- Cessna 210
Model 210 Centurion A Cessna 210 Centurion Role light aircraft National origin United States Manufacturer Cessna First flight January 1957 Introduction 1957 Produced 1957-1986 Number built 9,240 Variants Cessna 206
Design and development
The early Cessna 210 (210 and 210A) had 4 seats with a Continental IO-470 engine of 260 hp (190 kW). It was essentially a Cessna 182B to which was added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, and a new wing. In 1961 the fuselage and wing were completely redesigned - the fuselage was made wider and deeper, and a third side window was added. The wing planform remained the same (constant 64" chord from centerline to 100 inches (2,500 mm) out, then straight taper to 44" chord at 208 inches from centerline), but the semi-Fowler flaps (slotted, rear-moving) were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed (FAA certification regulations state that a single-engine aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles/hour). To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged. The 1964 model 210D introduced a 285 hp (213 kW) engine and 2 small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.
In 1967 the model 210G introduced a cantilever wing replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full 6-seat model. This was achieved by replacing the flat leaf-springs used for the retractable main landing gear struts (undercarriage) with tapered tubular steel struts of greater length. This allowed the tires to be nested farther to the rear of the fuselage, making room for the full size rear seats. In 1979 the 210N model eliminated the folding doors which previously covered the two retracted main wheels. The tubular spring struts retract into shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly in closed depressions on the underside of the fuselage. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option.
The aircraft was offered in a normally aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions.
Cessna re-introduced three single engine models in 1998 that had been out of production since 1986 - the Cessna 172, 182 and 206. The 210 was not reintroduced at that time as it was company policy that all re-introduced aircraft would be recertified to the latest FAR Part 23 standards instead of the original CAR-3 standards. Due to its single spar wing structure, the 210 could not meet the current certification standards. This left a gap in the Cessna line for a high-performance single engine aircraft that was quickly filled by competitors such as the Cirrus SR22 and Columbia 400. In 2006 Cessna announced that it would produce a new aircraft, known while under development as the Cessna NGP. The intention was that this new aircraft would fill the gap left in the Cessna line when the 210 went out of production in 1986.
In November, 2007, Cessna acquired the assets of Columbia Aircraft Company. The Columbia 350 and 400 models were integrated into the Cessna single engine range and redesignated as the Cessna 350 and Cessna 400. These aircraft replace the Cessna 210 at the top end of the Cessna single-engine model line.
There are a wide range of modifications available for the Cessna 210, including:
- Aeronautical Engineers Australia has developed a life extension package for 210s suffering from wing spar carry-through beam corrosion.
- Aerospace Systems and Technologies offers a TKS technology weeping fluid ice protection system for the Cessna 210, models L, M and N.
- Crownair Aviation developed a “Centurion Edition” T210, which is a remanufactured aircraft introduced in November 2008 that features a glass cockpit and new engine along with other minor refinements.
- O&N Aircraft offers a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop conversion of the Pressurized Cessna P210N known as the "Silver Eagle".
The Cessna 210 was manufactured in 26 model variants, The C210, C210A-D, the Centurion C210E-H&J, Turbo Centurion T210F-H&J, the Centurion II C210K-N&R, the Turbo Centurion II T210K-N&R and the P210N&R. The 210N, T210N (turbocharged), and P210N (pressurized) versions were produced in the greatest quantity. The rarest and most expensive models were the T210R and P210R, which were produced only in small quantities in 1985-86.
Several modifications and optional fittings are also available including different engine installations, wing tip tanks, speed brakes, STOL kits and gear door modifications.
The early strut-winged Cessna 210B was developed into a fixed-gear aircraft known as the Cessna 205. This spawned an entirely new family of Cessna aircraft including the 206 and the eight seat 207.
- Four-seat production variant with a Continental IO-470-E engine, 40 degrees hydraulic flap, gear doors, introduced in 1960., first flown in 1957, 575 built.
- A 210 with a third cabin window on each side, introduced in 1961, 265 built.
- A 210A with a cut-down rear fuselage, a rear vision window and a Continental IO-470-S engine, introduced in 1962, 245 built.
- A 210B with some minor changes, introduced in 1963, 135 built.
- 210D Centurion
- A 210C fitted with a 285 hp (213 kW) Continental IO-520-A engine and increased take-off weight to 3,100 lb (1,406 kg), introduced in 1964, 290 built.
- 210E Centurion
- A 210D with some minor changes, introduced in 1965, 205 built.
- 210F Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210E with some minor changes and optional 285 hp (213 kW) turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-C engine, introduced in 1966, 300 built.
- 210G Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210F with a strutless cantilever wing and modified rear window, increased take-off weight to 3,300 lb (1,497 kg), introduced in 1967, 228 built.
- 210H Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210G with a new flap system and instrument panel, 210 built. Flap range decreased to 30 degrees, fuel capacity increased from 65 to 90 US gal (246 to 341 l). Introduced in 1968.
- 210J Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210H with reduced wing dihederal, different nose profile and a Continental IO-520-J (or TSIO-520H) engine, introduced in 1969, 200 built.
