- Honey War
The Honey War was a bloodless
territorial disputein 1839 between Iowa(then a part of Wisconsin Territory) and Missouriover its border.
The dispute over a convert|9.5|mi|km|sing=on wide strip running the entire length of the border, caused by unclear wording in the Missouri Constitution on boundaries, misunderstandings over the survey of the
Louisiana Purchase, and a misreading of Native American treaties, was ultimately decided by the United States Supreme Courtin Iowa's favor. The decision was to affirm a nearly convert|30|mi|km|sing=on jog in the nearly straight line border between in extreme southeast Iowa and northeast Missouri at Keokuk, Iowathat is now Iowa's southernmost point.
Before being settled militias from both sides faced each other at the border, a Missouri sheriff collecting taxes in Iowa was incarcerated, and three trees containing
beehives were cut down.
Treaty of St. Louis- Sac and Fox cede Missouri from the mouth of the Gasconade River through Illinois and Wisconsin
Treaty of Fort Clark- Osage Nation cedes Missouri and Arkansas east of Fort Osage
War of 1812- Tribes protesting the treaties side with the British in Missouri and Mississippi Valley skirmishes
Treaty of Ghentends the war and requires tribes to be treated as before the war
Treaties of Portage des Siouxincludes wording that the Osage, Sac and Fox agree to their earlier treaties
*1816:John C. Sullivan surveys the
Indian Boundary Line (1816)from the mouth of the Kansas River in modern day Kansas City, Missourito approximately Sheridan, Missouriand then east to the Des Moines River near Farmington, Iowa
*1818: Missouri considers various boundary options for statehood
*1820: Missouri enters the Union with its western boundary being the Indian Boundary Line and its northern boundary being the Sullivan Line. Wording in the Constitution refers to the rapids on the river Des Moines which some perceive as ambiguous since the Des Moines has no rapids but the Mississippi nearby has rapids called the
Des Moines Rapids.
*1824: Sac and Fox cede all remaining land in Missouri and ceded the land south of the Sullivan Line between the Des Moines and Mississippi as
Half Breed Tract. Missouri makes no effort to extend its claim to Half Breed Tract.
Indian Removal Act- Efforts begin to remove all tribes west of the Indian Boundary Line
Black Hawk Waras tribes resist the removal order
*1834: Congress opens up Half Breed Tract to settlement but Missouri again makes no claim on the territory.
*1836: Iowa is removed from
unorganized territoryto Wisconsin Territory
*1836: The federal government in the
Platte Purchasebuys the land west of the Indian Boundary line and it is annexed to Missouri with its northern border being the Sullivan Line.
*1837: As part of the Platte Purchase Missouri wants the northern border resurveyed. Wisconsin Territory refuses to go along and Missouri hires
Joseph C. Brownto resurvey the land. He says the point of reference for the border should have been the mouth of the Ohio River. Using townshiplines as a reference he says the border should be convert|9.5|mi|km further north from the present Missouri-Iowa border at a bend in the Des Moines at Keosauqua, Iowa.
Iowa Territoryis organized
*1839: According to legend a Missouri tax collector in Iowa cuts down three hollow trees containing
honey beehives to collect the honeyin lieu of taxes.
Clark County, Missourisheriff is arrested by Van Buren County, Iowasheriff while attempting to collect Missouri taxes in the disputed territory.
*1839: Militias from both sides assemble at the border
*1839: Matter is referred to the U.S. Supreme Court
*1846: Iowa enters the Union
*1849: Supreme Court issues an opinion that since Missouri never challenged its straight line border ending at the Des Moines River for more than 10 years, the border was valid. The court further upholds the Sullivan Line as the correct border but orders it resurveyed to correct quirks in Sullivan's Line which had jogs.
*2005: Following various disputes, Midland GIS Solutions of
Maryville, Missouriled by Troy Hayes on a contract with the State of Missouri resurveys the border discovering the markers from the Supreme Court survey of 1850. [ [http://www.theamericansurveyor.com/PDF/TheAmericanSurveyor_MO-IABoundaryLineInvestigation_Mar-Apr2006.pdf Missouri-Iowa Boundary Line Investigation - The American Surveyor - March-Apri 2006] ]
Native American Treaties
The first major Native American treaties following the
Louisiana Purchasein 1803 were the Treaty of St. Louisin 1804 in which the Sac and Fox ceded much of northeast Missouri as well as southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and the Treaty of Fort Clarkin 1808 in which the Osage Nationceded most of Missouri and Arkansas.
