Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps


Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps

The Korean War also witnessed an increase in the recruitment of Hispanic women in the Marine Corps. Among them was Rose Franco who became one of the first female Chief Warrant Officers in the U.S. Marine Corps.

CWO3 Rose Franco, who in 1965 was named Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy, Paul Henry Nitze by the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson, surprised her family by announcing that she was leaving college to join the United States Marine Corps upon the outbreak of the Korean War. On February 8, 1952, at the age of 20, Rose enlisted and was sent to Camp Lejeune in North Carolina where she underwent basic training. Upon graduation, she was sent to Camp Lejeune in North Carolina for advanced training. After finishing her advanced training, Rose was assigned to the duties of administrative supply assistant at Camp Pendleton in California. Franco retired from the Marine Corps in 1977.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/HisHistory.html
title=The Contributions of Hispanic Servicewomen
author=Bellafaire, Judith
publisher=Women In Military Service For America Memorial Foundation, Inc.
]

In the 1950s, three Hispanics who graduated from the United States Naval Academy became Marines and participated in the Vietnam War. They were Lieutenants John Gonzalez (later Colonel), Class of 1955, Ramiro Saenz (later Lieutenant Colonel), Class of 1959 and Angelo Fernandez (later Colonel), Class of 1959.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.ansomil.org/home/YesterYearsHeroes.html
title=Hispanic Heroes and Leaders From the Yester Years
date=February 27, 2007
publisher=Association of Naval Service Officers
]

Vietnam War

The Marine Corps served an important role in the Vietnam War by participating in such battles as Da Nang, Hue City, and Khe Sanh. Individuals from the USMC operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) and an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA).cite web|url=http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq56-1.htm
title=Casualties: U. S. Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and Other Hostile Incidents
date=August 7, 2006
publisher=Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy
] The U.S. government did not begin keeping separate statistics on Hispanics until 1979.cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2003/soldados/for.html
title="Soldados"
author=Trujillo, Charley and Sonya Rhee
publisher=PBS
] Therefore, the exact number of Hispanics who served in the Marine Corps during the Vietnam War era is unknown. The statistics that were kept by the Department of Defense, in accordance to the Vietnam War Statistics, included Hispanics among Caucasians. However, it is estimated that 170,000 Hispanics served in Vietnam and that 3,070 (5.2% of total) died there. This total includes those who served in the Marines.cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://history-world.org/vietnam_war_statistics.htm
title=Vietnam War Statistics
publisher=International World History Project
] Of the 57 Medals of Honor awarded to Marines for actions during the Vietnam War, six were awarded to Marines of Hispanic descent, of which five were posthumous awards. The six Marines were Sergeant Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez, Major Jay R. Vargas Jr., Lance Corporal Jose Francisco Jimenez, PFC Ralph E. Dias, Lance Corporal Emilio A. De La Garza and Lance Corporal Miguel Keith.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-31
url=http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Frequently_Requested/Medal_of_Honor.htm
title= Marine Corps Medal of Honor
publisher=History Division, United States Marine Corps
] Of the 360 Navy Crosses awarded to the Marines, 19 were awarded to men of Hispanic descent.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.homeofheroes.com/valor/0_NC/ncross_rvn_usmcalpha.html
title=Vietnam War: USMC Recipients of the Navy Cross
publisher=HomeOfHeroes.com
] Corporal Angel Mendez (1946-1967) was among the many men who volunteered to join the Marine Corps right after graduating from high school. He was assigned to Company F, 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division on March 16, 1967 and conducting a search and destroy mission with his company when his company came under attack from a Viet Cong battalion. Half of a platoon was pinned down under enemy fire and Mendez, volunteered to lead a squad to assist the pinned-down Marines in returning to friendly lines with their two dead and two seriously wounded. Mendez exposed himself and opened fire on the enemy. His Platoon Commander, Lieutenant Ronald Castille was seriously wounded and he fell, unable to move. Mendez shielded him with his body as he applied a dressing to the wound, he picked up the Lieutenant and started to carry him to friendly lines, which were more than seventy-five meters away. Mendez was hit in the shoulder, yet he chose to act as rear man and he continued to shield his Lieutenant with his own body until he was mortally wounded. Mendez was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross and promoted to Sergeant.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.homeofheroes.com/valor/1_Citations/07_RVN-nc/nc_19rvn_usmcL.html
title="Mendez, Angel" (Navy Cross citation)
work=Full Text Citations for Award of the Navy Cross: U.S. Marine Corps Awards - Vietnam
publisher=HomeOfHeroes.com
]

Sergeant Alfredo "Freddy" Gonzalez (1946-1968) served two tours in Vietnam. He was the Platoon Commander of Company A, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, United States Marine Corps. On February 4, 1968, Sgt. Gonzalez and his platoon engaged the Viet Cong, who were holed up in St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church in Hue City, firing at the Americans with rockets and automatic weapons. Almost single-handedly, Sgt. Gonzalez neutralized the enemy with a barrage of LAW rockets. When it became quiet, it was thought that all of the Viet Cong inside the church had been killed. However, one had survived, and he shot and killed Sgt. Gonzalez.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Whos_Who/Gonzalez_A.htm
title=Sergeant Alfredo Gonzalez, USMC
work=Who's Who in Marine Corps History
publisher=History Division, United States Marine Corps
]

On April 30, 1968, Captain Jay R. Vargas, who was the commander of Company G, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines, 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, was sent with his men to an area around the village of Dai Do where two other Marine companies were in a battle with a North Vietnamese Army regiment. Even though Company G hadn’t slept for thirty-six hours, they went ashore at about one in the afternoon. The enemy attacked his men and had one of his platoons pinned down. Vargas went to rescue his platoon with a reserve platoon and was wounded by a grenade. He was able to take out three machine guns nests by himself before leading his men in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy soldiers in the nearby village.

