- Russian Catholic Church
The Russian Catholic Church ( _ru. Российская греко-католическая церковь) is a
Byzantine Ritechurch " sui juris" of the Catholic Church. Historically it represents a schism from the Russian Orthodox Church. It is now in full communionwith and subject to the authority of the Popeas defined by Eastern canon law. As of 2006, Russian Catholics have no hierarchy; their few parishes are served by priests ordained in other Byzantine Catholic Churches, former Orthodox priests, and Roman Catholic priests with biritual faculties, many of them Jesuits.
In Russia, it is purported that after the gradual development of the
East-West Schism, a tiny group of Russian families maintained themselves as “Old Catholics,” (rus: старокатолики (starokatoliki)), a name which should not be confused with the Döllingerite Old Catholic Churches of Europe and the U.S., who formally split with the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of the reforms of the First Vatican Council. The status of this group of Russian "Old Catholics", families and groups of individuals to whom the union with Rome remains dear and essential, or its relation to the current Russian (Rite) Catholic Church is unclear.
The modern Russian Catholic church owes much to the inspiration of visionary poet and philosopher Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (1853-1900), who urged, following
Dante, that, just as the world needed the Tsar as a universal monarch, the Church needed the Pope of Rome as a universal ecclesial hierarch. Following Solovyov's teachings a Russian Orthodox priest, Nicholas Tolstoy, entered into full communion with the See of Rome under the Melkite Greek-Catholic, Byzantine Rite Patriarchate of Antioch. Solovyov received sacramental last holy communion from Father Tolstoy believing that in doing so he remained also a faithful member of the Russian Orthodox Church. Orthodox authorities refer to Tolstoy as an apostate and “ex-priest,” but tend to imply that Solovyov still died an Orthodox Christian. Nevertheless, Solovyov never retracted his sentiments in favor of union with the Catholic Church and the See of Rome, and to this day, many Russian Catholics refer to themselves as members of the 'Russian "Orthodox" Church in communion with Rome'.
The Russian Catholic Church formally united with
Romein 1905. Old Believerswere very prominent in the early years of the movement. Despite enduring persecutions of Russian Catholics, even though Nicholas IIand especially the February Revolutionrelieved a bit of the persecution, the first Apostolic Exarchatefor Russian Catholics was formed in 1917 with Most Reverend Leonid Feodorov, formerly a Russian Orthodox seminarian, as Exarch, but the Bolshevik Revolutionsoon followed, dispersing Russian Rite Catholics into the Siberian Gulagand the centers of the Russian diasporathroughout the world. Exarch Leonid Feodorovwas deported to the communist concentration campat Solovki. Released in 1932, he died three years later. He was beatifiedin 2001 by Pope John Paul II. In 1928, a second Apostolic Exarchate was set up for the Russian Catholics in China, based in Harbin.
In the aftermath of the collapse of the
Soviet Union, some Russian Catholics have cautiously begun to appear in the open. In a 2005 ariticle, Russian Catholic priest Sergei Golovanovstated that three Russian Catholic priests serve on Russian soil celebrating the Russian Byzantine Divine Liturgy. Two of them use the recensionof the Russian Liturgyas reformed by Patriarch Nikonof Moscowin the 1600s, and the other priestuses the medieval rite of the Old Believers, that is to say, as the Russian liturgical recensionexisted before Patriarch Nikon's (minor) reforms of the Russian Liturgy. All Russian Catholics strictly maintain the use of Church Slavonic. As of 2006, the two Exarchates are still at least officially extant but have not yet been reconstituted, neither have new Russian Rite bishops been appointed to head them.
There are also Russian Catholic parishes and faith communities in
Moscow, Saint Petersburg, San Francisco, New York, Denver, Melbourne, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Meudon, Paris, Chevetogne, Lyon, Berlin, Munich, Rome, Milan, and Singapore.
Eastern Catholic Churches
*Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov
Isidore of Kiev, All Russia and Moscow
Byzantine Discalced Carmelites
Church Slavonic language
* [http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-eastern-cathol-comm.htm Eastern Catholic Communities Without Hierarchies]
* [http://stmichaelruscath.org/ The website of Saint Michael's Russian Catholic Church in New York City is a must for anyone desiring to delve deeper into the history of the Russian Catholic Movement.]
* [http://rumkatkilise.org/necplus.htm “A Brief History of The Russian Byzantine Catholic Church and the Russian Catholics.”]
* [http://www.redemptorists.org.uk/red/mag/russian1.htm The Servant of God Exarch Leonid Feodorov. An online biography of Exarch Leonid Feodorov, with little known details of how Russian Catholics survived in the bolshevik GULAG.]
* [http://stmichaelruscath.org/outbound/parishes/rc-moscow-pa-1998.php An online article about a visit to Moscow's Russian Catholics shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union.]
* [http://stmichaelruscath.org/outbound/parishes/rc-moscow-pa-2001.php A visit to the same Russian rite Catholic community from 2001.]
* [http://en.catholicmartyrs.org/ The Catholic Newmartyrs of Russia]
* [http://stmichaelruscath.org/news/news-20050131.php Normalization of the Position of Byzantine Rite Catholics in Russia]
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