Gerundive


Gerundive

In linguistics, a gerundive is a particular verb form. The term is applied very differently to different languages; depending on the language, gerundives may be verbal adjectives, verbal adverbs, or finite verbs. Not every language has gerundives; for example, English does not.

In Latin

In Latin, the gerundive is a verbal adjective used to indicate that a noun needs or deserves to be the object of an action. It is sometimes known as a future passive participle. For example, if English had a Latin-style gerundive, and "feed-ando" were the gerundive form of the verb "to feed", then "The cat is feed-ando" would mean "The cat should be fed." English sometimes uses a passive infinitive to this effect: "The cat is to be fed."

Some examples of the Latin gerundive include:

*Cato the Elder, a Roman senator, frequently ended his speeches with the statement, "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem delendam esse" ("lit." "I also think Carthage to be " [something] that must be destroyed"" i.e. "I also think Carthage must be destroyed").
*In the Harry Potter series of novels, the motto of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is "Draco dormiens numquam titillandus" ("lit." " [A] dragon sleeping [is] never to be tickled," i.e. "Never tickle a sleeping dragon").
*The phrase "quod erat demonstrandum" ("which was to be demonstrated"), whose abbreviated form "Q.E.D." is often used after the final conclusion of a proof.
*The name "Amanda" is a feminization of "amandus", the gerundive of "amare", "to love". Thus, it means roughly, "worthy of being loved", "worthy of love", or simply "loveable". Similarly with the name "Miranda"; "mirare" means "to admire", so the name means roughly "worthy of admiration" or "admirable".
*A number of English words come directly from Latin gerundives; for example, "addendum" comes from the gerundive of "addere", "to add"; "referendum" comes from the gerundive of "referre", "to bring back"; and "agenda" comes from a plural of "agendum", the gerundive of "agere", "to do". Additionally, some words come from Latin gerundives by an indirect route; "propaganda", for example, comes from a New Latin phrase containing a feminine form of "propagandum", the gerundive of "propagare", "to propagate".

In French

The French gerundive is a verbal adverb used to indicate that one action caused or happened at the same time as another. For example the French adage "C'est en forgeant qu'on devient forgeron" means "It is by blacksmithing that one becomes a blacksmith".

In Tigrinya

The Tigrinya gerundive is a finite verb form, not a verbal adjective or adverb. Generally speaking, it denotes completed action which is still relevant. A verb in the gerundive can be used alone, or serially with another gerundive verb; in the latter case it may sometimes be translated with an adverbial clause: "bitri hidju kheydu" (literally, "a-stick he-took-hold-of he-began-walking") means "while holding a stick, he is walking", i.e. "he is carrying a stick". "See" Tigrinya verbs.

ee also

* Gerund
* Non-finite verb

External links

The following pages provide definitions or glosses of the term "gerundive":

*As applied to Latin:
** [http://www.askoxford.com/asktheexperts/jargonbuster/e-h/gerundive at askoxford.com of Oxford Dictionaries]
** [http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gerundive at Merriam Webster]
** [http://www.bartleby.com/61/65/G0106500.html at American Heritage Dictionary]
** [http://omega.cohums.ohio-state.edu/latin/grammar/gerundive.htm at Ohio State]
** [http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0456247.html at infoplease] quoting Random House Unabridged Dictionary
** [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gerundive in Wiktionary]
*From SIL International's French/English Linguistic Glossary:
** [http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossary_fe/glossary.asp?entryid=11458 gerundive1]
** [http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossary_fe/glossary.asp?entryid=11459 gerundive2]
** [http://www.sil.org/linguistics/glossary_fe/glossary.asp?entryid=11457 gerund]
*As applied to Tigrinya:
** [http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ucsdling Department of Linguistics, UCSD states]
*As applied to English:
** [http://home.pct.edu/~evavra/kiss/RPP/GC_10.htm The KISS Approach to Grammar in the Curriculum]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gerundive — Ge*run dive, a. [L. gerundivus.] Pertaining to, or partaking of, the nature of the gerund; gerundial. n. (Lat. Gram.) The future passive participle; as, amandus, i. e., to be loved. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gerundive — early 15c., from L. gerundivus (modus), from gerundium (see GERUND (Cf. gerund)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • gerundive — [jə run′div] n. [ME gerundif < LL gerundivus < gerundium: see GERUND] Gram. 1. in Latin, a verbal adjective with a typical gerund stem form, used as a future passive participle expressing duty, necessity, fitness, etc. (Ex.: delenda in… …   English World dictionary

  • gerundive — noun Date: 15th century 1. the Latin future passive participle that functions as the verbal adjective, that expresses the fitness or necessity of the action to be performed, and that has the same suffix as the gerund 2. a verbal adjective in a… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • gerundive — noun /dʒəˈrʌndɪv/ a) a verbal adjective that describes obligation or necessity, equivalent in form to the future passive participle. b) a verbal adjective ending in ing <ref name= Macquarie >the Australian Macquarie Dictionary (revised 3rd… …   Wiktionary

  • gerundive — [dʒə rʌndɪv] noun Grammar a form of a Latin verb, ending in ndus (declinable) and functioning as an adjective meaning ‘that should or must be done’. Origin ME (in the sense gerund ): from late L. gerundivus (modus) gerundive (mood) , from… …   English new terms dictionary

  • gerundive — gerundival /jer euhn duy veuhl/, adj. gerundively, adv. /jeuh run div/, n. 1. (in Latin) a verbal adjective similar to the gerund in form and noting the obligation, necessity, or worthiness of the action to be done, as legendus in Liber legendus… …   Universalium

  • gerundive — ge·run·dive || dʒɪ rÊŒndɪv adj. relating to or resembling a gerund n. future passive participle (Latin grammatical form which expresses duty or obligation, e.g. agendus to be done or amandus to be loved ) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • gerundive — ge·run·dive …   English syllables

  • gerundive — ger•un•dive [[t]dʒəˈrʌn dɪv[/t]] n. 1) gram. a Latin verbal adjective similar to the gerund in form and expressing the obligation, necessity, or worthiness of the action to be done, as legendus in Liber legendus est“The book is worth reading.” 2) …   From formal English to slang


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