- Postage stamps and postal history of Israel
The postage stamps and postal history of Israel is a survey of the
postage stamps issued by the state of Israel, and its postal history, since independence was proclaimed on May 14 1948. The first postage stamps were issued two days later on May 16 1948. [cite web | last = Rossiter | first = Stuart | coauthors = John Flower & Raife Wellsted | title = Stamp Atlas: Israel | publisher = Sandafayre on-line | url = http://www.sandafayre.com/atlas/israel.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
The postal history of Israel builds upon the centuries-long development of postal services in Palestine. During the rule of the
Mamluks, mounted mail service was operated in Deir el-Balah, Lyddaand other towns on the Cairo to Damascus route. [Shahin (2005), pp. 421–423] During the Ottoman period, postal services relied upon Turkey's stamps (Palestine FAQ). Foreign consulates set up the early post offices.cite web | last = Ashkenazy | first = Daniella | title = New Postal and Philatelic Museum: Not Just for Stamp Collectors | work = Israel Magazine-On-Web | publisher = Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs | date = 1999-02-25 | url = http://www.israel-mfa.gov.il/MFA/Israel%20beyond%20the%20conflict/New%20Postal%20and%20Philatelic%20Musuem | accessdate = 2008-02-06 ] During World War I, the British Egyptian Expeditionary Forceoccupied Palestine and demarcated stamps as "E.E.F." in 1918.
During the British mandate, postage stamps and services were provided by British authorities. From 1933-1948, mandate services included
airmailstamps [Citation | last = Bard | first = Dr. Leslie | title = Commercial Air Mail Rates from Palestine to the Americas, 3 Aug 1933-30 Apr 1948 | journal = The Israel Philatelist | volume = 57 | issue = 5 | pages = pp. 168–169 | date = October 2006 ] and, as an innovation, "air letter cards". British postal offices and operations were, in part, turned over to the Israeli government.Fact|date=February 2008 In May 1948, as the British withdrew and postal services broke down, the provisional government issued overprints on Jewish National Fundstamps and "ad hoc" postage was created in Nahariyaand Safed.
In 1948, stamps were issued by Israel Post the Israeli postal operator. Because Saturday is a day of rest, Sunday, May 16, was the first business day after independence was declared on which stamps could be sold. [cite web | title = Israeli Stamps and Philatelic Resources | publisher = Historama | url = http://www.historama.com/online-resources/history-collecting-resources/stamps-philatelics/eretz_israeli_ottoman_palestine_mandate_philatelic_stamp_resources | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] The first set of stamps was entitled "Doar Ivri" ("Hebrew Post") because the country's name had not yet been chosen. [cite web | title = First Stamps (1948) | work = Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica | publisher = Emory's Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library | date = 2002 | url = http://marbl.library.emory.edu/DigitalExhibits/stamps/006.html | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] The first set of
definitive stamps included values of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 250, 500, and 1000 mils. The stamps were printed by letterpress, perforated or as a rouletted variation, and with Israel's emblematic "tabs" with marginaliaabout the stamp. Stamp booklets were issued for the 5, 10, 15 and 20 mil stamps. [Stamp production was secretive due to the difficult political and military conditions of the period. cite web | title = Coins Doar Ivri 1948 | work = [Israel] Stamps catalog| publisher = Israel Philatelic Federation| date = | url = http://www.israelphilately.org.il/catalog/series.asp?id=177 | accessdate = 2008-02-07 See also: cite web | title = Doar Ivri 1948 | work = [IPF] Articles| publisher = [http://www.israelphilately.org.il/ Israel Philatelic Federation] | url = http://www.israelphilately.org.il/files/articles/65_EN.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-07 and cite web | title = Doar Ivri (Jerusalem 73 miniature sheets) | work = [IPF] Articles| publisher = [http://www.israelphilately.org.il/ Israel Philatelic Federation] | url = http://www.israelphilately.org.il/files/articles/265_EN.htm| accessdate = 2008-02-07 , which states: "...evidence has been preserved of the circumstances surrounding the preparation and printing of Israel's first stamps in 1948 - the haste and secrecy connected with the preparation of the designs by the artist Otte Wallish; the color trials of the eight stamps produced on the Haaretznewspaper press in Tel Aviv; the collecting of a sufficient stock of paper obtained from all manner of unconventional sources, the setting-up of the printing press in the Kirya (government office center) and the conspiratorial beginnings of the printing of the stamps even before the termination of the British Mandate." Some 10 and 15 mil stamps were printed missing a line of the tab inscription.] The "Doar Ivri" stamps were designed by Otte Wallishusing ancient coins from the First Jewish-Roman Warand later Bar Kochba revolt("as pictured at top of article).