He believed that he and his men had secured Dai Do and wasn't expecting a sudden massive counterattack by the NVA. Company G took cover in the village cemetery and the fight raged through the night. The next morning, the bodies of more than three hundred enemy soldiers lay near their positions. Vargas’s battalion commander arrived on the scene and ordered a renewed assault on the village. He carried to safety a Marine whose arm had been severed, and when the soldier pleaded for his arm, Vargas went back and found it. When the battalion commander, fighting like any other rifleman, was shot in the back three times, Vargas dragged him a hundred yards to an evacuation point, firing at the enemy as he went with an AK-47 he had picked up on the battlefield. By the end of the third day of battle, the North Vietnamese retreated and Vargas finally allowed himself to be treated for a bullet wound in his side and shrapnel from mortar blasts.cite web|accessdate=2006-06-10
url=http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/history/history_facts.html
title="Medal of Honor facts"
publisher=HomeOfHeros.com
] Lance Corporal Jose Francisco Jimenez (1946-1969) was assigned to Company K, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. On August 28, 1969 his unit came under heavy attack by North Vietnamese Army soldiers concealed in well-camouflaged emplacements at Quang Nam Province. Jimenez personally destroyed several enemy personnel and silenced an antiaircraft weapon. He then maneuvered to within ten feet of hostile soldiers who were firing automatic weapons from a trench and, in the face of vicious enemy fire, destroyed the position. As he moved to attack another enemy soldier, he was mortally wounded.cite web
accessdate=2007-11-10
url=http://www.usmc.mil/moh.nsf/000003c919889c0385255f980058f5b6/000003c919889c0385255fa4005fa7d6?OpenDocument
title=Medal of Honor — LCpl Jose F. Jimenez (Medal of Honor citation)
work=Who's Who in Marine Corps History
publisher=History Division, United States Marine Corps
archivedate=2006-06-13
archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070305080549/http://www.usmc.mil/moh.nsf/000003c919889c0385255f980058f5b6/000003c919889c0385255fa4005fa7d6?OpenDocument
]

Lance Corporal Jimenez was not the only Hispanic Marine from the 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division to be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in Quang Nam Province. Three months later, on November 12, 1969, Private First Class Ralph E. Dias (1950-1969) a Rifleman with Company D, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, initiated an aggressive assault against an enemy machine gun bunker which was the principal source of hostile fire. He was wounded three times but, was able to crawl and throw a grenade which destroyed the enemy position before he was mortally wounded by another enemy round.cite web
accessdate=2007-11-17
url = http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Whos_Who/Dias_RE.htm
title = Private First Class Ralph E. Diaz, USMC
work = Who's who in Marine Corps history
publisher = History Division, United States Marine Corps
]

On April 11, 1970, Lance Corporal Emilio A. De La Garza (1949-1970), while serving as a machine gunner on a squad size patrol with the 3rd Platoon of Company E, 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, was mortally wounded approximately four miles south of Da Nang by a grenade as he placed himself between the blast and two fellow Marines.cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.tecom.usmc.mil/HD/Whos_Who/DeLaGarze_EA.htm
title=Lance Corporal Emilio A. De La Garza, Jr., USMC
work=Who's Who in Marine Corps History
publisher=History Division, United States Marine Corps
]

A month later on May 8, 1970 Lance Corporal Miguel Keith (1951-1970) a rifleman with the 1st Combined Action Group, III Marine Amphibious Force was seriously wounded when his platoon was under heavy attack from a numerically superior enemy in the Quang Ngai Province. Despite his wounds, he advanced on the enemy with machine gun fire, killing 3 of the enemy advancing on the command post and dispersing the others. He was severely wounded by a grenade during this charge. In spite of his wounds and loss of blood, he charged a group of 25 attackers, causing them to retreat for cover. He was mortally wounded by enemy fire. His actions contributed significantly to his platoon's success in routing the enemy.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.medalofhonor.com/MiguelKeith.htm
title=Vietnam War Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient Corporal Miguel Keith, USMC
publisher=MedalofHonor.com
]

Lieutenant Colonel Ramiro Saenz, graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1959. He served two tours in Vietnam and received the Bronze Star Medal with Combat V and other awards for his service in that war. He retired as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1979.cite web | url = http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/ramiro-saenz.htm
title=Ramiro Saenz, Lieutenant Colonel, United States Marine Corps
publisher = ArlingtonCemetery.net
accessdate = 2007-05-07
] On April 23, 1975, President Gerald Ford gave a televised speech declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U.S. aid. North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon and the song "White Christmas" was broadcast, as the final signal for U.S. withdrawal. Master Sergeant Juan J. Valdez was the noncommissioned officer in charge of the Marine security guard detachment stationed at the American Embassy in Saigon. He had previously served from 1965 to 1967 with Company B, 3d Amphibian Tractor Battalion, attached to 2d Bn, Fourth Marine Regiment and was now on his second tour. On April 30, 1975, Valdez was the last U.S. serviceman to leave Vietnam, shutting the embassy gates and boarding the last helicopter out of Saigon. [ [http://condor.depaul.edu/~dialogo/back_issues/issue_4/saving_private_atzlan.htm Saving Private Atzlan: Preserving the History of Latino Service in Wartime] ] [ [http://www.fallofsaigon.org/leatherstory.htm Leatherneck Magazine's Story] ]

The following nineteen Marines of Hispanic descent in the table were awarded the Navy Cross for their actions in Vietnam.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.homeofheroes.com/valor/0_NC/ncross_rvn_usmcalpha.html
title=Vietnam War: USMC Recipients of the Navy Cross
publisher=HomeOfHeroes.com
]

