Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program


Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program

The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered Ballistic missile defense system to protect India from missile attacks. [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/12/04/asia/AS_GEN_India_Missile_System.php India expects to use missile interception system as a weapon, top scientist says] ] [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/03/stories/2006120312940100.htm India developing new missiles Towards destroying hostile missiles] ]

Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan, [ [http://www.indiatoday.com/itoday/20061211/defence.shtml&SET=T The New Guardian] "India unveils an all new anti-ballistic missile expected to be the fore-runner of a sophisticated air defence system to thwart, among other threats, a Pakistani nuclear weapons attack"] it is a two tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception.

PAD was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an Anti-ballistic missile system, after United States, Russia and Israel. [cite press release | title = Development of Ballistic Missile Defence System: Year End Review | publisher = Ministry of Defence (India) | date = 28 December 2007 | url = http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=34262 | accessdate = 2008-01-26 | quote = ]

In september 2008 Indian scientists developed a path-breaking technology that has the potential to increase the range of missiles and satellite launch vehicles by at least 40%.The enhanced range is made possible by adding a special-purpose coating of chromium metal to the blunt nose cone of missiles and launch vehicles. This would add-up on the stated range.

Background

Since the early 90s, India has faced the threat of ballistic missile attacks from Pakistan, against which it has fought multiple wars in the past. With the heightening of tensions in the region, and in response to Pakistan's deployment of M-11 missiles bought from China, in August 1995, the Indian Government procured six batteries of Russian S-300 Surface-to-air missiles to protect New Delhi and other cities. In May 1998, India for the second time (since its first test in 1974) tested nuclear weapons ("see Pokhran-II"), followed by Pakistan ("see Chagai-I") with its first ever nuclear test. With Pakistan's testing of nuclear weapons and missile delivery systems, this threat intensified. India has also developed and tested missile delivery systems ("see IGMDP").

In 1999, the Kargil War between India and Pakistan became the first direct conflict between two declared nuclear powers. As the war progressed, the first hint of the possible use of a nuclear weapons was on May 31, when Pakistani foreign secretary Shamshad Ahmad made a statement warning that an escalation of the limited conflict could lead Pakistan to use "any weapon" in its arsenal. [Quoted in News Desk, “Pakistan May Use Any Weapon,” The News, May 31 1999.] This was immediately interpreted as an obvious threat of a nuclear retaliation by Pakistan in the event of an extended war. The leader of Pakistan's senate noted that "the purpose of developing weapons becomes meaningless if they are not used when they are needed." [ [http://www.nd.edu/~krocinst/ocpapers/op_18_2.pdf Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program] (PDF)] Some experts believe that following nuclear tests in 1998, Pakistani military was emboldened by its nuclear deterrent cover to markedly increase coercion against India. [ [http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=17967 Options Available to the United States to Counter a Nuclear Iran By George Perkovich] - Testimony by George Perkovich before the House Armed Services Committee, February 1 2006]

Development of ABM System began in late 1999, [http://www.defensenews.com/aero/story.php?id=2524130 Interview: Vijay Kumar Saraswat] ] suggesting that India initiated the program in light of Pakistans eschewing of a nuclear No first use policy and heightened tensions during the Kargil war including a possibility of full scale nuclear war.

India-Israel cooperation

India was interested in acquiring the Arrow-II Missile System, which had been jointly developed by US and Israel. However, the deal fell through due to US refusal to approve the sale of the missile and the Yellow Citron control system. India and Israel jointly developed the Long Range Tracking Radar (LRTR), which is target acquisition and fire control radar for PAD Missile System.

Development

Development of ABM System began in 1999. Around 40 public and private Companies were involved in the development of ABM System. They include Bharat Electronics Ltd and Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Astra Microwave, ASL, Larsen & Toubro, Vem Technologies Private Limited and KelTech. Development of LRTR (Long Range Tracking Radar) and MFCR (Multi-function Fire Control Radar) was lead by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE). [ [http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2008/01/27/stories/2008012750100500.htm The Hindu Business Line : 40 cos involved in making of missile killers ] ]

For the AAD Missile System, Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) developed the mission control software. Research Centre, Imarat (RCI) developed navigation, electromechanical actuation systems and Active Radar Seeker. Advanced System Laboratory (ASL) provided the motors, jet vanes and structures for the two missiles. High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) supplied the propellants for the missile.cite web
url=http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/fline/fl2425/stories/20080104242512300.htm |title= Smashing hit|accessdate=2008-02-06|author=T.S. SUBRAMANIAN|date= Dec. 22, 2007-Jan. 04, 2008|publisher=Frontline
]

Description

The two-tiered BMD System consists of the PAD, which will intercept missiles at exo-atmospheric altitudes of 50-80 km; and AAD Missile for interception at endoatmospheric altitudes of up to 30 km. The deployed system would consist of many launch vehicles, Radars, launch control centers (LCC) and Mission Control Center. All these are geographically distributed and connected by a secure communication network.

