- G4 nations
The G4 (Group of Four) is an alliance among
Brazil, Germany, India, and Japanfor the purpose of supporting each other’s bid for permanent seats on the United NationsSecurity Council. Unlike the G8(formerly known as G7), where the common denominator is the economyand long term political motives, the G4's primary aim is the permanent member seats on the UN Security Council.
UNcurrently has five permanent members with vetopowers in the Security Council: The People's Republic of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The G4 nations are regularly elected to two-year terms on the Security Council by their respective groups: in the 20-year period from 1987 to 2006, Japan and Brazil were elected for four terms each where Germany for three terms and Indiafor six terms.
While almost all nations have agreed in principle that the UN needs a revamping which includes expansion, few countries are willing to talk about the exact time frame for such a reorganization. Also there has been discontent among the present permanent members regarding the inclusion of controversial nations or countries not supported by them. For instance,
Japan's bid is heavily opposed by the People's Republic of China. At the same time Japanfinds strong support from the USA[ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-04/18/content_435251.htm US backs Japan's UNSC bid despite setback to momentum] , People's Daily, 19 April 2005] and the UK. [ [http://www.centralchronicle.com/20070111/1101194.htm UK backs Japan for UNSC bid] , Central Chronicle, 11 January 2007] Franceand the UKhave announced that they support the claims of the G4. [ [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1564,1618479,00.html Security Council Reform: Where It Stands] , Deutsche Welle] Note that nearby countries with less chance or need (in the case of the current permanent members) of a Security Council seat for themselves often oppose the efforts of the G-4Fact|date=April 2007— with Pakistanopposing a Security Council seat for India, South Koreaand Chinaopposing a seat for Japan, Argentinaopposing a seat for Brazil, and Italyopposing a seat for Germany (see Uniting for Consensus). Also important are historical political animosities toward certain G4 nations (see Japanese war crimes, Comfort womenfor Japan, and The Holocaustfor Germany).
The G4 suggested that two
Africannations be included in the enlarged UNSC. In several conferences during the summer of 2005, the African Unionwas unable to agree on two nominees: Egypt, Nigeriaand South Africaall lay claim for a permanent African UNSC seat. [ [http://www.un.org/av/radio/unandafrica/transcript57.htm Africa's Battle for Power in the Security Council] , United Nations Radio, 21 July 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006.] [ [http://www.africafocus.org/docs05/un0504.php Africa: Security Council Expansion] , AfricaFocus Bulletin, 30 April 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2006.]
UN General Assemblyin September 2005 marked the 60th anniversary of the UN and the members were to decide on a number of necessary reforms—including the enlarged SC. However the unwillingness to find a negotiable position stopped even the most urgent reforms; the September 2005 General Assembly was a setback for the UN.
The G4 retain their goal of permanent UNSC membership for all four nations (plus two African nations). However, Japan announced in January 2006 that it would not support putting the G4 resolution back on the table and was working on a resolution of its own. [ [http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/reform/cluster1/2006/0107bid.htm Japan Says No to G4 Bid] , Global Policy Forum, News24.com, 7 Jan 2006]
Reform of the United Nations Security Council
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