On June 10, 2004, during Operation Iraqi Freedom Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina became the first Marine general ever assigned commander of naval ships. Medina oversaw the manning and equipping of ESG-3. From his flagship, the USS Belleau Wood, he then led the Belleau Wood Strike Group (BWDESG) through a 6-month deployment in support of where he was assigned as Commander Task Force 58.cite web|accessdate=2007-03-07
url=http://www.defendamerica.mil/profiles/jun2004/pr0601004a.html
title=U.S. Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Joseph V. Medina: Marine General Leads Strike Group into History
author=Plotts, LCPL Jared
date=June 2004
work=DefendAmerica News
publisher=U.S. Department of Defense
] Hispanic women are now more highly represented among enlisted women in the Marine Corps than the other services. [ [http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:1Q1kR6fgfPsJ:https://www.deomi.org/Research/ResearchSymposium/2007/Segal_Thanner/Segal_Thanner.pdf+Latinas+in+the+Marine+Corps&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=21&gl=us&ie=UTF-8 Latinos and African Americans in the U.S. Military Trends in Representation] , Retrieved January 13, 2008] Hispanic women are reaching the top echelons of the Marine Corps both in the enlistment and officer ranks. On August 13, 2004, MGySgt. Abigail D. Olmos became the first female Master Gunnery Sergeant in the history of the Marine Corps.cite news |accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/ac95bc775efc34c685256ab50049d458/79cc43697ef1841985256fea005af192?OpenDocument&Highlight=2,female |title=First female in field gets promoted to master guns
date=August 13, 2004
id=Story ID#: 2004813103824
author=Jones, LCPL Skye
work=Marine Corps News
publisher=United States Marine Corps
] and on August 2, 2006, Brigadier General Angela Salinas, made history when she became the first Hispanic female to obtain a general rank in the Marines.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc.mil/genbios2.nsf/biographies/1248A1B93B290F288525713F0070712C?opendocument
title=Official Biography of Angela Salinas
publisher=United States Marine Corps
] To date servicewomen are still restricted from serving in the following positions: Infantry regiments , artillery battalions, all armored units, combat engineer battalions, reconnaissance units, riverine assault craft units, low altitude air defense units, and fleet anti-terrorism security teams. [ [http://www.womenmarines.org/history.php They Gave their lives] , Retrieved January 13, 2008] In Operation Iraqi Freedom female Marines have played a prominent role guarding checkpoints and searching Iraqi women and children. This in turn has exposed many of them to dangerous situations which in some cases could cost them their lives. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/07/02/falluja.memorial/index.html Marines mourn six killed last week in Falluja] ] Two Hispanic female Marines have perished in said conflict, they are Lance Corporal Juana Navarro, assigned to 9th Engineer Support Battalion, 3rd Marine Logistics Group, III Marine Expeditionary Force. [ [http://userpages.aug.com/captbarb/lives.html L/Cpl. Juana Navarro] , Retrieved January 13, 2008] and Corporal Ramona M. Valdez. Corporal Ramona M. Valdez (1984-2005) was assigned to Headquarters Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, II Marine Expeditionary Force. Valdez, whose mother immigrated from the Dominican Republic, was a communications specialist. Valdez’s most significant work was with Division’s Counter Improvised Explosive Device Working Group. The success of the tests conducted by CIEDWG was in a large part attributed to Valdez’s knowledge of single-channel radios.

Valdez, who was stationed at Camp Lejeune, N.C. was deployed with her unit to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Her convoy was on its way back to Camp Fallujah when a suicide bomber drove his car into the convoy, causing a massive explosion that killed Valdez, two other women, three men, and severely burnt seven other women. She was serving with the Female Search Force when she was killed.cite web|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.militarycity.com/valor/943339.html |title=Honor the Fallen: Marine Cpl. Ramona M. Valdez|work=Military Times] The Marine Corps honored her memory naming the II MEF Communications Training Center in Camp Lejeune, N.C. the Valdez Training Facility. [cite news|accessdate=2008-01-13 |url=http://www.blackmilitaryworld.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=242 |title= Training center dedicated to fallen hero, Cpl. Ramona M. Valdez |date=June 2007|work=Black Military World]

Hispanic immigrants in the Marine Corps

Since the American Revolution, when they fought alongside Spanish General Bernardo De Galvez to the modern day conflict in Iraq, Hispanic immigrants have played an important role in the military of the United States.cite book
title=Bernardo de Gálvez:Hero of the American Revolution
author=Lafarelle,Lorenzo G.
year=1992
page=p. 57
location=Austin, TX
publisher=Eakin Press
isbn=0-89015-849-5
oclc=26940727
] cite web |accessdate=2007-10-07
url=http://www.lasculturas.com/lib/law_RevolutionMD.htm
title=Maryland State Resolution on the Role Played by Hispanics In The Achievement of American Independence
author=Díaz, Hector
date= March 16, 1996
publisher=lasCulturas.com
]

On July 3, 2002, President George W. Bush issued an order to speed up the process of citizenship for immigrants serving in the nation's military services. Immigrant service members can now qualify for citizenship after serving honorably for one year in the armed forces or for serving on active duty during an authorized period of conflict, among other qualifications listed under the Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 328. cite news
accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=60|title=Servicemembers
title=Servicemembers Achieve American Citizenship in Iraq
author=Kemplin, Sgt. Kristin, U.S. Army
work=DefenseLINK
date=July 4, 2006
publisher=U.S. Department of Defense
]

