- Treaty of Accession 2005
thumb|European Union as of 2007">legend|#151B8D|Member statesThe Treaty of Accession 2005 is an agreement between the member states of
European Unionand Bulgariaand Romania. It entered into force on 1 January 2007. The Treaty arranged accession of Bulgariaand Romaniato the EU and amended earlier Treaties of the European Union. As such it is an integral part of the constitutional basis of European Union.
Full name of the Treaty is: "Treaty between the Kingdom of
Belgium, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdomof Great Britainand Northern Ireland(Member States of the European Union) and the Republic of Bulgariaand Romania, concerning the accession of the Republic of Bulgariaand Romaniato the European Union".
History of the Treaty
Following successful completion of accession negotiations
European councilconcluded on 17 December, 2004that Bulgariaand Romaniawere ready to become members of the European Union. [ [http://ue.eu.int/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/83201.pdf Conclusions from European summit] ] A request for assent (C6‑0085/2005) was submitted to the European Parliament.
22 February, 2005 European Commissiondelivered a favourable opinion on the accession to the European Unionof Bulgariaand Romania. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00030004.pdf Commission opinion on the applications for accession to the European Union by the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania] ] As a result, on 13 April, 2005the European Parliamentgave assent to the applications of Bulgaria[ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00050006.pdf European Parliament legislative resolution on the application by the Republic of Bulgaria to become a member of the European Union] ] and Romania[ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00070008.pdf European Parliament legislative resolution on the application by Romania to become a member of the European Union] ] to become members of the European Union. The parliament voted in favour of Romaniawith 497 positive votes, 93 negative votes and 71 abstentions, while Bulgariareceived 522 votes in favour, 70 votes against and 69 abstentions. [ [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/omk/sipade3?PUBREF=-//EP//TEXT+PRESS+DN-20050413-1+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&LEVEL=2&NAV=S&L=EN#top European Parliament results] ] On 25 April, 2005 Council of the European Unionaccepted the applications for admission of Bulgariaand Romania[ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00090009.pdf Decision of the Council of the European Union on the admission of the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania to the European Union] ] .
The treaty was signed on
25 April, 2005, in Neumünster Abbey, Luxembourg. [ [http://www.eu2005.lu/en/calendrier/2005/04/25bg-ro/ Detail information and photos from the signing ceremony] ] In addition to the Treaty of Accession a Final Act was signed. The Final Act registers the results of the accession negotiations [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en03790390.pdf Text of the Final Act] ] , including any declarations made by the parties. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en03910392.pdf Declarations made by the parties of the treaty] ] It also laid down arrangements for the period between signing and entry into force of the treaty. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en03930395.pdf Arrangements for the period between signing and entry into force of the treaty] ] Ratification of the Treaty of Accession is summarized in the table below. The process was completed on 20 December, 2006.
The default date for entry into force of the Treaty was
1 January, 2007. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00100010.pdf Notice concerning the entry into force of the Treaty of Accession] ] Provisions were made for the postponement of the accession of one or both countries until 1 January, 2008. Such a decision should have been taken by the Council of the European Unionacting upon recommendation of the European Commission. In its 16 May, 2006monitoring report, the Commission delivered the final recommendation about the date of accession, but requested further progress from Bulgariaand Romania. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2006/com2006_0214en01.pdf Monitoring report on the state of preparedness for EU membership of Bulgaria and Romania-May 2006] ] The 26 September, 2006monitoring report concluded that both countries are sufficiently prepared to meet the political, economic and acquis criteria. It recommended against postponement of accession. [ [http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2006/sept/report_bg_ro_2006_en.pdf Monitoring report on the state of preparedness for EU membership of Bulgaria and Romania-September 2006] ]
The treaty entered into force on
1 January, 2007. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/c_321/c_32120061229en00010001.pdf Notice announcing the entry into force of the Treaty of Accession on 1 January 2007] ]
Contents of the Treaty
The Treaty itself consists of six articles. [ [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_157/l_15720050621en00110027.pdf Full text of the Treaty] ]
Article 1 arranges the accession of Republic of Bulgaria and Romania to the European Union.
Paragraph 1 makes Republic of Bulgaria and Romania full members of the European Union.
Paragraph 2 makes both countries parties to the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. Thus Bulgaria and Romania does not have to ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe separately.
Paragraph 3 makes Protocol that sets the conditions and arrangements for admission and its annexes integral part of the Treaty itself.
Paragraph 4 annexes the above mentioned Protocol to the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community and makes its provisions integral part of these treaties.
Article 2 provides for the situation when the Treaty itself enters into force before the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Thus it will provide the legal basis of the membership Bulgaria and Romania from 1 January 2007 until the Constitution of Europe is finally implemented in its present form (if ever).
Paragraph 1 states that both countries become parties to the Treaties on which the European Union is founded. Provisions of Article 1, paragraphs 2-4 will be applicable only from the date of the entry into force of the Constitution of Europe.
Paragraph 2 states that until the above mentioned event the conditions of admission and the adjustments to the Treaties on which the Union is founded will be provided by the Act annexed to the Treaty, which forms integral part of the Treaty itself.
Paragraph 3 arranges substitution of the Act with the Protocol upon the entry into force of the Constitution of Europe and legal consequences of this switch.
Article 3 defines all member states of European union, including Bulagria and Romania as equal in respect of all Treaties of the Union, including this one.
Article 4 is about ratification and entry into force of the Treaty.
Paragraph 1 stipulates that the Treaty should be ratified by all parties by 31 December 2006 and ratification instruments should be deposited with the Italian government.
Paragraph 2 and 3 define the data from which the Treaty enters into force, mechanism for eventual postponement in respect of one or both of the acceding states, and provides for the situation when one or more country have ratified the Treaty, but have failed to deposit the ratification instruments by 1 January 2007. The ratification procedures were completed in time and the Treaty entered into force on 1 January 2007 on the territory of all member states.
Article 5 stipulates that the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe drawn up in the Bulgarian and Romanian languages shall be annexed to this Treaty and they will be authentic under the same conditions as the texts in all other official languages of the European union.
Article 6 states that the Treaty exists as a single original drawn in all official languages of the European Union. Each of these texts is equally authentic and the original will be deposited with the Italian government, while all parties will receive certified copies.
3. Protocol to the Treaty
4. Act to the Treaty
5. Final Act
European Union Law
Accession of Bulgaria to the European Union
Accession of Romania to the European Union
* [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/JOHtml.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:157:SOM:EN:HTML Full text of the Treaty and related documents]
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