Métis French

Métis French

Métis French, along with Michif and Bungi, is one of the traditional languages of the Métis people, and the French-dialect source of Michif.[1]



They share a common phonology and morphosyntax for the noun phrase but differ as to their sources for the verb phrase which is Ojibwe-Cree based in Michif, French-based in Métis French. Like Michif, Métis French is spoken in Manitoba and North Dakota and adjacent provinces or states. As a general rule, Métis individuals speak one or the other, rarely both.

Métis French is a variety of Canadian French.

Notes and references


  1. ^ Bakker. (1997: 85).


  • Bakker, Peter. A language of our own: the genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree-French language.
  • Douaud, Patrick C. 1980. "Métis: A case of triadic linguistic economy." Anthropological Linguistics 22.392–414.
  • –––. 1983. "An example of suprasegmental convergence." International Journal of American Linguistics 49.91–93.
  • –––. 1985. Ethnolinguistic profile of the Canadian Métis. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, Mercury Series 99. (French)
  • Edwards, John R. Language in Canada.
  • Jackson, Michael. 1974. "Aperçu de tendances phonétiques du parler français en Saskatchewan." Revue canadienne de linguistique 19.121–33. (French)
  • Lincoln, Neville J. Phonology of the Métis French dialect of St. Paul, Alberta. University of Alberta in Edmonton Thesis.
  • Lussier, Antoine S. 1980. "Un métis écrit une lettre." The other natives: Les Métis, ed. A. Lussier & B. Sealy, 3.167–70. Winnipeg: Manitoba Métis Federation Press. (French)
  • Papen, Robert. 1979. "Le parler français des métis de Batoche." Département de linguistique, Université du Québec à Montréal. (French)
  • –––. 1984. "Quelques remarques sur un parler français méconnu de l'Ouest canadien: le métis." Revue québécoise de linguistique (Université du Québec à Montréal) 14:1.113–139. (French)
  • –––. 1993. "La variation dialectale dans le parler français des Métis de l'Ouest canadien." Francophonies des Amériques 3.25–38. (French)
  • –––. 1998. "Le parler français des Métis de l’Ouest canadien." Frangais d'Amirique: Variation, criolisation, normalisation, ed. P. Brasseur, 147–161. Avignon: CECAV. (French)
  • –––. 1998. "French: Canadian varieties." Language in Canada, ed. J. Edwards, 160–176. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (French)
  • –––. 2004. "Sur quelques aspects structuraux du français des Métis de l’Ouest canadien." Variation et francophonie, ed. A. Coveney & C. Sanders. Paris: L’Harmattan. (French)
  • –––. 2004. "Les troub’ : une analyse linguistique d’un texte oral en français des Métis." Cahiers franco-canadiens de l’Ouest, Numéro spécial sur les Métis, vol. 14. (French)
  • Préfontaine, R. 1980. "Le parler métis." The other natives: Les Métis, ed. A. Lussier & B. Sealy, 3.162–66. Winnipeg: Manitoba Métis Federation Press. (French)
  • Thogmartin, Clyde. 1974. "The phonology of three varieties of French in Manitoba." Orbis 23.335–49.
  • Wittmann, Henri. 1995. "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois." Le français des Amériques, ed. Robert Fournier & Henri Wittmann, 281–334. Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières. (French)

See also

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