One of the privileges of U.S. citizenship is the opportunity to become a commissioned officer in the Marine Corps. When there is a draft, a non-citizen can be drafted as a resident alien, or can join in the ranks as a foreigner, but cannot be an officer without U. S. citizenship.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://www.military.com/MilitaryCareers/Content/0,14556,MPDC_Options_Commissioning_Marine,00.html |title=The Marine Corps Commissioning Programs
publisher=Miliary.com
] cite web|accessdate=2008-01-02
url=http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/131002p.pdf
format=PDF
title=Section 6.2: "Qualifications of Commissioned Officers
work=DOD Instruction number 1310.02: Subject: Appointing Commissioned Officers
publisher=U.S. Department of Defense
date=May 8, 2007
] Lance Corporal Jose Vasquez, a 28-year-old Marine who was born near Monterrey, Mexico, to the United States as a 3-month old baby, growing up in Houston, Texas. He had permanent resident status (a green card), but not citizenship. Vasquez said he needed citizenship to land a job as an aviation electrician.cite news
accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2007/070403-military-citizenship.htm
title=For Immigrants, Military Plows Path to Citizenship In-Depth Coverage
author=Davis, Rob
date=April 3, 2007
publisher=voiceofsandiego.org (reprinted at GlobalSecurity.org)
]

Mexicans comprise the largest immigrant group in the Marine Corps. So far, 59 immigrant casualties have been granted posthumous citizenship.cite news|accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0705/p01s03-usmi.html
title=Noncitizen soldiers: the quandaries of foreign-born troops
author=Jonsson, Patrik
work=Christian Science Monitor
date=July 5, 2005
] Among those who have been granted posthumous citizenship are three foreign-born Hispanic Marines, Lance Corporal Jesus Suarez del Solar, Corporal Jose Angel Garibay and Lance Corporal Jose Antonio Gutierrez.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://www.voznuestra.com/PoliticalWires/_2003/_April/5
title=Two Americans and an Aztec Warrior
author=Contreras, Raoul Lowery
publisher=Latino Political Wires
] On March 21, 2003, Lance Corporal José Antonio Gutierrez (1981-2003), member of the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines was killed by enemy fire while trying to secure Umm Qasr, a port vital for humanitarian aid.

Gutierrez was born in Guatemala. His mother died when he was three. Five years later his father was dead. He left school to work a series of odd jobs to buy food for himself and his sister, Engracia. He learned about the U.S. from an American aid worker at a shelter. Gutierrez decided to head for America by stowing away on freight trains. He got stuck in Mexico for a couple of years, crossing into California when he was 14. He slept on park benches and got food from a shelter.

In 2000, he came to live with Nora and Marcelo Mosquera (themselves immigrants from Costa Rica and Ecuador). A few months after September, 11, he surprised everyone by announcing he'd joined the Marines. On March 21, 2003, Gutierrez, who come to the United States illegally as a teenager, became one of the first U.S. soldiers to die in Iraq. He was awarded his American citizenship posthumously.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://opinionjournal.com/columnists/bminiter/?id=110003295
title=José Antonio Gutierrez: He was an American hero. Now he's an American.
date=April 4, 2003
author=Miniter, Brendan
work=Opinion Journal
publisher=Wall Street Journal
] Lance Cpl. José Antonio Gutiérrez is the subject of the nonfiction film "The Short Life of José Antonio Gutierrez (2006)"; Directed by Heidi Specogna.cite news|accessdate=2007-12-30
url=http://movies.nytimes.com/2007/04/27/movies/27shor.html
title=Movie Review: "The Short Life of José Antonio Gutierrez (2006)" - A Personal Portrait of War
work=New York Times
author=Seitz, Matt Zoller
date=April 27, 2007
]

Further increases likely

Hispanics comprise 18 percent of enlisted Marines today up from 15 percent when the Iraq war began.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://pvmsec.info/site/modules/news/article.php?storyid=1723
title=Marines Begin to Reverse Sharp Drop in Black Recruits
author=Philpott, Tom
publisher=The Philadelphia Veterans Multi Service and Educational Center
] The number of Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps over-represent their percentage of the population. Today the United States Department of Defense faces a nationwide problem in recruiting men for the all volunteer Armed Forces because of the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet Hispanic recruiting numbers have not decreased into that service. [http://siempre.tamu.edu/index.php?pg=57&nav=7 Fields of Honor: Hispanic Aggies in Their Country’s Service, By Leonardo G. Hernández, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret), Chairman, Texas A&M Hispanic Network] Retrieved December 28, 2007]

The United States Marine Corps has implemented an aggressive recruitment programs directed towards this group. One of those programs involves advertising publications and magazines with the principal aim to attract those who speak Spanish. The strategy of Marine Corps Recruiting Command in advertising is to continue to develop a very strong and positive image of the Marine Corps. The Marine Corps' has also been successful in marketing by using Hispanic recruiters in areas mostly populated by Hispanics. [http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/main5/F89AF39B1E91FDD685257165004AE309?opendocument Marine Corps Recruiting Command helps to celebrate diversity] Retrieved December 28, 2007] Among the reasons which have led the Marine Corps to target Hispanics aggressive recruitment programs are the following:cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.prb.org/Articles/2007/HispanicsUSMilitary.aspx?p=1
title="Latinos Claim Larger Share of U.S. Military Personnel"
author=Segal, Mady Wechsler and David R. Segal
date=October 2007
publisher=Population Reference Bureau
]

1. There is widespread support for military service within the Hispanic community.

2. The propensity to serve in the military (generally measured by the desires of young people to consider the military as one of their first choices of activities—especially in the Marine Corps—is high among Latinos (Hispanics).

3. Hispanics are more likely to complete boot camp, finish their military service, and to reenlist than any other group of Marines.

Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina has been quoted as saying:cite journal
accessdate=2007-03-07
url=http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/news/newsbyid.asp?id=46457&cat=Magazine&more=/magazine/
title=100 Influentials List 2006
journal=Hispanic Business Magazine
date=October 2006
]

"We understand the importance of diversity in the Marine Corps," said the senior ranking Hispanic in the Marine Corps. "That's why the Marine Corps is so strong... we are able to embrace all different elements of society to make the Corps a strong organization."cite web
accessdate=2007-03-07
url=http://www.military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,usmc1_050205.00.html?ESRC=marinenews.RSS
title=Marines Spread Message of Opportunity to Hispanic Community
author=Ayalin, SSgt Marc
date=May 2, 2005
work=Marine Corps News
]
On September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended that week to a month-long observance. The National Hispanic Heritage Month is a time for Americans to educate themselves about the influences Hispanic culture has had on society. [ [http://www.okinawa.usmc.mil/Public%20Affairs%20Info/Archive%20News%20Pages/2004/041007-hispanic.html Marine Corps celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month Lance Cpl. Cathryn D. Lindsay] , Retrieved January 12, 2008] The Marine Corps has realized that the fastest growing group in both the United States and the Marines are Hispanics, and have joined the rest of the United States in the celebration of the contributions which "Hispanics in the United States Marines Corps" have made to that military institution by celebrating National Hispanic Heritage Month from September 15 through October 15. [ [http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/main5/43B8707E700D5BB88525708500551F63?opendocument Depot recognizes Hispanic Marines and sailors] , Retrieved January 12, 2008]

High ranking Hispanics in the Marine Corps

Highest ranking enlisted personnel

Hispanics are more highly represented among enlisted personnel in the Marine Corps than in the other services.cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.prb.org/Articles/2007/HispanicsUSMilitary.aspx?p=1
title="Latinos Claim Larger Share of U.S. Military Personnel"
author=Segal, Mady Wechsler and David R. Segal
date=October 2007
publisher=Population Reference Bureau
]

In June 27, 2003, Sergeant Major John L. Estrada, originally from the nation of Trinidad and Tobago, became the 15th Sergeant Major of the United States Marine Corps and the first person of Hispanic descent promoted to that rank. Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Marine Corps. The holder of this rank and post is the senior enlisted member of the Marine Corps. Estrada enlisted on September 19, 1973 and has been assigned to various units and positions during the years which he served. From December 2001 to May 2003, Sergeant Major Estrada served as the Sergeant Major, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing. During this assignment, he was forward deployed and participated in Operation Southern Watch and Operation Iraqi Freedom. His personal awards include the Bronze Star, the Meritorious Service Medal with three gold stars, the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, the Joint Service Achievement Medal, and the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal. On April 25, 2007, SgtMaj Estrada stepped down from his post as Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps.cite press release
url=http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/ac95bc775efc34c685256ab50049d458/2ff6b97aa038437585256feb004362fd?OpenDocument
accessdate=2007-01-24
title=Sgt. Maj. of Marine Corps sword of office changes hands|date=July 2, 2003
id=Release # 0703-03-0537
publisher=Division of Public Affairs, United States Marine Corps
]

Aside from Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Master Gunnery Sergeant (MGySgt) and Sergeant Major are the highest enlisted ranks in the Marine Corps; however, there are far fewer Master Gunnery Sergeants than Sergeants Major. One of the major differences between the two E-9 ranks is that Master Gunnery Sergeants retain their Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), while Sergeants Major are given a new MOS to reflect their general command focus. This reinforces the Master Gunnery Sergeant's role as a provider of technical military leadership.cite web|accessdate=2008-01-03
url=http://www20.brinkster.com/gunnyg/gyhistory.html
title="History:The Gunnery Sergeant Rank USMC"
author=Gaines, GySgt R.W. "Dick" Gaines, USMC (Ret.)
publisher=
]

*MGySgt Guadalupe Denogean is an immigrant from Mexico who has served in the Marine Corps for 25 years. Denogean was wounded in combat in Basra, Iraq. During the time that he received treatment for his wounds, he was asked if he had any requests? His answer was that he had two. First, He wanted a promotion for the corporal who helped rescue him, and the second request was that he wanted to be an American citizen. [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-110810075.html Remarks at a reception honoring Hispanic Heritage Month.(Transcript)] , Retrieved January 12, 2008]
*MGySgt Frankie Segarra, a veteran of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm, is the first Hispanic and for that matter the first Puerto Rican Master Gunnery Sergeant acting as paraloft chief, Landing Support Company, Combat Logistics Regiment 3, 3rd Marine Logistics Group in Camp Smedley D. Butler located in Okinawa, Japan. [cite web
url=http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/2004/vol8n42/MakingDifference.shtml
accessdate=2005-10-03
archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20041128060935/http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/2004/vol8n42/MakingDifference.shtml
archivedate=2004-11-28
date=October 5, 2004
title="Making A Difference In Our Communities And Our Nation" — Hispanic Heritage Month
work=Puerto Rico Herald
]

*MGySgt Abigail D. Olmos became the first female Master Gunnery Sergeant in the history of the Marine Corps on August 13, 2004. Olmos, a native of St. Louis, Missouri, joined the armed services for college money and almost joined the Air Force, but opted for the Marine Corps when she was guaranteed a technical specialty. Her military decoration include four Navy Commendation medals, one Navy Achievement Medal and seven good conducts.cite news |accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/ac95bc775efc34c685256ab50049d458/79cc43697ef1841985256fea005af192?OpenDocument&Highlight=2,female |title=First female in field gets promoted to master guns
date=August 13, 2004
id=Story ID#: 2004813103824
author=Jones, LCPL Skye
work=Marine Corps News
publisher=United States Marine Corps
]
*Sergeant Major Jorge F. Sosa, is the acting Sergeant Major for 2nd Force Service Support Group. He served in Kuwait as the Sergeant Major for 2nd Transportation Support Battalion. [ [http://www.leatherneck.com/forums/showthread.php?t=10085 Hispanic Marines Remember Ethnic Heritage ] , Retrieved January 12, 2008]

