Field on account of an engagement which took place there between the forces of parliament and the Royalists.

References

*
* Victoria County History, Yorkshire
* T. Wright, The Antiquities of the Town of Halifax (Leeds, 1738)
* John Watson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax (London, 1775)
* John Crabtree, A Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax (Halifax and London, 1836).
*
*

See also

* List of Parliamentary constituencies in West Yorkshire


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