Battle of Paris (1814)

Battle of Paris (1814)

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Paris

caption=Russian army enters Paris in 1814
partof=the War of the Sixth Coalition
date=March 30-31, 1814
place=Paris, France
result=Decisive Coalition victory
combatant1=flagicon|France French Empire
combatant2=flagicon|Russia Russian Empire
commander1=Joseph Bonaparte,
Auguste Marmont
commander2=flagicon|Russia Alexander I

The Battle of Paris was fought during the Napoleonic Wars in 1814. The French defeat led directly to the abdication of Napoleon I.


In 1813 Napoleon I was retreating from his failed invasion of Russia. Coalition armies were joined together and defeated the French at the Battle of Leipzig. Austrian Emperor, Francis I, was interested in seeking peace with the French but both Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Frederick William III of Prussia wished to invade France. Just as Napoleon had entered Moscow, so did Tsar Alexander wish to enter Paris. Until this battle no foreign army had entered Paris in nearly 400 years.


The Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies were joined together and put under the command of Field Marshall Prince Karl von Schwarzenberg, but the driving force behind the army was the Russian Tsar and King of Prussia moving with the army. The Coalition army totaled about 100,000 troops. Napoleon had left his brother Joseph Bonaparte in defense of Paris with about 20,000 regular troops under Marshal Auguste Marmont along with an additional 30,000 National and Imperial Guards under Marshal's Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and Édouard Mortier.

The Battle

The Coalitio army arrived outside Paris in late March. Nearing the city, Russian troops broke rank and ran forwards to get their first glimpse of Paris. Camping outside the city on the 29th the Coalition forces were to assault next morning. Early in the morning of March 30 the Coalition attack began when the Russians attacked and drove back the Young Guard near Romainville in the center of the French lines. A few hours later the Prussians, under Blücher attacked north of the city and carried the French position around Aubervilliers, but did not press their attack. The Württemberg troops seized the positions at Saint-Maur to the southwest. The Russians attempted to press their attack but became caught up by trenches and artillery before falling back before a counterattack of the Imperial Guard. They continued to hold back the Russians in the center until the Prussian forces appeared to their rear. The Russian forces then assailed the Montmartre Heights where Joseph's headquarters had been at the beginning of the battle. Control of the heights was severely contested, and Joseph fled the city. Marmont contacted the Coalition and reached a secret agreement with them. Shortly afterwards, he marched his soldiers to a position where they were quickly surrounded by Coalition troops; Marmont then surrendered, as had been agreed.

The Surrender

The Russian Tsar sent an envoy to meet with the French to hasten the surrender. The Tsar offered generous terms to the French and declared himself to be bringing peace to France rather than its destruction. On March 31 Talleyrand gave the key of the city to the Tsar. Later that day the Coalition armies entered the city with the Tsar at the head of the army followed by the King of Prussia and Schwarzenberg. Napoleon was outraged by the surrender of Paris. He was forced to abdicate a few days later on April 6.


* [ Battle of Paris 1814, maps, illustrations]


*"Compton's Home Library:" Battles of the World CD-ROM

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Battle of Reims (1814) — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Rheims caption=Napoleon during the 1814 campaign. Painting by Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, 1864 partof=War of the Sixth Coalition date=13 March, 1814 place=Reims, France result=French victory… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Toulouse (1814) — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Toulouse partof=the Peninsular War caption= Bataille de Toulouse, 10 avril 1814 by Théodore Jung. date=April 10, 1814 place=Toulouse, France result=Indecisive combatant1=flagicon|France French Empire… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Paris — (France) refers to:*Siege of Paris (885 886) *1814 Battle of Paris during the Napoleonic Wars*1870 1871 The Siege of Paris in the Franco Prussian War *1944 Liberation of Paris during the Second World War in 1944 …   Wikipedia

  • Paris — This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). Paris Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: It is tossed by the waves, but does not sink ) …   Wikipedia

  • 1814 in France — See also: 1813 in France, other events of 1814, 1815 in France. Events from the year 1814 in France.Events*26 January First Battle of St Dizier, French victory over Russian forces. *29 January Battle of Brienne, French victory over Prussian and… …   Wikipedia

  • 1814 in the United Kingdom — Events from the year 1814 in the United Kingdom.Incumbents*Monarch George III of the United Kingdom *Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, ToryEvents* 14 January ** Treaty of Kiel cedes Danish Heligoland to Britain.cite book… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Leipzig — Part of the War of the Sixth Coalition …   Wikipedia

  • 1814 — Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12 day slower Julian calendar). Events of 1814January March * January 14… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of New Orleans — For the battle at New Orleans during the American Civil War, see Capture of New Orleans. For other uses, see Battle of New Orleans (disambiguation). Battle of New Orleans Part of the War of 1812 …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Trafalgar — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Trafalgar partof=the Napoleonic Wars caption= The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizzen starboard shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808) date=21 October, 1805… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.