Israeli stamps are trilingual, in Arabic, English and Hebrew, following the practice of the
British Mandate of Palestine(as required by the League of Nations). Israel Post first issued postage duestamps, tete-becheand gutter pairs in 1948, airmail stamps in 1950, service stamps, for government offices, in 1951 and provisional stamps in 1960. [Information drawn from the IPF catalog. The 1948 postage dues were denominated 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 m. with the 1948 Doar Ivri design.] The tabs have gone through three unofficial phases. From 1948 to 1954, the tabs were written in Hebrew (with four exceptions: the Maccabia, Israel Bonds, Zionist Congress and Z.O.A. stamps). From 1954 until 1967, the inscriptions were usually in Hebrew and French. Since 1967, the tabs are typically Hebrew and English. Rarely, a tab is matched with the wrong stamp, as with two mix-ups on some "Doar Ivri" stamps. [cite web |last = Stadtler |first= Oscar | title = The Tabs of Israel | work = [IPF] Articles| publisher = [http://www.israelphilately.org.il/ Israel Philatelic Federation] | url = http://www.israelstamps.com/Areas+of+Study/Israel+Proper/The+Tabs+of+Israel/default.aspx| accessdate = 2008-02-14 ]
From the outset, Israel created its own commemorative cancellations, including a first day cancel for the new "Doar Ivri" on
May 16 1948, and cancels for the Maccabiah Gamesand its major cities the same year. [ [http://www.israelphilately.org.il/cancels/ Israel Philatelic Federation cancels list] ] By 1960, more than 325 unique postmarks had been designed. [cite book |title= Livni's Encyclopedia of Israel Stamps|last= Livni|first= Israel|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1969|publisher= Sifriyat Ma'ariv|location= Tel-Aviv|isbn= |pages=p.197ff. ] Beginning with the "Doar Ivri" stamps, too, Israel has provided first day covers. For instance, on July 5, 1967, a first day cover featuring Moshe Dayanwas issued from the new post office in Jerusalem, soon after the Six Day War. [cite web | title = Post Office Openings | work = Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica | publisher = Emory's Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library | date = 2002 | url = http://marbl.library.emory.edu/DigitalExhibits/stamps/006.html | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
Israel has 64 post offices in 1950, expanding to 114 by 1960 and, after the
Six Day War, to 178 branches by 1970. [cite book |title= Encyclopedia Judaica |year= 1971|publisher= |location= |isbn= |pages= ] In 1955, two settlements in the Negevbegan Israel's first mobile post office, a red truck. By 1990, Israel ran 53 routes for 1,058 locations, including Israeli settlementsin the West Bankand Gaza. [cite news | last = Goldwasser | first = Marcy | title = Have Stamps, Will Travel | pages = IX:846 | publisher = The Jerusalem Post| date = 1990-08-10 | accessdate = ]
hyperinflation, in 1982and 1984 Israel issued non-denominated stamps with an olive branchdesign. These stamps were said to be dreary yet convenient, insofar as they avoided the need for both the government and the customers to constantly update their postage. [cite news | last = Siegel | first = Judy | title = Postal Authority To Push Its 'Post-Inflation' Stamps | publisher = The Jerusalem Post| date = 1989-10-16 | accessdate = The date and design information is drawn from the IPF catalog.] .