*Sergeant Major Jose Luis Santiago, who participated in both Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm as member of the 1st Light Armored Infantry Battalion, has the distinction of being the 2nd Battalion 9th Marines first Hispanic Sergeant Major and its first Sergeant Major since its reactivation on July 13, 2007.cite web
accessdate=2008-01-01
url=http://www.iimefpublic.usmc.mil/Public/InfolineMarines.nsf/(ArticlesRead)/E10E2F81C1A777258525732800093610
title=Sergeant Major Jose L. Santiago — Sergeant Major, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines
publisher=II MEF, United States Marine Corps
]

*Sergeant Major Federico Perez Jr., has served in the Marine Corps for over 30 years in various positions and is currently the Personnel Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps at Marine Corps Headquarters in Quantico, Virginia. [ [http://www.marinecorpsgazette-digital.com/leatherneckmagazine/200611/?pg=111 Leatherneck Magazine] , Retrieved February 2, 2008]

Highest ranking officers

Hispanics have been underrepresented in the all-volunteer armed forces, especially among officers. This is beginning to change, as increasing numbers of Hispanics enter the military. The Marine Corps, realizing its shortage of Hispanics in the officer ranks, has a program to grow its own and sends young enlisted Marines to college while on active duty to obtain a degree and a commission. [http://siempre.tamu.edu/index.php?pg=57&nav=7 Fields of Honor: Hispanic Aggies in Their Country’s Service, By Leonardo G. Hernández, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret), Chairman, Texas A&M Hispanic Network] Retrieved December 28, 2007] Prior to the year 2000, two Marines of Hispanic descent reached the ranks of Brigadier General and above. Since then, six Hispanics have been promoted to the rank of Brigadier General and above. One of the seven, Joseph V. Medina, was a graduate of the United States Naval Academy. The other five obtained their commissions after enlisting in the Marines upon receiving their college degrees.
*Brigadier General Michael J. Aguilar (Ret.), was a member of the Marine Corps platoon leaders' class while attending Long Beach State College and the Officers' Candidate School program. In July 1971, he was commissioned a second lieutenant and went on active duty. He was sent directly to the Naval Air Training Command, Pensacola, Fla., for flight training. After serving as a combat pilot in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, he attended the Naval War College and was promoted to Colonel. He served as senior military assistant to the undersecretary of defense for policy at the Pentagon. In 1999, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General, the third Marine of Hispanic descent to reach such rank. On December of that year, he became deputy commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces South, Miami, and commander of Fleet Marine Forces South. Aguilar retired in 2002 and was selected to oversee and enforce security at San Diego International Airport at Lindbergh Field. [http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=44700 United States Department of Defense] , Retrieved January 11, 2008]

*Major General Christopher Cortez (Ret.), was a graduate of Marietta College in Ohio, and commissioned a second lieutenant via the Platoon Leaders Program in 1971. His undergraduate program included one semester at the University of Madrid in Spain. He served in various positions during his career which included Commanding Officer of 1st Bn, 5th Marines with 7th Marine Expeditionary Brigade. He served with 7th Marines and 3rd Marines during Operation Desert Shield and then with Task Force Ripper (7th Marines) during Operation Desert Storm. [http://www.usmc.mil/genbios2.nsf/a5ae181248621dd2852567fb00498c98/462ef15679b9fbc885256803006209b2?OpenDocument United States Marine Corps Bio-Christopher Cortez] , Retrieved January 11, 2008] On December 31, 2004, Major General Christopher Cortez relinquished his final command and he retired after 33 years of service to the Marine Corps. Upon his retirement Cortez was the highest-ranking Hispanic American serving in the Corps. During the ceremony, Cortez received the Distinguished Service Medal for his successful tour as the commanding general of Marine Corps Recruiting Command. ["Marine Corps bids farewell to highest-ranking Hispanic officer", Submitted by: Marine Corps Recruiting Command, Story Identification #: 200492010841, Story by Sgt. Jimmie Perkins and Staff Sergeant Marc Ayalin, Retrieved January 11, 2008] Cortez joined Microsoft Corp. as Managing Director, Government Industry Team, Worldwide Public Sector, reports Wes Poriotis, Chairman of Wesley, Brown & Bartle Co. (WB&B). [ [http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-6001449/Chris-Cortez-Former-Commanding-General.html Chris Cortez, Former Commanding General of Marine Corps Recruiting, Joins Microsoft as Managing Director, Worldwide Public Sector Government Team.] , Retrieved January 11, 2008]

*Major General William D. Catto served concurrently as Commanding General, Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and Vice Chief of Naval Research, Office of Naval Research from June 2000 to June 2002. Catto earned a undergraduate degree from Bethel College and his M.A. from Webster University. From July 2002 to June 2006, he assumed duties as the Commanding General, Marine Corps Systems Command. Catto is the Commanding General Marine Corps Systems Command, Chief of Staff, United States European Command. [cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc.mil/genbios2.nsf/0/43F2C495D4ACE5318525699E0050B602?opendocument
title=Official Biography of William D. Catto
publisher=United States Marine Corps
date=October 1, 2005
]

*Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina, graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1976. His academic accomplishments include a Bachelor of Science (Physics) and a Master of Science (Systems Management) degrees from the University of Southern California. In 2001, he was promoted to Brigadier General and assumed command of the newly established Expeditionary Strike Group Three (ESG-3) in San Diego, California which is an integral part of US Third Fleet. Medina became the first Marine general ever assigned commander of naval ships. On June 10, 2004, Medina oversaw the manning and equipping of ESG-3. From his flagship, the USS Belleau Wood , he led 4,000 Marines and Sailors into Pearl Harbor for five days of training. He then led the Belleau Wood Strike Group (BWDESG) through a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom where he was assigned as Commander Task Force 58. His mission was to detect, identify, and disrupt international terrorist organizations and foreign fighters.cite web|accessdate=2007-03-07
url=http://www.defendamerica.mil/profiles/jun2004/pr0601004a.html
title=U.S. Marine Corps Brig. Gen. Joseph V. Medina: Marine General Leads Strike Group into History
author=Plotts, LCPL Jared
date=June 2004
work=DefendAmerica News
publisher=U.S. Department of Defense
] In April 2007, BGen. Medina took command of the 3rd Marine Division.

