Rondeau (poetry)

Rondeau (poetry)

"This article is about the poetry form. For other uses, see Rondeau."

A rondeau (plural rondeaux) is a form of French poetry with 15 lines written on two rhymes, as well as a corresponding musical form developed to set this characteristic verse structure. It was one of the three "formes fixes" (the other two were the ballade and the virelai), and one of the verse forms in France most commonly set to music between the late 13th and the 15th centuries. Variant forms may have 10 or 13 lines. A similar form is the French rondel and its English variant called roundel, devised by the poet Algernon Charles Swinburne.

The rondeau is a form of verse also used in English language poetry. It makes use of refrains, repeated according to a certain stylized pattern. It was customarily regarded as a challenge to arrange for these refrains to contribute to the meaning of the poem in as succinct and poignant a manner as possible. The rondeau consists of thirteen lines of eight syllables, plus two refrains (which are half lines, each of four syllables), employing, altogether, only three rhymes. It has three stanzas and its rhyme scheme is as follows: (1) A A B B A (2) A A B with refrain: C (3) A A B B A with concluding refrain C. The refrain must be identical with the beginning of the first line.

An example is "We Wear the Mask" by Paul Laurence Dunbar:

:WE wear the mask that grins and lies, (A):It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,— (A):This debt we pay to human guile; (B):With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, (B):And mouth with myriad subtleties. (A)

:Why should the world be over-wise, (A):In counting all our tears and sighs? (A):Nay, let them only see us, while (B): We wear the mask. (C)

:We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries (A):To thee from tortured souls arise. (A):We sing, but oh the clay is vile (B):Beneath our feet, and long the mile; (B):But let the world dream otherwise, (A): We wear the mask! (C)

Perhaps the best-known rondeau is the following World War I poem, "In Flanders Fields", by John McCrae:

:In Flanders fields the poppies blow:Between the crosses, row on row, :That mark our place, and in the sky,:The larks, still bravely singing, fly,:Scarce heard amid the guns below.

:We are the dead; short days ago:We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,:Loved and were loved, and now we lie:In Flanders fields.

:Take up our quarrel with the foe!:To you from failing hands we throw:The torch; be yours to hold it high!:If ye break faith with us who die:We shall not sleep, though poppies grow:In Flanders fields.

Rondeau redoublé

A more complex form is the rondeau redoublé. This is also written on two rhymes, but in five stanzas of four lines each and one of five lines. The four lines of the first stanza are repeated as the fourth lines of stanzas 2 to 5, and the first part of the first line is repeated as a short fifth line to conclude the sixth stanza.This can be represented as - A1,B1,A2,B2 - b,a,b,A1 - a,b,a,B1 - b,a,b,A2 - a,b,a,B2 - b,a,b,a,(A1).

The following example of the form was written from the point of view of one of the RAF officers carrying the coffin of Diana, Princess of Wales to the plane that was to carry it to England.

:"Guard of Honour" by Paul Hansford

:The burden I bear is more heavy than lead.:The physical weight is a thing that I share,:but the loss that I feel will not leave my head.:Why did you have to die? Why is death so unfair?

:I am close to you now. Yes, touching my hair:the flag with its lions of gold and of red:that wraps round your coffin. I know you are there.:The burden I bear is more heavy than lead.

:My comrades move with me in slow, solemn tread.:Our eyes are all fixed in an unseeing stare.:Our shoulders support you in your oaken bed.:The physical weight is a thing that I share.

:As I feel the world watching I try not to care.:My deepest emotions are best left unsaid.:Let others show grief like a garment they wear,:but the loss that I feel will not leave my head.

:The flowers they leave like a carpet are spread,:In the books of remembrance they have written, "Somewhere:a star is extinguished because you are dead.:Why did you have to die? Why is death so unfair?"

:The tears that we weep will soon grow more rare,:the rawness of grief turn to memory instead.:But deep in our hearts you will always be there,:and I ask, will I ever be able to shed:the burden I bear?

ee also

*Rondel
* RoundelAnalogous musical forms:
* Rondo
* Rondeau (music) -- Medieval and Renaissance form

External links

* [http://members.optushome.com.au/kazoom/poetry/rondeau.html Four early-21st-century rondeaus in English by Suzanne Honour]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Rondeau — may mean: *Rondeau (poetry), a form of French poetry *Rondo, a musical form from the 18th century to the present, also spelt rondeau *Rondeau (music), a medieval and early Renaissance musical form distinct from the 18th century rondo *Jane… …   Wikipedia

  • Poetry — This article is about the art form. For other uses, see Poetry (disambiguation). Literature Major forms Novel · Poem · Drama Short story · Novella …   Wikipedia

  • Rondeau (music) — The rondeau (French; plural form rondeaux ) was a Medieval and early Renaissance musical form, based on a popular contemporary poetic form (see rondeau (poetry)). It is distinct from the 18th century rondo, though the terms are likely related.… …   Wikipedia

  • Rondeau — Ron*deau , n. [F. See {Roundel}.] [Written also {rondo}.] 1. A species of lyric poetry so composed as to contain a refrain or repetition which recurs according to a fixed law, and a limited number of rhymes recurring also by rule. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • rondeau — /ron doh, ron doh /, n., pl. rondeaux / dohz, dohz /. 1. Pros. a short poem of fixed form, consisting of 13 or 10 lines on two rhymes and having the opening words or phrase used in two places as an unrhymed refrain. 2. a 13th century monophonic… …   Universalium

  • poetry — I (New American Roget s College Thesaurus) Expression in poems Nouns 1. poetry, ars poetica, poesy, poeticism, poetics, metrics; balladry, the gay science; Muse, Calliope, Erato; versification, rhyming, prosody, orthometry, scansion. See writing …   English dictionary for students

  • rondeau — (roundel)    The rondeau began as one of the fixed forms of French lyric poetry characterized by the use of repetition and only two rhymes, as discussed by GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT in the Remède de Fortune (ca. 1340) and EUSTACHE DESCHAMPS in Art de… …   Encyclopedia of medieval literature

  • Poetry — (Roget s Thesaurus) < N PARAG:Poetry >N GRP: N 1 Sgm: N 1 poetry poetry poetics poesy Muse Calliope tuneful Nine Parnassus Helicon Pierides Pierian spring GRP: N 2 Sgm: N 2 versification versifica …   English dictionary for students

  • French poetry — is a category of French literature. It may include Francophone poetry composed outside France and poetry written in other languages of France.French prosody and poeticsThe modern French language does not have a significant stress accent (like… …   Wikipedia

  • Roundel (poetry) — A roundel (not to be confused with the rondel) is a form of verse used in English language poetry devised by Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837 1909). It is a variation of the French Rondeau form. It makes use of refrains, repeated according to a… …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»