During the 1990s, Israel experimented with vending machines for postal labels (franking labels). The Klussendorf machines and their labels were withdrawn from service in 1999. Twenty-two colorful designs were issued, including 12 tourist sites and seven holiday season designs. [cite web | last = Chelouche | first = Tari | title = Introduction & Klussendorf Stamps Overview | work = Israel Klussendorf Stamps Report & On-Line Catalogue | date = 2003-09-14 | url = http://geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/2352/Report_Files_Ver6/4_Introduction_Overview_Ver6.html | accessdate = 2008-01-07 ] Israel Post also provides the Express Mail Service in cooperation with 143 other postal suthorities. [cite web | title = Members of the EMS Cooperative | publisher = Express Mail Service | url = http://www.ems.coop/site/Main.php?Oid=273&Lid=1 | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
Israeli Defense Forcesprovides mail services for the military. During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, for example, the IDF postal agency issued a series of postcards with cartoonsto boost morale. Postcards show an Israeli cartoon character looming over Damascus, hailand fire raining down on Egyptian pyramids (quoting Exodus9:24), and "Judgment Day, pictured here." [cite web | title = Yom Kippur War postcards| work = Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica| publisher = Emory's Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library | url = http://marbl.library.emory.edu/DigitalExhibits/stamps/008.html | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
In its early years, Israel issued stamps picturing the
Jewish holidays, Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, the Negev, the Maccabiah Games, and Independence bonds. Every year, Israel issues a festival series to commemorate Rosh Hashanah. In 1948, the festival series featured the "flying scrolls." [According to the IPF catalog, the 1948 festival stamps are inscribed in Hebrew: "Joyous festivals" and, on the tab, "Flying Scroll - To the King - seal stamped on the wine and oil jugs given as tax to the king." Designed by Otte Wallish and printed by photolithography, they were printed in horizontal- tete becheand gutter pairs, vertical gutter pairs, and in sheets with tabs. The "flying scroll" was a short-lived interpretation of the ancient image; when better specimens were excavated, it became clear that the design represented a winged light or sun, which was a common Near East motif.] In a self-reflective gesture, the postal authority also issued a souvenir sheet commemorating its own first stamps. In 1952, Israel issued its first stamp honoring a named person, Chaim Weizman. Other honorees of the 1950s included Theodore Herzl, Edmond de Rothschild, Albert Einstein, Shalom Aleichem, Hayyim Nahman Bialikand Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. The first woman honored was Henrietta Szold(1960), the first rabbiwas the Baal Shem Tov(1961), and the first non-Jew was Eleanor Roosevelt(1964).
In 1998, Israel was the first country to honor
Chiune Sugihara, who has since been honored on stamps from Gambia, Grenada, Guinea, Japan, Liberia, Lithuania, and Sierra Leone. [cite book | title = Israel Philatelist: The Incredible Story of Chiune (Sempo) Sugihara | publisher = The Society of Israel Philatelists | date = April 2005 | pages = pp. 54–57 |url = http://www.israelstamps.com/The+Israel+Philatelist/Downloads_GetFile.aspx?id=245 | format = PDF |accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] Stamps were issued in memory of two Arableaders, King Hassan IIof Moroccoand King Husseinof Jordan, in 2000.
. [cite web | last = Stewart | first = Levi | coauthors = David R. Blumenthal | title = Women in Israeli and Topical Judaica Philately | work = | publisher = David R. Blumenthal: Jay and Leslie Cohen Professor of Judaic Studies | date = 2007-06-01 | url = http://www.js.emory.edu/BLUMENTHAL/Stamparticle2.htm#_ftnref12 | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
Israeli stamps cover general themes, including
philatelyitself, such as the 1954 stamp exhibition in Jerusalem, as well as themes emblematic of the state, such as Judaismand Jewish history. For instance, in its first 40 years, nearly 10% of Israeli stamps included archeologicalmotifs, for intellectual and ideological reasons. [cite book | last = Silberman | first = Neil Asher | coauthors = David B. Small | title = The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present | publisher = Sheffield Academic Press | date = 1997 | location = Sheffield, UK | pages = p. 52 | isbn = 1850756503 ]
The country produced a total of 110 new issues in the 1960s, 151 in the 1970s, 162 in the 1980s and 216 in the 1990s. [ [http://www.israelphilately.org.il/catalog/ Israel Philatelic Federation catalog] ] Israel Post produces several dozen new issues each year: 40 new issues in 2000, 33 in 2001, 50 in 2002, 46 in 2003, 38 in 2004, 42 in 2005, 38 in 2006, and 44 in 2007. In 2008, new issues have honored
Israel Rokachand Akiva Aryeh Weiss, two UNESCO World Heritage Sites(The Biblical Tels and the Incense Route), and Mekorot(the national water system).