*On August 2, 2006, Brigadier General Angela Salinas, made history when she became the first Hispanic female to obtain a general rank in the Marines. Salinas enlisted into the United States Marine Corps in May 1974. She was subsequently assigned as a legal services clerk at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California, Marine Air Reserve Training Detachment, Alameda, California, and the inspector-instructor staff, 4th Reconnaissance Battalion, San Antonio, Texas. In 1977, she was selected for the Enlisted Commissioning Program [cite web
url=https://web.mcrc.usmc.mil/G3/Officer/mc03001.html
title=Enlisted Commissioning Program (ECP)
publisher=United States Marine Corps
accessdate=2006-08-05
] and commissioned a second lieutenant after graduation from Dominican College of San Rafael, California with a B.A. in History. She was subsequently assigned to the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina, and served as a legal services officer. Salinas served in various positions prior to her promotion. On August 2, 2006, Salinas was promoted to Brigadier General and on August, 4 she assumed command of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc.mil/genbios2.nsf/biographies/1248A1B93B290F288525713F0070712C?opendocument
title=Official Biography of Angela Salinas
publisher=United States Marine Corps
]

*Brigadier General David C. Garza is the Deputy Commander, Marine Forces Central Command. He was nominated on January 16, 2007, by the Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates for appointment to the grade of brigadier general. [cite news
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=10400
date=January 16, 2007
title=News Release No. 043-07 General Officer Announcements
publisher=U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs)
]

Medal of Honor

Thirteen Marines of Hispanic descent have been awarded the Medal of Honor — the highest military decoration of the United States:

legend2|#e3d9ff|This along with the *, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously|border=1px solid #AAAAAA

United States Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy is an institution in Annapolis, Maryland for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. [ [http://www.usna.edu/about.htm United States Naval Academy] , Retrieved January 4, 2008] The following is a list of Hispanic alumni of the USNA who served in the Marine Corps.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.ansomil.org/home/USNAFlagOfficers.html
title="USNA graduates of Hispanic descent"
publisher=Association of Naval Service Officers
]

Notable Marines of Hispanic descent

The following is a list of Hispanics who served in the United States Marine Corps and have gained fame through previous or subsequent endeavors or successes:
*Joseph M. Acaba — NASA Astronaut: In May 2004, he became the first person of Puerto Rican heritage to be named as a NASA astronaut candidate when he was selected as a member of NASA Astronaut Training Group 19.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-31
url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/04class.html
title=Astronaut Class of 2004 (Group 19)
work=Astronaut Biographies
publisher=NASA
date=February 13, 2006
] He completed his training on February 10, 2006 and is currently assigned to STS-119, set to launch in the Fall of 2008 to deliver the final set of solar arrays to the International Space Station. Acabá was a Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps Reserves where he served for six years.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-31
url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/acaba-jm.html
title=Astronaut Bio: Joseph Acaba
date=October 2007
work=Astronaut Biographies
publisher=NASA
]

*Enrique CamarenaDEA agent: In 1972, Camarena joined the United States Marine Corps, where he served for two years. He then joined the DEA at their Calexico, California office. Camarena's work became well known all over the United States and Latin America before he died. He infiltrated drug trafficking bands and successfully helped break up many of them. He managed to keep his face off the newspapers and other media despite the fact his name was well known. Several movies about him were produced in Mexico, and, in November 1988, "Time" magazine had him on their cover. A 1990 U.S television mini-series about Camarena, starring Treat Williams and Benicio del Toro, was produced ("").cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.dea.gov/agency/10bios.htm DEA Biography of Camarena
title=Enrique S. Camarena, July 26, 1947 to March 5, 1985
work=Biographies of DEA Agents and Employees Killed in Action
publisher=DEA
]

*Rod Carew — baseball Hall of Famer: Carew joined the Marine Corps in 1965, and served on active duty with Headquarters Company, 8th Engineer Support Battalion, 2nd FSSG at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. He completed his Marine Corps career serving in the reserves from 1966 to 1971.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc-mccs.org/sports/hof/2002-carew.cfm
title=Rodney Cline Carew, Class of 2002
work=Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame
publisher=Marine Corps Community Services (MCCS)
]

*Roberto Clemente — baseball Hall of Famer-He joined the Marine Corps on September 12, 1958, and as an infantryman he would serve on active duty at Camp Lejeune until 1959; he would remain in the reserves until September 1964.cite web
accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc-mccs.org/sports/hof/2003-clemente.cfm
title=Roberto Clemente, Class of 2003, Outfield
work=Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame
publisher=Marine Corps Community Services (MCCS)
]

*Freddy Fender - was a Mexican-American musician of Tejano, country, and Rock and Roll music who in 1975 had a hit song "Before the Next Teardrop Falls" which gave him national exposure. Born Baldemar Huerta, he joined the Marines in 1953 at the age of 16 and served for three years. [ [http://www.austin360.com/music/content/music/stories/2006/10/15fender.html Freddy Fender dies at 69] , Retrieved March 27, 2008]
*Lieutenant Colonel Christopher J. "Gus" Loria — NASA Astronaut — USMC — USNA Class of 1983: Loria was born on July 9, 1960 in Belmont, Massachusetts. His educational background include a Bachelor of Science degree in general engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy (1983); 30 credits from Florida Institute of Technology towards completion of a Master of Science degree in aeronautical engineering; and a Master in Public Administration from John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (2004). Loria flew 42 combat missions in support of allied operations during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Selected by NASA in April 1996, Loria completed two years of training and evaluation, he is qualified for flight assignment as a pilot. From September 2002 through July 2003, he served as the Chief of Flight Test for the Orbital Space Plane Program.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/loria.html
title=Astronaut Bio:Christopher J. "Gus" Loria
work=Astronaut Biographies
publisher=NASA
date=June 2004
]

