Virola


Virola

taxobox
name = "Virola"



image_caption = "Virola elongata" Illustration 1860
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Magnoliids
ordo = Magnoliales
familia = Myristicaceae
genus = "Virola"
genus_authority = Aubl.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = About 67 species, see text.|

"Virola", also known as Epená, is a genus of medium-sized trees native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg. It has glossy, dark green leaves with clusters of tiny yellow flowers and emits a pungent odor.

The dark-red resin of the tree bark contains several hallucinogenic alkaloids, most notably 5-MeO-DMT ("Virola calophylla"), 5-OH-DMT (Bufotenine), and also N,N-DMT, perhaps the most powerful member of the Dimethyltryptamine family; it also contains beta-carboline harmala alkaloids, MAOIs that greatly potentiate the effects of DMT. The bark resin is prepared and dried by a variety of methods, often including the addition of ash or lime, presumably as basifying agents, and a powder made from the leaves of the small "Justicia" bush. Ingestion is similar to that of Yopo, consisting of assisted insufflation, with the snuff being blown through a long tube into the nostrils by an assistant. According to Schultes, the use of "Virola" in magico-religious rituals is restricted to tribes in the Western Amazon Basin and parts of the Orinoco Basin.

Traditional medicine

The tops of "Virola oleifera" have been shown to produce lignan-7-ols and verrucosin that have antifungal action regarding "Cladosporium sphaerospermum" in doses as low as 25 micrograms. Lignan-7-ols oleiferin-B and oleiferin-G worked for "Cladosporium cladosporoides" starting as low as 10 micrograms. [ [http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=445174 Sartorelli, P. : Young, M.C.M. : Kato, M.J., Antifungal lignans from the arils of "Virola oleifera". Phytochemistry-Oxford. Oxford : Elsevier Science Ltd. Mar 1998. v. 47 (6) p. 1003-1006. ] ]

