Plan of Ayala


Plan of Ayala

The Plan of Ayala (Spanish: "Plan de Ayala") was a document drafted by revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata during the Mexican Revolution. In it, Zapata denounced President Francisco I. Madero for his perceived betrayal of the revolutionary ideals, embodied in Madero's Plan de San Luis, and set out his vision of land reform. The Plan was first proclaimed on November 25, 1911 in the town of Ayala, Morelos, and was later amended on June 19, 1914.

Background

Zapata had supported Madero against the regime of Porfirio Díaz. Díaz was deposed and Madero was elected president. He took office on June 7, 1911, and soon after had a meeting with Zapata where he demanded the disarmament of Zapata's army as a precondition for discussion of the land issue. Unsatisfied, Zapata returned to Morelos arguing that if the people were not able to achieve justice after rising in arms, there was no guarantee they would achieve it without them. Finally, after Madero's appointment of a governor who supported plantation owners and his failure to settle the land issue to Zapata's satisfaction, the peasant leader mobilized his army again.

The Plan

The Plan was drafted with the help of local schoolteacher—and Zapata's mentor—Otilio Montaño Sánchez. It detailed Zapata's ideology and vision succinctly in the cry "Tierra, Justicia y Ley!" ("Land, Justice and Law!"), later shortened to "Tierra y Libertad!" ("Land and Freedom!", a phrase first used by Ricardo Flores Magón as the title for one of his books). The main points in the Plan were:

*Rejection of Madero's presidency and a call for free elections once the situation in the country had stabilized;
*Naming of Pascual Orozco as the legitimate leader of the Revolution;
*Devolution of land and property to townships and citizens, as opposed to being owned by large hacendados;
*Confirmation of the agrarian nature of the Revolution.

The June 1914 amendment was prompted by Orozco's betrayal of the movement, which forced Zapata to become head of the Revolution. The amendment ratified the original intent of the Plan and called for a continuation of the conflict until the deposition of President Victoriano Huerta—who had ordered Madero's murder—and the establishment of a government loyal to the principles of the Plan.

Aftermath

The Plan raised Zapata's profile and support from the lower classes in the Mexican South, as reflected by the increased membership to his "Ejército Libertador del Sur" ("Liberation Army of the South"). Allied with Pancho Villa and Venustiano Carranza they were able to depose Huerta and bring a degree of order to the country, albeit temporary. Zapata quickly came to be in disagreement with Carranza and his "Congreso Constituyente" and took up arms once again. Carranza ultimately put a bounty on Zapata's head, resulting in his assassination on April 10, 1919.

References

* [http://www.iea.gob.mx/efemerides/efemerides/biogra/zapata.html Emiliano Zapata y el Plan de Ayala] - Last retrieved January 19, 2005.

ee also

*Plans in Mexican history

External links

* [http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/la20c/ayala.htm Text of the Plan de Ayala] - In English


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