*Carlos I. Noriega — NASA Astronaut — USMC: Born in Peru, Noriega is a NASA employee, a former NASA astronaut and a retired U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel. Noriega flew on STS-84 in 1997 and STS-97 in 2000. He logged over 461 hours in space, including over 19 EVA hours in 3 space walks. Following STS-97, Noriega trained as the backup commander for IIS Expedition 6 and later as a member of the crew of STS-121. In January 2005, Noriega retired from the NASA Astronaut Corps, but continued working for NASA as the Manager, Advanced Projects Office, Constellation Program, Johnson Space Center.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.spacefacts.de/bios/astronauts/english/noriega_carlos.htm
title=Astronaut Biography: Carlos Noriega
work=Biographies of U.S. Astronauts
publisher=Space Facts
]

*Lee Trevino — PGA Tour golfer and member of the World Golf Hall of Fame: Trevino enlisted in the Marine Corps on his seventeenth birthday in 1956 and went through recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, California. On completion of boot camp and follow-on training, he served as a Machine Gunner with the 9th Marines on Okinawa from July 1957, until August 1958, when he was transferred to the 1st Marine Division at Camp Pendleton, California. Trevino served with the division until March 1959, and was transferred to the 3rd Marine Division. He remained with the 3rd Marine Division until his discharge as a Corporal in November 1960.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://www.usmc-mccs.org/sports/hof/2001-trevino.cfm
title=Lee Trevino, Class of 2001, Golfer
work=Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame
publisher=Marine Corps Community Services (MCCS)
]

*Ted Williams, whose mother was of Mexican heritage [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/26/sports/baseball/26latino.html?_r=1&oref=slogin New York Times "Who's a Latino Baseball Legend?"; By RICHARD SANDOMIR; Published: August 26, 2005] , Retrieved February 3, 2008] [ [http://juantornoe.blogs.com/hispanictrending/2005/10/who_was_the_fir.html Who was the first Latino member of baseball's Hall of Fame?] , Retrieved February 3, 2008] enlisted on May 22, 1942. Williams received his wings and commission in the Marine Corps on May 2, 1944. He was in Hawaii awaiting orders as a replacement pilot when the war ended. Williams returned to the States in December and was discharged from the Marines on January 28, 1946. On May 2, 1952, Williams was recalled to active duty due to the Korean War. After completing jet refresher training in the F9F Panther at Cherry Point, North Carolina, Williams joined VMF-311 in Korea. He flew 37 combat missions and had a narrow escape when he crash-landed a flak damaged aircraft. Among the decorations he received was the Air Medal with two Gold Stars for meritorious achievement. Williams returned to the States and relieved from active duty with the rank of Captain on July 28, 1953. Williams who played professional baseball with the Boston Red Sox was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame in 1966. [ [http://www.militarymuseum.org/Williams.html The California State Military Museum] , Retrieved February 3, 2008]
*Colonel George David Zamka - NASA Astronaut - USMC - USNA Class of 1984: Born in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1962, Zamka was raised in New York City; Irvington, New York; Medellín, Colombia; and Rochester Hills, Michigan. He flew 66 combat missions over occupied Kuwait and Iraq during Operation Desert Storm. In June 1998, Zamka was selected for the astronaut program, and reported for training in August. Zamka served as lead for the shuttle training and procedures division and as supervisor for the astronaut candidate class of 2004. Zamka completed his first first spaceflight as the pilot of STS-120 (October, 13 - November 7, 2007. STS-120 (Discovery) traveled to the International Space Station to deliver the U.S. Node 2 Module, while also reconfiguring part of the station to prepare it for future assembly missions.cite web|accessdate=2007-12-31
url=http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/zamka.html
title=Astronaut Bio: George Zamka
work=Astronaut Biographies
date=November 2007
publisher=NASA
] cite web|accessdate=2007-12-28
url=http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:aFA_lzijjVAJ:oeop.larc.nasa.gov/hep/Hispanic%2520Fact%2520Sheet.pdf+George+D.+Zamka&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=us&ie=UTF-8 |title=Eight Hispanic American Space Explorers
work=NASA Facts
date=November 2003
publisher=NASA
]

ee also

*History of the United States Marine Corps
*United States Marine Corps

References

Further reading

*Del Valle, Pedro Augusto. "Diary and reports of the U.S. naval observer of Italian operations in East Africa: March 1937" (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1937).
*Del Valle, Pedro Augusto. "Roman Eagles Over Ethiopia" (Harrisburg, PA: Military service Pub. Co., 1940).
*Del Valle, Pedro Augusto. "Semper fidelis: An autobiography" (Hawthorne, CA: Christian Book Club of America, 1976).
*"Lieutenant General Pedro A. del Valle, U.S. Marine Corps (retired)" (Oral history program).
* [http://www.amtrac.org/1atbn/BattleforDongHa/BattleForDongHa.asp "Battle for Dong Ha"] , in "The Operations and The Battles", The 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion (Amtrac.org).
* Jordan, Kenneth N. "Men of Honor: Thirty-Eight Highly Decorated Marines of World War II, Korea, and Vietnam", A Schiffer Military History Book, 1997. (ISBN 0-7643-0247-7)
* Nolan, Keith William. "The Magnificent Bastards The Joint Army-Marine Defense of Dong Ha, 1968", Presidio Press, 1994. (ISBN 0-89141-485-1)


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