Mission control center (MCC) is the software intensive system of the Ballistic Missile Defense. It receives information from various sources like Radars, Satellites etc which is then processed by ten computers running simultaneously. MCC is connected to all other elements of the System through a WAN. MCC performs target classification, target assignment and kill assessment. It acts as a decision support system for the commander. It can also decide the number of interceptors required for the target for an assured kill probability.

MCC after performing all the functions, assigns the target to Launch Control Center (LCC) of a battery. Launch Control Center (LCC) starts computing the time to launch interceptor based upon information received from Radar. This is decided based on the data received from radar, on the speed, altitude and flight path of the target. LCC prepares the missile for launch in real time, carries out ground guidance computation.

After the interceptor is launched, it is provided target information from the radar through a datalink. When the Interceptors closes on to the Target ballistic missile, it activates the Active Radar Seeker to search for target missile and guides itself to intercept the target. Multiple PAD and AAD interceptors can be launched against a target for high kill probability.

Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)

Infobox Weapon
is_missile=yes
name=Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)


caption=
origin= IND
type=Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
used_by=
manufacturer=DRDO
unit_cost=
propellant=Liquid Propellant
production_date=26 November 2006
service=Under development
engine=
weight=
length=
height=
diameter=
wingspan=
speed=Mach 3
vehicle_range=
ceiling=
altitude=40 km
filling=
guidance=Inertial Navigation System
Ground-based mid-course correction
IAI provided Active Radar Homing (Terminal phase)
detonation=Proximity
launch_platform=8 x 8 Tatra TEL (Transporter erector launcher)

Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) is an anti-ballistic missile developed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles outside atmosphere (Exoatmosphere). Based on the Prithvi missile, PAD is a two stage missile with a maximum interception altitude of 40 km. The first stage is a liquid fuelled motor that uses two propellants and oxidizers while second stage is solid fuelled. [ [http://www.space.com/spacenews/archive07/indbmd_0129.html India Plans Second Anti-Ballistic-Missile Test in June] "The interceptor rocket has a liquid-fueled first stage that uses two propellants and oxidizers, and a solid-fuel second stage with a gas thruster that can turn the rocket at more than five Gs. The missile carries sensors to guide it to its target."] . It has divert thrusters which can generate a lateral acceleration at more than 5 Gs at 30 km altitude. Guidance is provided by intertial navigation system, mid-course updates from long range tracking radar (LRTR) and active radar homing in the terminal phase. PAD has capability to engage 300km class of ballistic missiles at a speed of Mach 4.

Long Range Tracking Radar is the target acquisition and fire control Radar for PAD Missile. It is an active phased array radar having capability to track 20 targets at a range of 300 km.The Prithvi Air Defense missile has been named as "Pradyumna". [ [http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/Display_news.asp?section=World_News&subsection=India&month=July2008&file=World_News2008072515025.xml Missile shield interceptor rocket to be testfired again ] ]

In september 2008 Indian scientists developed a path-breaking technology that has the potential to increase the range of missiles and satellite launch vehicles by at least 40%.The enhanced range is made possible by adding a special-purpose coating of chromium metal to the blunt nose cone of missiles and launch vehicles. This would add-up on the stated range.

Prithvi Air Defense Exercise

PADE (Prithvi Air Defence Exercise) was conducted on November 2006 in which PAD Missile successfully intercepted a modified Prithvi-II Missile at an altitude of 30 km. Prithvi-II Ballistic Missile was modified unsuccessfuly to mimic the trajectory of M-11 missiles.

Advanced Air Defence (AAD)

Infobox Weapon
is_missile=yes
name=Advanced Air Defence (AAD)


caption=Advanced Air Defense (AAD) missile being launched during Electronic Target Trials on 2 December 2007 from Wheeler's Island Test Range in Orissa.
origin= IND
type=Endoatmospheric Anti-ballistic missile
used_by=
manufacturer=DRDO
unit_cost=
propellant=
production_date=6 December 2007
service=Under development
engine=Single Stage solid propellant enginecite news | first = Shiv | last = Aroor | title = Another anti-missile test planned for June | url = http://www.indianexpress.com/iep/sunday/story/22250.html | publisher = Indian Express | date = 1 february 2007 | accessdate = 2008-01-27 | quote = ]
weight=1,200 kg
length=7.5 m
height=
diameter=<0.5 m
wingspan=
speed=Mach 4.5
vehicle_range=
ceiling=
altitude=
filling=
guidance=Inertial Navigation System
Mid-course update
Active radar homing (Terminal phase)
detonation=Kinetic Kill (Hit-to-Kill)
launch_platform=8 x 8 Tatra TEL (Transporter erector launcher)