- 210K Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210J with rear changed to full seat to provide six seats, a IO-520-L engine with 300 hp (224 kW) limited to 5 minutes, landing gear changed, enlarged cabin with a single rear side window, weight increased to 3,800 lb (1,724 kg), produced 1970-71, 303 built.
- 210L Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210K with nose-mounted landing lights, the electrical system changed to 24 volt, the engine driven hydraulic pump replaced with an electrical pump and a three bladed prop fitted. Improved aerodynamics led to an increase in approximately 8 kn (15 km/h) in cruise speed. Produced 1972-76, 2070 built.
- 210M Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210L with an optional 310 hp (231 kW) TSIO-520-R engine and minor changes, produced 1977-80, 1381 built.
- 210N Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210M with open wheel wells for main landing gear and minor changes. Although this change appeared only on the C210N, most early models have had gear doors removed due to extensive maintenance and handling problems, leaving them similar to the "N". Produced 1981-84, 1943 built.
- 210R Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210N with longer span stabiliser and minor changes, produced 1985-86, 112 built.
- P210N Pressurised Centurion
- A Turbo 210N with pressurized cabin, four windows each side, with a 310 hp (231 kW) Continental TSIO-520-AF engine, produced 1978-83, 834 built.
- P210R Pressurised Centurion
- A P210N with longer span stabiliser increased take-off weight and a 325 hp (242 kW) Continental TSIO-520-CE engine, produced 1985-86, 40 built.
- Riley Turbine P-210
- Conversion of pressurised Cessna 210P Centurion aircraft, fitted with a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-112, flat rated at 500 shp (373 kW).
The Cessna 210 is widely used by flight training schools, private operators, air taxi and commercial charter, and companies.
- Honduran Air Force
- Paraguayan Air Force - 2 210N
- Paraguayan Naval Aviation - 2 210N
Accidents and incidents
- While flying N6579X, an early model 210A, famed test pilot Scott Crossfield crashed and died in the woods of Ludville, Georgia on April 19, 2006. The National Transportation Safety Board established the probable cause as "The pilot's failure to obtain updated en route weather information, which resulted in his continued instrument flight into a widespread area of severe convective activity, and the air traffic controller's failure to provide adverse weather avoidance assistance, as required by Federal Aviation Administration directives, both of which led to the airplane's encounter with a severe thunderstorm and subsequent loss of control."
Specifications (T210N Turbo Centurion II)
Data from Janes' All The World's Aircraft 1982-83
- Crew: One
- Capacity: Five passengers
- Length: 28 ft 2 in (8.59 m)
- Wingspan: 36 ft 9 in (11.20 m)
- Height: 9 ft 8 in (2.95 m)
- Wing area: 175 ft² (16.23 m²)
- Empty weight: 2,303 lb (1,045 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 4,000 lb (1,814 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Continental Motors TSIO-520-R air-cooled turbocharged flat-six, 310 hp (231 kW)
- Maximum speed: 204 knots (235 mph, 378 km/h) at 17,000 ft (5,200 m)
- Cruise speed: 193 knots (222 mph, 358 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
- Stall speed: 58 knots (67 mph, 108 km/h) CAS, flaps down, power off
- Range: 900 nmi (1,036 mi, 1,668 km) econ cruise at 10,000 ft (3,050 m)
- Service ceiling: 27,000 ft (8,230 m)
- Rate of climb: 930 ft/min (4.7 m/s)
- Wing loading: 22.9 lb/ft² (111.8 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.078 hp/lb (0.13 kW/kg)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- ^ a b Taylor 1982, pp. 345–346
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Simpson 1991, pp. 103–104
- ^ Textron (November 2007). "Textron's Cessna Aircraft Company to Acquire Assets of Columbia Aircraft". http://investor.textron.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=110047&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1081833&highlight=. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- ^ Aeronautical Engineers AUstralia (March 2009). "Aeronautical Engineers Australia - Modifications". http://www.aeroengaus.com.au/mods.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- ^ Collins, Richard L. (January 2006). "The Madness of Icing". Flying Magazine. http://www.flyingmag.com/safety/weather/madness-icing. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ Crownair Aviation (undated). "AVIDYNE PARTNERS WITH SOUTHERN STAR & CROWNAIR TO GET STC FOR ENTEGRA GLASS COCKPIT RETROFIT IN CESSNA 210 SINGLE- ENGINE PISTON AIRCRAFT". http://www.crownairaviation.com/docs/Avidyne_08_Dec_Entegra_Cessna_210_FINAL.pdf. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
- ^ FibreGlast Developments Corp (January 2004). "January 2004: O&N Aircraft". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929140444/http://www.fibreglast.com/contentpages-aircraft-346.html. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- ^ a b Federal Aviation Administration (February 2009). "TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET NO. 3A21 Revision 47". http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/1c8849e2325c35988625756e006da735/$FILE/3A21%20Rev%2047.pdf. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g Danielle Bruckert and Oleg Roud (2008). Cessna 210 Training Manual. ISBN 978-0-557-01418-7.
- ^ Taylor 1982, p. 453
- ^ NTSB (September 2007). "NTSB Probable Cause, Report CHI06MA115[2007"]. http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20060501X00494&key=1. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet 3A21 Type Certificate Data Sheet for Cessna 210 models.
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