- The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea
"The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea" ( _ru. Сказ о тульском косом Левше и о стальной блохе) or simply "Levsha" ( _ru. Левша, "left-handed") is a well-known 1881 story by
Nikolai Leskov. In 1964, Sovietdirector Ivan Ivanov-Vanomade an animated 42-minute-long film called "Lefty" (Левша) that was based on the story. A live-action film was made in 1986. This story was featured in a "Nature Physics" article in 2007. [http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v3/n1/full/nphys487.html]
Styled as a
folk tale, it tells a story of a left-handed arms craftsman from Tula (traditionally a center of the Russian armaments industry). Tsar Alexander I of Russia, while visiting England with his servant the Cossack Platov, is shown a variety of modern inventions. Platov keeps insisting that things in Russia are much better (embarrassing a guide at one point when he finds something that appears well made that turns out to be a Russian gun), until they are shown a small mechanical flea. After his ascension the next tsar, Nicolas I, orders Platov (after he tries to hide the flea) to find someone to outperform the English who had created the clockwork steel flea (as small as a crumb, and the key to wind it up can only be seen through a microscope). Platov travels to Tula to find someone to better the English invention. Three gunsmiths agree to do the work and barricade themselves in a workshop. Villagers try to get them to come out in various ways (for example by yelling "fire"), but no one can get them to come out. When Platov arrives to check on their progress, he has some Cossacks try to open the workshop. They succeed in getting the roof to come off, but the crowd is disgusted when the trapped smell of body odor and metal work comes out of the workshop. The gunsmiths hand Platov the same flea he gave them and he curses them, believing that they have done absolutely nothing. He ends up dragging Lefty with him in order to have someone to answer for the failure.
The flea is given to the czar, to whom Lefty explains that he needs to look closer and closer at the flea to see what they have achieved. He winds it up and finds that it doesn't move. He discovers that, without any microscopes ("We are poor people"), Lefty and his accomplices managed to put appropriately-sized
horseshoes (with the craftsmen's engraved signatures) on the flea (Lefty made the nails, which cannot be seen since they are so small), which amazes the tsar and the English (even though the flea now cannot dance as it used to). Lefty then gets an invitation and travels to Englandto study the English way of life and technical accomplishments. The English hosts try to talk him into staying in England, but he feels homesick and returns to Russia at the earliest opportunity. On the way back, he engages in a drinking duel with an English sailor, arriving in Saint Petersburg. The sailor is treated well, but Lefty, authorities finding no identification on him and believing him to be a common drunkard, send him off to a hospital for unknowns to die.
The sailor, after sobering up, decides to find his new friend and with the aide of Platov they locate him. While dying (his head is smashed from being thrown onto the pavement), he tells them to tell the emperor to stop having their soldiers clean their muskets with crushed brick (after he sees a dirty gun in England and realizes it fires so well because they keep it oily). The message never arrives, however, because the man who had to inform the emperor never does. Leskov comments that the
Crimean Warmay have turned out differently if he got the message. The story ends with Leskov commenting on the replacement of good, hard-earned labor and creativity with machines.
This story is deeply embedded into Russian consciousness as an
archetypeof relationships between Russia and the West. The language of the story is unique; many of its folk-flavored neologisms and colloquialisms (very funny and natural, though mostly invented by Leskov) have become common sayings and proverbs. Ironically, both Slavophilesand Westernizersused the story in support of their views; indeed the story of Levsha may signify Russian ingenuity and craftsmanship that amaze the world, or it may just as well be used as a symbol of the oppressive Russian society that mistreats its most talented people.
* [http://az.lib.ru/l/leskow_n_s/text_0246.shtml] The text of "Levsha" in Moshkov's Library
*imdb title|id=0091403|title=Levsha (1986)
* [http://www.mjt.org/new.html] The Borzoi Kabinet Theater at the Museum of Jurassic Technology of Los Angeles, California screens the film "Levsha, the Cross-Eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea" at hourly intervals. Visitors are encouraged to take tea afterwards in the Tula Tearoom.
* [http://www.impedimenta.es/ficha_pulga_acero.htm] Spanish translation of the novel by " [http://www.impedimenta.es Editorial Impedimenta] "
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