- History and philosophy of science
The history and philosophy of science (HPS) is an academic discipline that encompasses the
philosophy of scienceand the history of science. Although many scholars in the field are trained primarily as either historians or as philosophers, there are degree-granting departments of HPS at several prominent universities (see below).
A Unified Discipline
While it may seem an umbrella term, as described above people in the field of HPS consider this fusion of history of science with philosophy of science to be perfectly natural. The origin of this hybrid approach is reflected in the career of
Thomas Kuhn. His first permanent appointment, at the University of California, Berkeley, was to a position advertised by the philosophy department, but he also taught courses from the history department. When he was promoted to full professor in the history department only, Kuhn was offended at the philosophers' rejection because "I sure as hell wanted to be there, and it was my philosophy students who were working with me, not on philosophy but on history, were nevertheless my more important students" ["A Discussion with Thomas S. Kuhn" in "The Road Since Structure", Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000, p. 302.] . This attitude is also reflected in his historicist approach, as outlined in Kuhn's seminal Structure of Scientific Revolutions(1962, 2nd ed. 1970), wherein philosophical questions about scientific theories and, especially, theory change are understood in historical terms, employing concepts such as paradigm shift.
quote="History of science without philosophy of science is blind ... philosophy of science without history of science is empty"|source=
Norwood Russell Hanson[A recasting of Kant's quotation: "Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind." Norwood Russell Hanson, "The Irrelevance of History of Science to Philosophy of Science," "The Journal of Philosophy", 59 (1962): 574-586, at p. 580.]
History and development
More recently the
sociology of scienceand technology studieshave become popular topics and a few HPS departments have become Science Studies departments, e.g., the School of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of New South Waleswas known as the School of Science and Technology Studies (STS) from the mid-1980s until 2001. For this reason it can be argued that the fields are identical and that the difference is only one of emphasis. While it may seem that STS is a broader concept, leaving room for other approaches to science such as sociology of science, HPS departments are not usually as exclusive as a literal interpretation of the name might imply.
The following universities have departments dedicated to the History and Philosophy of Science:
* [http://www.indiana.edu/~hpscdept/index.shtml Indiana University]
* [http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/ University of Cambridge]
* [http://www.hps.unimelb.edu.au/ University of Melbourne]
* [http://www.u-paris10.fr/14006663/0/fiche___pagelibre/ University of Paris X: Nanterre]
* [http://www.pitt.edu/~hpsdept/ University of Pittsburgh]
* [http://www.usyd.edu.au/hps University of Sydney]
* [http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/ihpst/index.html University of Toronto]
* [http://depts.washington.edu/hps/ University of Washington]
* [http://www.fsu.edu/~hps/ Florida State University]
The following universities offer degrees in HPS through other departments:
University of Leedshas a [http://www.hps.leeds.ac.uk/HPS/HPS.htm unit for HPS] within the philosophy department.
University of New South Waleshas a unit for HPS within their [http://hist-phil.arts.unsw.edu.au/research/staffresearch.php Department of History and Philosophy] (but formerly had a separate department of HPS, sometimes known as STS).
University of Malayaoffers undergraduate and graduate programs in HPS through the [http://sts.um.edu.my Department of Science and Technology Studies] .
Arizona State Universityoffers undergraduate and graduate programs in HPS through the [http://sols.asu.edu/cbs/index.php Center for Biology and Society] in the School of Life Sciences.
The following universities offer inter-departmental programs in HPS:
University of Chicagooffers both [https://collegeadmissions.uchicago.edu/level3.asp?id=223 undergraduate] and [http://chss.uchicago.edu/ graduate] programs in HPS
California Institute of Technologyoffers an [http://www.hss.caltech.edu/humanities/undergrad/options/hps undergraduate program in HPS] through their Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences
University of California, Berkeleyoffers a [http://philosophy.berkeley.edu/html/programs/gradhps.html program in HPS] administered by the departments of History and Philosophy
University of Notre Dameoffers a [http://www.nd.edu/~hps/ graduate program in HPS] through their Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values with students admitted to either the history or philosophy department
Stanford Universityoffers a [http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/ program in HPS] administered by the departments of History and Philosophy
Many universities also have history of science programs, which do not include any philosophy of science. Others may provide a philosophy of science track within normal philosophy departments. Often these departments are named to clarify this emphasis on philosophy of science:
University of California, Irvinehas a department of Logic and Philosophy of Science [http://www.lps.uci.edu]
London School of Economicshas a department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/philosophyLogicAndScientificMethod/Default.htm] , which offers a highly regarded post-graduate program in philosophy and history of science.
Those departments that study aspects of science apart from history and philosophy often prefer more general descriptions such as
Science studiesor Science and Technology Studies:
University of California, San Diegooffers a graduate program in Science Studiesthrough the departments of History, Philosophy, Sociology and Communication [http://sciencestudies.ucsd.edu/]
University of Wollongongoffers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in "Science, Technology and Society" through the School of Social Sciences, Media and Communications. [http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/ssmac/sts/index.html]
Arizona State Universityoffers a graduate program in [http://hsd.asu.edu/ Human and Social Dimensions of Science and Technology] through its Graduate College.
History of science and technology
Philosophy of science
* Scientific revolutions
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