The United States made no formal efforts to survey the land. During the
War of 1812Native Americans sided with the British. When the war turned out to be a stalemate, the Treaty of Ghentin 1815 required that the tribes be returned to the same status they had before the war.
Various tribes met with United States representatives at
Portage Des Sioux, Missouriin 1815 to formally end the war. While most of the Treaties of Portage des Siouxwere innocuous treaties with wording about lasting friendship, the treaties with the Sac, Fox and Osage also included a paragraph indicating agreement to abide by the earlier treaties.
With that in place the United States began plans to survey its territory. In the Treaty of Fort Clark, the Osage had ceded all land east of Fort Clark near
Sibley, Missouri. The treaty permitted the United States to survey the new land and they were to "adjust" the boundaries for a starting point convert|23|mi|km west to the mouth of the Kansas Riverwith the Missouri Riverin Kansas City, Missourion the far bank opposite Kaw Point.
In 1816 United States surveyor
John C. Sullivanwas instructed to survey a line north from the mouth for convert|100|mi|km and then proceed east to the Des Moines River. In addition to being a round number the convert|100|mi|km|sing=on line Indian Boundary Line (1816)also lined up in the east with the convert|2.4|ft|m deep Des Moines Rapidson the Mississippi River just south of Fort Madison, Iowathat was the northern end of navigation on the Mississippi and it also lined up with the westward adjusted boundary from the mouth of the Gasconade Riverthe Sac had ceded in 1808. The land on the east side of the Des Moines River was the site of a Sac village which had not been ceded.
survey markers along the line. The northwest corner of Missouri was established in a marker near Sheridan, MissouriFrom there he continued east establishing the Sullivan Lineto the Des Moines River just south of Farmington, Iowawhere he made no note of rapids and called it a "small river with shallow gentle water." He did continue his survey another convert|20|mi|km to the Mississippi.
Confusion over the terms of the Des Moines Rapids on the Mississippi and the phrase rapids on the Des Moines River was to contribute to the border skirmish.
When Missouri applied for statehood first in 1818 various proposals for boundaries were put forth including a western boundary at the mouth of the
Nodaway Riverabout convert|30|mi|km west and the mouth of the Rock River (Illinois)opposite Rock Island, Illinois. Missouri was already going to be the largest state in area when it entered the Union and there was concern about making it even bigger. Sullivan was a delegate to the convention that was to ultimate declare the boundaries to be the two lines he had drawn.
The constitution defined the boundary as:
:Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi River, on the parallel of thirty-six degrees of north latitude; thence west along the said parallel of latitude to the St. Francois River; thence up and following the course of that river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the parallel of latitude of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes; thence west along the same to a point where the said parallel is intersected by a meridian line passing through the middle of the mouth of the Kansas River, where the same empties into the Missouri River; thence, from the point aforesaid, north along the said meridian line, to the intersection of the parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the River Des Moines, making said line correspond with the Indian boundary-line; thence east from the point of intersection last aforesaid, along the said parallel of latitude, to the middle of the channel of the main fork of the said River Des Moines; thence down along the middle of the main channel of the said River Des Moines to the mouth of the same, where it empties into the Mississippi River; thence due east to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence down and following the course of the Mississippi River, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the place of beginning. [ [http://supreme.justia.com/us/48/660/case.html STATE OF MISSOURI v. STATE OF IOWA, 48 U.S. 660 (1849)] ]
The wording of the boundary "extending westward of the rapids of the river Des Moines" was to cause confusion.
Treaty of Washington (1824)the Sac and Fox ceded their land in Missouri. The land below the Sullivan Line between the Des Moines and Mississippi was set aside as Half Breed Tract.
Indian Removal Actof 1830, all tribes were to moved west and south of the line Sullivan had drawn.
In 1834 Half Breed Tract was opened to public settlement. This along the movement of Iowa into
Wisconsin Territorywas to spur Missouri to reconsider its northern border, first by extending its border west to the Missouri River in the Platte Purchasein northwest Missouri and then started reconsidering the northeast corner.
In 1837 the
Missouri General Assemblyordered the line to be resurveyed. When Wisconsin Territory refused to participate in the survey, J.C. Brown began a survey in which he ignored the traditional definition of the rapids below Fort Madison on the Mississippi and instead looked for rapids on the Des Moines River itself and identified the rapids as being at Keosauqua, Iowaabout convert|9.5|mi|km into modern Iowa.