Advanced Air Defence (AAD) is an anti-ballistic missile designed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles in endoatmosphere at an altitude of 30 km. AAD is single stage, solid fuelled missile. Guidance is similar to that of PAD: Inertial Navigation System, midcourse updates from ground based radar and active radar homing in terminal phase. It is 7.5 metres tall, weighs around 1.2 tonnes and a diameter of less than 0.5 metres. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/07/stories/2007120761241800.htm Interceptor missile scores ‘direct hit’] ]

On 6 December 2007, AAD successfully intercepted a modified Prithvi-II missile acting as an incoming ballistic missile enemy target. The endo-atmospheric interception was carried out at an altitude of 15 km. The interceptor and all the elements performed in a copy book fashion validating the endo-atmospheric layer of BMD System. The launch was also shown through a video link at control room of DRDO Bhawan, Delhi.

The sequence of events of the test was as follows. At 11 a.m. the Prithvi missile lifted off from Launch Complex III at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur Orissa. Radars at Konark, Paradip detected the missile and were continuously tracking it. The target information was sent to Mission Control Centre (MCC) for further processing. MCC classifies the target, calcuates the trajectory of the missile and assigns the target to AAD Battery located on Wheeler Island, 70 km across the sea from Chandipur. AAD is launched when Prithvi reaches an apogee of 110 km. AAD with the help of midcourse updates and terminal seeker manoeuvres itself towards the target. AAD makes the direct hit at an altitude of 15 km and at a speed of Mach 4. Radars detected formation of a large number of tracks, signifying that the target had broken into multiple pieces. The thermal cameras located on Wheeler Island also picked up the direct hit through thermal images

Deployment

According to scientist V. K. Saraswat of DRDO the missiles will work in tandem to ensure a hit probability of 99.8 percent. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India_on_way_to_joining_exclusive_BMD_club/rssarticleshow/2570683.cms India on way to joining exclusive BMD club] ] Induction of the system into services is expected to be in 2010.

Future Development

* Two new anti ballistic missiles that can intercept IRBM/ICBMs are being developed. These high speed missiles (AD-1 and AD-2) are being developed to intercept ballistic missiles with the range of 5000 km. [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/008200801071858.htm India to develop high speed interceptors] ] The test trials of these two systems is expected to take place in 2009/2010. [ [http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/170167.html India developing ballistic missiles to destroy IRBMs, ICBMs] ]

Gallery



External links

* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MISSILES/Armoury.html Bharat-Rakshak Missile Page]
* [http://www.domain-b.com/aero/space/launch_veh/20080108_defence.html India to have Ballistic Missile Defence system in place by 2010]
*
* - A detailed, but somewhat dated analysis.

References

Videos

* cite video
date2 = 2007-12-06
title = AAD Test Launch Video
url = http://www.drdo.org/bnews/anti_test/aadst.wmv
format = wmv
medium =
publisher = DRDO
location = Integrated Test Range, Chandipur
accessdate = 2008-01-26
quote =

** [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZpjVchNgUg Same Video from Youtube]
* cite video
people =
date2 = 2007-12-06
month2 =
year2 =
title = New Addition to India's Missile Shield
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHmbvscPx0A
medium = News Report
publisher = Times Now
location =
accessdate = 2008-01-27
quote =
, News report about the AAD test and comments from Dr. M. Natrajan.
* cite video
people = Vishal Thapar
date2 = 2008-12-15
title = India's Answer To Pakistan's cruise missiles
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=liq89UcnIYA
medium = News Report
publisher = CNN-IBN
location =
accessdate = 2008-01-27
quote = Dr. Saraswat, "Our studies have indicated that it "(AAD)" will be able to handle a cruise missile intercept".

* cite video
people =
date2 =
month2 = Sep
year2 = 2007
title = Brahmos Missile and Interceptor Missile Development
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uVmsdJHPU5o
medium = Television production
publisher = S1 TV
location =
time = 1:36
quote =
- News Report in Hindi.
* cite video
people =
date2 = 2006-05-01
title = Indian Tactical Missile Development
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ah2Xw8WCKQE
medium = Television production
publisher = Doordarshan News
location =
accessdate = 2008-01-27
time =
quote =
, DD News interview with Dr. V.K. Saraswat

See also

* Anti-ballistic missile
* Integrated Guided Missile Development Program
* National Missile Defense
* Defence Research and Development Organization, the Organization involved in the development of the ABM systems.


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