Since its 1993 stamp for the 50th anniversary of
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, issued jointly with Poland, [cite journal | last = Harpuder | first = Ralph | title = Passover in Another Ghetto | journal = American Philatelist | volume = 121 | issue = No. 6 | pages = P 529 | publisher = American Philatelic Society| location = Bellafonte, PA | date = June 2007 | iisn = 0003-0474 | accessdate = 2008-03-27 ] such joint issuestamps have been produced with other postal authoritiesand in 1996, a joint Hanukkah stamp was issued with the United States, in miniature sheetformat. This was Israel's first self-adhesive stamp.
January 27 2008, a joint issue with the United Nationsdebuted for the International HolocaustRemembrance Day. Stamps were also issued jointly with Germany (in 2005) to honor their diplomatic relations, Austria and Hungary (2004, honoring Theodore Herzl), Italy (2004, honoring the Great Synagogue of Rome), Georgia (in 2001, honoring Shota Rustaveli), and Hungary (in 2001, honoring the Dohány Synagogue of Budapest). [cite web | title = New Philatelic Issues: 2000-2008 | publisher = Israel Post | url = http://web01.postil.com/PostBoolaee.nsf/HanpakotViewEng?OpenView&L=EN | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
Israel Post has been forced on a number of occasions to withdraw certain stamps which caused concern in religious circles. In November 2006 a stamp bearing the Divine Name was taken out of circulation over fear that it may be treated with disrespect. Similar action was taken over a series that depicted passages from the Talmud. [cite news | title = More stamps withdrawn | publisher = "Jewish Tribune",
London| page =8 | date = 2006-11-02]
Relations with Palestinian postal services
Starting in 1994-1995, Israel shifted away from providing postal services for territories that, under the
Oslo Accords, were to come under the auspices of the Palestinian National Authority(PNA). The PNA established post offices throughout the PNA, developed its own unique postmarks [cite web | last = Zywietz | first = Tobias | title = PNA Post Offices and Postmarks | work = A Short Introduction To The Philately Of Palestine | date = 2007-09-28 | url = http://www.zobbel.de/stamp/pna_11.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] and issued stamps. The PNA's Ministry of Telecom & Information Technology issued a critical report on postal services in areas under Israeli control. [cite web | last = Zywietz | first = Tobias | title = The Postal Situation (1994--) | work = A Short Introduction To The Philately Of Palestine | date = 2007-09-28 | url = http://www.zobbel.de/stamp/pna_poste.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ]
Philately is popular among Israelis. The Israel Philatelic Federation lists two dozen stamp clubs throughout the small country. [cite web | title = Philatelic societies and groups | publisher = Israel Philatelic Federation | url = http://www.israelphilately.org.il/ipf_club/ | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] and 15 philatelic businesses. [cite web | title = Stamp dealers, auctions and expert | publisher = Israel Philatelic Federation | url = http://www.israelphilately.org.il/dealers/ | accessdate = 2008-02-07 ] The country has stamp fairs (using its own cancellation), annual souvenir sheets, postage exhibitions, philatelic journals, and catalogs (pictured). In 1998, the Israel Post established the Postal and Philatelic Museum in
Tel Aviv. [cite web | title = The Postal and Philatelic Museum | work = Philatelic Services | publisher = Israel Post | date = | url = http://web02.postil.com/postunit.nsf/(DEF2)/bul4 | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] Tel Avivwas selected to host the 2008 World Stamp Championship under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de Philatélie, the international organization for philately.
Owing to sales to collectors, including those in the Jewish
diaspora, philatelic items has been a considerable revenue stream for Israel's government. [ cite book |title= Encyclopedia Judaica |year=1971 |pages=IX:845 and XV:335]
List of people on stamps of Israel
Postal history of Palestine
Postage stamps and postal history of the Palestinian National Authority
*Agudah le-toldot ha-doʼar shel Erets-Yiśraʼel. "Holy Land Postal History." (1979).
