- Zeno of Sidon
Sidonwas an Epicurean of the 1st century BC. He was a contemporary of Cicero, who heard him when at Athens.Cicero, "de Natura Deorum", i. 21.] Cicero, "Tusculan Disputations", iii. 17.]
He was sometimes termed the "leading Epicurean" ( _la. Coryphaeus Epicureorum).
Cicerostates that Zeno was contemptuous of other philosophers, and even called Socrates"the Attic Buffoon." [Cicero, "de Natura Deorum", i. 34.] He was a disciple of Apollodorus,Diogenes Laërtius, x.] and Cicero and Diogenes Laërtiusboth describe him as an accurate and polished thinker.
Zeno also studied the philosophy of mathematics based on the derivation of all knowledge from experience. He criticized Euclid, seeking to show that deductions from the fundamental principles ( _el. ἀρχαί) of geometry cannot, on their own, be proved:
[Some] admit the principles but deny that the propositions coming after the principles can be demonstrated unless they grant something that is not contained in the principles. This method of controversy was followed by Zeno of Sidon, who belonged to the school of
Epicurus, and against whom Posidoniushas written a whole book. [Proclus, "ad I. Euclid", iii.]
Among the charred papyrus remains at the
Villa of the Papyriat Herculaneum, there is an "Epitome of Conduct and Character, from the Lectures of Zeno" written by Philodemus. It contains the essays "On Frank Criticism" [PHerc. 1471] and "On Anger". [PHerc. 182]
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