pecies

About 67 species, including: [cite web
url=http://www3.isrl.uiuc.edu/~openkey/BRIT/cgi-bin/list_taxon_files.cgi?Genus=Virola
title=Genus Species list for John's species database
publisher=www3.isrl.uiuc.edu
accessdate=2008-04-06
last=
first=
]
*"Virola aequatorialis"
*"Virola albidiflora"
*"Virola araujovii"
*"Virola atopa"
*"Virola bicubyba"
*"Virola boliviensis"
*"Virola brachycarpa"
*"Virola caducifolia" [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-cadu-bra-1997751.jpgPhoto]
*"Virola calophylla" (Spruce) Warb., [cite web
url=http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?400361
title=Virola calophylla information from NPGS/GRIN
publisher=www.ars-grin.gov
accessdate=2008-04-29
last=
first=
] Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-per-2155181.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-1979030.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-1978167.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-2246737.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-2257191.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-calo-per-2003042.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-calo-2028705.jpg]
*"Virola calophylloidea"
*"Virola carinata" [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-cari-col-1644683.jpgPhoto]
*"Virola coelhoi"
*"Virola crebrinervia"
*"Virola cuspidata"
*"Virola decorticans" [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-deco-bra-1725640.jpgPhoto]
*"Virola divergens" [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-dive-per-2025421.jpgPhoto]
*"Virola dixonii", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-dixo-ecu-2093310.jpg]
*"Virola duckei", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-duck-ecu-2227434.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-duck-per-1600789.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-duck-2246722.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-duck-2246311.jpg]
*"Virola elliptica"
*"Virola elongata" (syn. "V. theodora") [http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Virola+elongata Photos]
*"Virola flexuosa", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-flex-bol-2175334.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-flex-per-1834901.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-flex-2246640.jpg]
*"Virola gardneri", Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-gard-bra-1609485.jpg]
*"Virola glaziovii"
*"Virola glycycarpa"
*"Virola guatemalensis"
*"Virola guggnheimii"
*"Virola incolor"
*"Virola koschnyi", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-kosc-2123323.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-kosc-1955908.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-kosc-cos-1825715.jpg]
*"Virola kukachkana"
*"Virola kwatae" [http://sweetgum.nybg.org/web/objects/common/webmedia.php?irn=27352&size=1004x1520 Photo]
*"Virola laevigata"
*"Virola lepidota"
*"Virola lieneana"
*"Virola lorentensia" (or "V. loretensis"), Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-lore-per-2115679.jpg]
*"Virola macrantha"
*"Virola macrocarpa" A.C. Sm., [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+macrocarpa
title=Virola macrocarpa A.C. Sm.
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
] Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-macr-col-1340812.jpg]
*"Virola malmei"
*"Virola marlenei"
*"Virola megacarpa" A.H. Gentry [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+megacarpa
title=Virola megacarpa A.H. Gentry
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
] Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mega-pan-1841383.jpg]
*"Virola melinonii"
*"Virola merendonis"
*"Virola michelii" Heckel, [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+michelii
title=Virola michelii Heckel
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
] Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mich-sur-1705222.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mich-bra-1780712.jpg]
*"Virola micrantha"
*"Virola minutiflora" [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-min~-MO3234609.jpgPhoto]
*"Virola mocoa"
*"Virola mollissima", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-moll-per-2028574.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-moll-MO2739589.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-moll-col-2127014.jpg]
*"Virola multicostata" Ducke [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+multicostata
title=Virola multicostata Ducke
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
]
*"Virola multiflora" (Standl. ) A. C. Sm., [cite web
url=http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Virola+multiflora
title=Discover Life - Myristicaceae: Virola multiflora (Standl. ) A. C. Sm. - Fruta dorada
publisher=www.discoverlife.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
] Photos: [http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Virola+multiflora] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mult-pan-1905374.jpg]
*"Virola multinervia", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-mult-per-2115760.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mult-bra-1242558.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-mult-bra-874079.jpg]
*"Virola mycetis"
*"Virola nobilis", Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-suri-cos-1679747.jpg]
*"Virola obovata", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-obov-per-1893978.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-obov-per-1920081.jpg]
*"Virola officinalis"
*"Virola oleifera"
*"Virola panamensis"
*"Virola papillosa"
*"Virola parvifolia"
*"Virola pavonis", Photos: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-pavo-bra-1298363.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-pavo-2257192.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-pavo-per-1961920.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-paro-per-1954867.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-pavo-bra-1298363.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-pavo-2257192.jpg]
*"Virola peruviana", Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-peru-bra-1713480.jpg]
*"Virola polyneura"
*"Virola reidii", Photo: [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-reid-ecu-1242389.jpg]
*"Virola rufula"
*"Virola rugulosa"
*"Virola schultesii"
*"Virola schwackei"
*"Virola sebifera", Photos: [http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Virola+sebifera] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-sebi-pan-1516775.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-sebi-per-2001344.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-sebi-p-MO3149167.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-sebi-bra-182687.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-sebi-2112993.jpg]
*"Virola sessilis"
*"Virola steyermarkii"
*"Virola subsessilis"
*"Virola surinamensis" (Rol. ex Rottb. ) Warb., [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+surinamensis
title=Virola surinamensis (Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb.
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
] Photos: [http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Virola+surinamensis] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-suri-bra-2049808.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRI-viro-suri-2257193.jpg] [http://fm2.fieldmuseum.org/vrrc/max/MYRS-viro-suri-ecu-1963316.jpg]
*"Virola urbaniana"
*"Virola venezuelensis"
*"Virola venosa" (Benth.) Warb. [cite web
url=http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast?name=Virola+venosa
title=Virola venosa (Benth.) Warb.
publisher=mobot.mobot.org
accessdate=2008-05-03
last=
first=
]
*"Virola villosa"
*"Virola warburgli"
*"Virola weberbaueri"

Gallery

ee also

* Ayahuasca
* Entheogen
* Psychedelic plants

References

Notes

General References

* Jonathan Ott - "Shamanic Snuffs or Entheogenic Errhines" (2001) ISBN 1-888755-02-4
* Richard Evans Schultes - "Plants of the Gods" (1992) ISBN 0-89281-979-0
* [http://www.erowid.org/plants/virola/virola.shtml Erowid Virola Vault]

External links

* [http://sura.ots.ac.cr/local/florula3/species.php?key_species_code=LS001443&key_family=Myristicaceae&key_genus=Virola&specie_name=koschnyi "Virola koschnyi" Photos and Info]
* [http://www.gardening.eu/arc/plants/Aromatic-plants/Virola-theiodora-Spruce-ex-Benth.-Warb/72884/index_a.asp Info on Growing "Virola" (www.gardening.eu)]


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