*Aron, Joseph. "Forerunners to the forerunners: a pre-philatelic postal history of the Holy Land." Jerusalem: Society of the Postal History of
Eretz Israel, 1988.
*Forsher, Bruno J. and Society of Israel Philatelists. The Interim Period Postage Stamps of Israel, March to July 1948: a Handbook. New York: Society of Israel Philatelists, 1969.
*Jewish National Fund. Youth and Education Dept. Catalogue of Jewish National Fund Stamps. Jerusalem: 1966.
*Leibu, E. and Zvi Shimʻoni. The Postal History of the Transition Period in Israel, 1948. Jerusalem: Society of the Postal History of Eretz-Israel, 1991.
*Levison, Milton E. and Society of Israel Philatelists. Educational Fund. The Plate Blocks and Tabs of the Doar Ivri Issue. Cleveland: Society of Israel Philatelists, Educational Fund, 1976.
*Loebl, W. Y. Postal Mechanisation in the Holy Land, 1925-1981. British Association of Palestine-Israel Philatelists. Vol. 1982. Rickmansworth, Herts.: British Association of Palestine-Israel Philatelists, 1982.
*Morginstin, Sid. The Postal Stationery of Israel. Beachwood, OH: Educational Fund of the Society of Israel Philatelists, 1998.
*Persoff, Meir. The Running Stag : The Stamps and Postal History of Israel. London: R. Lowe, 1973.
*Ribalow, Harold Uriel. The History of Israel's Postage Stamps. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1956.
* Siegel, Marvin and World Philatelic Congress of Israel, Holy Land, and Judaica Societies. 20th Anniversary Publication. Downsview, Ont., Canada: World Philatelic Congress of Israel Holy Land & Judaica Societies, 1986.
*Sondak, M. Jerusalem Postal Services during the Siege of 1948 : Compilation of Articles and Manuscripts. Jerusalem, Israel: Society of the Postal History of Eretz Israel, 1987.
*Stadtler, Bea. A History of Israel through Her Postage Stamps. New York: Society of Israel Philatelists Educational Fund, 1993.
*Tsaḥor, Yaʻaḳov. Israel Postage Stamps, 1948-1988. Catalogue. Vol. 11. Carta Jerusalem: Israel Postal Authority/Philatelic Service, 1989.
*Wozniak, Maurice D. and Marios Theodossiou. Krause-Minkus Standard Catalog of Israel Stamps : Listings 1948-1999. Global Stamp Series. 2001st ed. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2000.
* [http://www.sandafayre.com/gallery/stamp_2687.htm 1948 3 mils yellow stamp image - block of 4]
* [http://www.cfpi-asso.net/accueil.htm Cercle Français Philatélique d'Israël] (fr)
* [http://www.israelphilately.org.il Israel Philatelic Federation with full catalog]
* [http://www.historama.com/online-resources/history-collecting-resources/stamps-philatelics/eretz_israeli_ottoman_palestine_mandate_philatelic_stamp_resources Israeli stamps and philatelic resources (Online History Shop)]
* Israel Postal Authority: [http://web01.postil.com/newmail.nsf/eng/history?opendocument History] and [http://web01.postil.com/newmail.nsf/eng/museum?opendocument Postal and Philatelic Museum]
* [http://www.mclstamps.co.uk/opal/opalhome.html Oriental Philatelic Association of London (OPAL)]
* [http://www.palestinestamps.com Palestine Philatelic Society (PPS)]
* [http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_faq_palestine_stamps_coins.php Palestine stamp and coin FAQs]
* [http://www.sandafayre.com/atlas/palest.htm Sandafayre Stamp Atlas: Palestine]
* [http://www.israelstamps.com/ Society of Israel Philatelists (SIP)]
* Holyland Philatelic Society (HPS-BAPIP) [http://www.zobbel.de/stamp/lit_09.htm Index to "The BAPIP Bulletin"]
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