As the dispute heated up, Missouri was to note there were rapids on the Des Moines all the way to
Des Moines, Iowa. Meanwhile, Iowa was to maintain its ownership extended to a line about convert|15|mi|km into modern Missouri at the mouth of the Des Moines.
Tax agents from
Kahoka, Missouritried to collect taxes in what is now Van Buren County, Iowaand Davis County, Iowa. The Iowa residents allegedly carrying pitchforks chased away the tax collectors who chopped down three honey beetrees in what is now Lacey-Keosauqua State Parkto collect the honey for partial payment.
Lilburn Boggssent the state militia to the Iowa border and an Iowa mob captured the sheriff of Clark County, Missouriand incarcerated him in the Muscatine, Iowajail. The Iowa militia was also called out by Iowa Territory governor Robert Lucas.
According to one description about the Iowans: [ [http://www.iowanationalguard.com/Museum/IA_History/Territorial_Militia.htm The Territorial Militia - History of The Iowa National Guard by Stephen N. Kallestad] ]
:in the ranks were to be found men armed with
blunderbusses, flintlocks, and quaint old ancestral swords that had probably adorned the walls for many generations. One private carried a ploughcoulter over his shoulder by means of a log chain, another had an old-fashioned sausage stuffer for a weapon, while a third shouldered a sheet iron sword about six feet long.
The two governors agreed to allow Congress resolve the issue. An arbitrary line was drawn between the two positions. However when Iowa entered the Union Congress was to rule the border was in fact at the conflunce at the Mississippi confluence a position that was upheld by the
U.S. Supreme Courtin 1851. [ [http://iagenweb.org/history/soi/soi32.htm Stories of Iowa for Boys and Girls by Bruce E. Mahan - 1931 - reprinted on Iowa History Project] ] [ [http://www.rootsweb.com/~iavanbur/FactsAndFolklore/HoneyWarDispute.htm Country Facts and Folklore By Andy Reddick (republished on rootsweb)] ]
* [http://supreme.justia.com/us/48/660/case.html Supreme Court decision]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Honey (2003) — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel Honey Produktionsland USA … Deutsch Wikipedia
Honey & Clover — Honey and Clover (jap. ハチミツとクローバー Hachimitsu to Kurōbā, übersetzt „Honig und Klee“), auch als Hachikuro (ハチクロ) bekannt, ist eine Manga Serie von Chika Umino. Der Manga erschien von 2000 bis 2006 und umfasst 1700 Seiten, in denen das Alltags und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Honey and Clover — (jap. ハチミツとクローバー Hachimitsu to Kurōbā, übersetzt „Honig und Klee“), auch als Hachikuro (ハチクロ) bekannt, ist eine Manga Serie von Chika Umino. Der Manga erschien von 2000 bis 2006 und umfasst 1700 Seiten, in denen das Alltags und Liebesleben fünf… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Honey, Honey — ABBA Veröffentlichung April 1974 Länge 2:54 Genre(s) Pop/Europop Autor(en) Björn Ulvaeus … Deutsch Wikipedia
Honey Cone — war eine US amerikanische Soul Band der späten 1960er und frühen 1970er Jahre. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Geschichte 2 Hit Singles 3 Einzelnachweise 4 Literatur … Deutsch Wikipedia
Honey Hush — written by Big Joe Turner (although he assigned the rights to his wife, Lou Willie Turner), was recorded in May, 1953 in New Orleans and released that August by Atlantic Records. It rose to No. 1 on the Number One Rhythm and Blues Charts for eig … Wikipedia
Honey in the Rock — is an outdoor musical drama by American playwright Kermit Hunter and composer Jack Kilpatrick. It is the oldest American Civil War drama that continues to be performed. [cite news | title = A grand time | url = http://www.register… … Wikipedia
Honey Island, Texas — Honey Island is an unincorporated community in Hardin County, Texas, United States. The Kountze Independent School District serves area students. It is part of the Beaumont ndash;Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area.Historical… … Wikipedia
Honey Creek, Walworth County, Wisconsin — Honey Creek is an unincorporated community in the town of Spring Prairie, Wisconsin. It is on the northeastern border of Walworth County, Wisconsin at latitude 42°44 45 N and longitude 88°18 28 W. The population is approximately 400. History The… … Wikipedia
Honey (Erykah Badu song) — Infobox Single Name = Honey Artist = Erykah Badu Album = New Amerykah Part One (4th World War) B side = Bag Lady Released = December 18, 2007 Format = CD single, digital download Recorded = 2007 Genre = Neo soul, alternative hip hop Length = 5:21 … Wikipedia